Framework curricula for primary education


PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS



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PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

Years 5 through 8 of Education


Objectives and tasks
Physical Education in schools aims to contribute to the development of students’ pro-life, health-conscious character as a result of the combined effect of the means of physical culture (exercises, motion games, sports activities and related intellectual knowledge) and the health-improving factors of nature as an integral part of the school’s uniform education and training efforts. The condition of the above is that students know their level of motor skills, the ways of maintaining and/or improving such motor skills, and experience and demand the joy of motion games and competitions. Students appreciate the performance of their peers, recognise the health and prevention values of Physical Education and Sports and, and regular physical exercise becomes part of their behaviour.

Physical Education furthermore aims   in close relationship with the objectives identified for primary schools and with consideration given to the physiological and associated spiritual changes characterising this stage of students’ lives   to contribute to the healthy physical development of students, the eliminate any shortcomings displayed in basic (generic) skills, to take the opportunity offered by the final years of developing basic co-ordination skills, to improve the physical condition capacity of students with a view to the physiological and pre-training opportunities. By building on foundations from primary school, the motion skills of students in sports need to be enhanced, their motor acting certainty, their demand for movement and sports are to be improved. By taking advantage of the opportunities offered by curricular and extracurricular activities, students are to master the techniques of at least two different sports at a level ensuring experience and success. Students are to be familiar with the laws and rules prevailing in motor task solutions, they are to acquire task-solving schemes, transferable action principles.



Exercises related to health: supporting physical development and maturing; establishment and strengthening of hygienic habits; development of resistance and fitness; prevention and compensation of orthopaedic deformation; preparation for the prevention and alleviation of circular and respiratory diseases; learning about and understanding the essence of prevention and the relaxation processes.

Exercises related to the improvement of physical culture: establishment and development of fundamental (generic) motor skills at the appropriate level; learning to swim; improvement of physical condition and co-ordination skills in line with students’ age and aptitude; acquisition of diverse motion experience and practical motion skills; acquisition of knowledge related to task solving, ability development, games and sports activities, to their performance without any detrimental effect (rules, historical aspects, laws of mechanics and biomechanics, task-solving schemes and health considerations; communication with movements.

Providing positive experience in learning, games and sports: acquisition, performance, collective success, and the joy of being active.

Development of valuable personality traits: overcoming fear, keeping rules, concentration, focus, overcoming difficulties, tolerating failure, love of nature, environment-friendly attitude.
Developmental requirements
Facilitating a healthy physical development

Students are to take part in their own physical development consciously. Changes of pre-puberty and puberty should take place with any detrimental effects in line with their specific features. Students are to do exercises regularly in order to ensure the proper development of their circulatory, respiratory and motor system.

They are to prevent the development of posture disorders, avoid positions and movements damaging their spinal column.

Their health is to be strengthened. They are to become resistant to load and illnesses.

They are to be familiar with and apply the role of motion and sports played in a health way of life.
Exercises related to the improvement of physical culture

At the level of performing knowledge, they are to master the techniques learnt in athletics. They are to acquire simple gymnastic-type elements and element links. They are to be able to carry out an exercise consisting of elements learnt.

They are to play two sports games. They are to know their rules and are to apply the proper offensive and defensive alternatives.

They are to master the basic techniques of two swimming styles at a level open to improvement.

They are to learn self-defence techniques. They are to learn about and consciously apply acting principles, laws and task-solving schemes valid in activities of similar structure and function. Their strength, speed and endurance are to be improved.

They are to improve their motor skills in a manner demonstrated in their performances in athletics, gymnastics, sport games, swimming and contact sports. They are to learn and apply simple ability-improving procedures.

Their muscular sensory and rhythm skills, reaction and spatial orientation abilities are to be improved, they are to be able to control their bodies in unstable equilibrium situations.
The requirements of maintaining their demand for motion

They are to demand Physical Education and Sports sessions. Students are to be characterised by motor acting certainty, regular physical activity in their ways of life.

Year 5
Number of teaching hours per year: 93
New activities
Finding position appointed in marching without any delay, accurate performance of co-ordinated movements in line with the instructions.

Knowledge and performance to teacher’s instructions of gymnastic exercises designed for warm-up and to prevent posture disorders.

Dashes under competition circumstances.

Free sustained running for 8 to 10 minutes at levels corresponding to individual capabilities.

Knowing the key phases of jumps   taking off, in the air, landing, emphasis on taking off.

Learning the most typical phase of throwing, the formation of the arc of the throw.

Secure performance of floor exercises and their linking; control over own weight in supporting and hanging exercises.

Smooth linking of running and support grip in supported jumps.

Increasing the security of ball passing and possession, taking on position to receive a ball in an empty space.

Active participation in a sports game of choice.

Fair contact fight. Improving confidence in water, thorough knowledge of at least one swimming style (if basic training was offered in swimming in Years 1 through 4).

Performing outdoor activities (games).




TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Regular formations (single or double line, one, two, three or four column(s)).

Marching in closed formation.

Changing formation (catching up, falling behind, from line formations to column(s) and back).

Turnings.



Preparation, foundation and prevention

Gymnastics (individual or playful and fixed-form free, hand apparatus, team and apparatus exercises).

Exercises correcting posture, ensuring the automation of the muscular balance of the spinal column and the equilibrium of the pelvis.

Playful preparatory task solving.




Athletic-type exercises

Special preparatory (focused and lead-in) exercises depending on the work to be covered. (Running, jumping and throwing schools).
Running

Starts (on signal from different positions without constraints; from standing position).

Sprints.

Pacing.


Sustained running.

Running with tasks.


Hopping and jumping

Long jump from jumping lane (squatting technique).

High jump without constraints and with scissors technique.

Hopping on one leg, switching legs, on two legs.


Throwing

Throwing, tossing, hurling with one and two hands, from standing position and from running.

Shooting a target.

Physical education games involving running, hopping and throwing.

Special preparatory and focus exercises.


Gymnastics type exercises

Support positions and exercises

Hanging positions and exercises

Support position in front of the chest on bench, beam and/or supplementary gymnastic set.

Back-boarding sideways.

Somersaults (forwards and backwards from different positions).

Handspring sideways.

Stands in support positions (on the scrag of the neck, handstand with assistance at stall-bars).

Simple support jumps (“candle” jump, vertical flight, “cavalry officer” jump, crinkle turn jump).

Rope and pole climbing.

Swinging back and forth on the rings (maybe on two ropes).

Swinging sideways on stall-bars.

Lifting knees and heels in stretched and flexed hanging on the above hanging apparatus.
Crawling, climbing, balancing exercises

Walking forwards, backwards, sideways, moving on knees and on all fours, while laying down facing downwards and upwards on beams, horizontal and tilted benches, lines drawn on the ground.


Aerobics (for girls only)

Basic progression.

Lifting and swinging arms.

Lifting and swinging legs.

Touching progression.


Physical education and sports

games: handball, basketball, football

Special preparatory and ball skills developing exercises and physical education games.

Simple forms of ball handling (dribbling the ball with hand and foot, passing and receiving in stationary position, then on the move).

Simple ways of scoring goals and points (sideways throw, shot on goal with the inner part and the inner upper part of the foot).

Game with simplified rules.

Physical education ball games.


Extracurricular sports activities

Outdoor sports.

Feasible winter sports and games (skating, skiing, toboggan, snowballing).

Cycling.

Use of means of motion (roller skating, skateboard, etc.).




Self-defence and fighting

Pulling and pushing in pairs (pull him over the line, push him over the line, fencing with hands and feet) and in teams (tug of war) playfully.

Getting behind and attempting to lift the opponent.

Rolling fall forwards and backwards.




Swimming

Playing in the water.

Perfection of the technique of the selected swimming style.

Improvement of performance.



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Carrying out marching exercises in line with the instructions. Active participation in versatile preparatory and gymnastic exercises. Basic competence in athletic and gymnastic movements, control over own weight in supporting and hanging exercises. Active participation in a sports game of choice. Acceptance of contact fight. Acquisition of confidence in water.
Year 6
Number of teaching hours per year: 93
New activities
Secure changing of formation in marching, moving around in closed formation.

Keeping of exercise order, volunteering for simple organisation tasks.

Carrying out gymnastic exercises and versatile preparatory exercises alone and in groups, knowing the relevant technical terms.

Quick starts and sprints on signal.

Endurance running for 10 to 12 minutes at individual pace, matching the running pace to the distance.

Jumping with co-ordination of arm and legwork.

Throwing small balls from arm position behind the back in order to accelerate the ball along the shortest path possible.

Performance of floor exercises and ring, parallel bar exercises and their linking.

Support jumps with strong taking off, increasing first arc, landing without loss of balance.

Handling the ball in motion.

Taking on position to receive a ball in an empty space in offence, passing to unmarked team-mate, disturbing the opponent in possession of the ball in defence.

Taking on position and posture for receiving the ball in volleyball; knowing passing with the lower arm and underhand serving with straight arm.

Acquisition of a few self-defence techniques.

Building on what has been acquired in previous years: swimming a set distance in one or two swimming styles in line with the circumstances.

Performing outdoor activities (games).


TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Disciplined and quick execution of taking on and changing formations listed in Year 5.

Precise execution of distance and space orientation.

Starting, marching and stopping “in proper order of feet”.





Preparation and prevention

Free exercises or team and hand apparatus and apparatus exercises of free exercise form (bench, stall-bars, stools) independently or together.

Exercises correcting posture, ensuring the automation of the muscular balance of the spinal column and the equilibrium of the pelvis.

Simple relaxation processes.

Playful preparatory task solving.


Athletic-type exercises

Special preparatory and focused in order to acquire the work to be covered as efficiently as possible. (Running, jumping and throwing schools).
Running

Start from standing position.

Start from squatting and kneeling position.

Gradually accelerating run.

Sustained running for increasing periods of time.

Running with tasks (evasion, jumping over, simple tasks on signal).


Hopping and jumping

Long jump from take-off line.

High jump with scissors technique.

Hopping on one leg, switching legs, on two legs.


Throwing

Throwing, tossing, hurling (with stuffed balls of 1 to 2 kg) with one and two hands, from standing position and from running.

Shooting a target and for distance.

Playful competitions involving running, hopping and throwing.

Special preparatory and focus exercises.


Gymnastics type exercises

Support positions and exercises

Back-boarding sideways on high bench, beam, supplementary gymnastic set, two high benches forwards and backwards.

Somersaults forwards, backwards and in series on the floor.

Handspring sideways.

Handstand attempts with assistance and alone at stall-bars.

Support jumps

Squatting up, jumping down in straddle.

Squatting up, somersault forward.
Hanging positions and exercises

Swinging on rings, two ropes, stall-bars depending on the apparatus forwards, backwards, sideways, progression sideways.

Swinging up into crinkle hanging, lifting up into crinkle hanging.
Crawling, climbing, balancing exercises

Walking forwards, backwards, sideways, moving on knees and on all fours, while laying down facing downwards and upwards on beams, horizontal and tilted benches, lines drawn on the ground.


Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics (for girls only)

As in Year 5.




Physical education and sports

games: handball, basketball, football, volleyball

Special preparatory and ball skills developing exercises and physical education games.

Learning and applying in game situations basic technical and tactical elements (dribbling, passing, receiving, handling, touching the ball, scoring a goal or a point).

One-on-one defence and offence. Game with simplified rules.


Extracurricular sports activities

Outdoor sports.

Feasible winter sports and games (skating, skiing, toboggan, snowballing).

Cross-country running (if conditions are provided for).

Cycling.


Use of means of motion (roller skating, skateboard, etc.).


Self-defence and fighting

Basic rolling and falling judo exercises (rolling fall forwards and backwards, sliding fall sideways, quick fall forwards and backwards).

Breaking free from arms held by using Aikido techniques.

Pulling and pushing in pairs and in teams.




Swimming

Playing and gymnastics in the water.

Perfection of the technique of the selected swimming style.

Improvement of performance.



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Carrying out marching exercises in a form demanded by the organisation of the lesson. Competence in performing exercises suitable for warming up and developing abilities. Secure execution of gymnastic exercises learnt and co-ordinated execution of athletic exercises. Using techniques learnt in ball games. Command of a few self-defence techniques. Swimming a set distance.
Year 7
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
Accurate and straightforward execution of marching.

Gaining useful knowledge in organising, holding games and competitions.

Performing exercises designed for warming up, versatile preparation and to prevent posture disorders, knowing solutions (forms) improving the effect of the foregoing.

Athletic exercises in line with individual characteristics and nature of the given task: relaxed, easy, sprint runs, sustained running for 10 to 12 minutes with increasing intensity; optimal running for jumps, knowing the importance of arm and leg swing; refining hurling and putting movements.

Presentation of a floor exercise consisting of at least 3 to 4 elements, knowing the role of and applying linking elements.

Carrying out 2 to 3 exercise elements on stall-bars, rings and parallel bars.

Dynamic support jumps.

Adapting to team-mates and the ball in ball games, marking defence.

Carrying out technical elements learnt against passive then active defenders.

Passing the ball in volleyball with the lower arm and the hand to a team-mate or to the opponent’s court.

Fair contact fight.

Building on what has been acquired in previous years: establishing a competitive swimming technique in one or two swimming styles.

Performing outdoor activities (games).


TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Changing formations required for altering the forms of work (lining up, catching up, falling behind, alteration of the forms of work on command).

Simple counter-marching (catching up and falling behind in counter-marching) during walking and running.



Preparation and prevention

2-4-8-pace free exercises or team, hand apparatus and simple apparatus exercises of free exercise form including two basic forms simultaneously (turning while bending over, tilting, bending over while turning, etc.).

Exercises correcting posture, ensuring the automation of the muscular balance of the spinal column and the equilibrium of the pelvis, and exercises preventing and compensating other orthopaedic deformations.

Playful preparatory task solving.




Athletic-type exercises

Special preparatory and focused with a view to running, jumping and throwing.
Running

Accurate and practical execution of starts learnt before.

Gradually accelerating run.

Sprint.


Running with tasks, running over obstacles.

Sustained running with pace variations.


Hopping and jumping

Hopping school.

Long jump from stationary position, long and high jump from running (with scissors technique).
Throwing

Shooting a target and for distance with a small ball.

Tossing a stuffed ball with one and two hands, from standing position.

Games, competitions involving running, hopping and throwing.




Gymnastics type exercises

Special preparatory and focused exercises with a view to the particular topic.
Support positions and exercises

Floor gymnastics.

Somersaults forwards and backwards (in series, too), and flying somersault.

Headstand.

Handstand attempts.

Handspring sideways.

Back-boarding sideways on high bench and beam.

Continuous floor exercise consisting of 3 to 4 elements.

Physical education games related to somersaults and rolling (“skinning”, “triple spinning”, “the devil’s cart”, etc.).
Support jumps

Straddle jump in cross-straddle on a partner leaning forward (leapfrogging).

Squatting jump on a 4-piece crosswise vaulting-box with help.
Hanging positions and exercises

Swinging on rings, two ropes forwards, backwards; floating hanging, hanging upside down, hanging with hands behind the back; introflex landing backwards from swing.


Beam

Moving forwards, backwards, sideways. Turning.


Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics, aerobics (for girls only)

Elements learnt in sports gymnastics.

Introflex landing.


Physical education and sports

games: handball, basketball, football, volleyball

Special preparatory and ball skills developing exercises and physical education games.

Perfection of key elements of two sports games chosen according to local conditions, student interest and teacher specialisation.

Basic elements of defence and offence in the given sports game.

Physical education games designed to meet the demand of students for games and to develop sports games and motor abilities.




Extracurricular sports activities

Preparing for ski, hiking, waterway and cycling camps.

Depending on the circumstances: skating, skiing, toboggan, cycling, roller-skating, skateboarding, rowing, kayak and canoe.

Folk games combined with running, throwing and punching (ball of nations, tug of war).



Self-defence and fighting

Simple elements of wrestling (ground wrestling).

Judo: rolling, falling and diving.

Cross-buttock.

Aikido: breaking free from holding, grip.

Pulling and pushing (pull/push him over the line out of the circle, tug of war).




Swimming

Practising the selected swimming style, performing ever-increasing workloads.


Prerequisites of moving ahead
Aiming to execute marching exercises in line with partners in a straightforward manner. Execution of a few simple gymnastic exercises. Approximately proper execution of athletic exercises. Secure linking of gymnastic exercises. Aiming to work together with team-mates in ball games. Knowing how to put up a fair fight. Striving to achieve in swimming styles learnt.
Year 8
Number of teaching hours per year: 74
New activities
Accurate and quick execution of marching learnt in previous years, disciplined following of instructions.

Organising and holding competitions and fixtures.

Performing exercises designed for versatile preparation and prevention (partly) independently, improving their efficiency through increasing the number of repetitions and the intensity, optimal development of basic physical abilities on an individual basis.

Adequate technical execution of athletic movements, sprints without struggling, sustained running for 10 to 12 minutes with gradually increasing distances.

Energetic take-off, distance increasing work in the air during jumps.

Harmonic co-ordination of gaining momentum and throwing for hurling and putting.

In gymnastics, presentation of exercises consisting of floor, support and hanging elements learnt, support jumps executed dynamically with secure landing.

Execution of sports gymnastic exercises to rhythm in case of girls.

Active and positive playing of the game(s) chosen on the basis of common defensive and offensive techniques in ball games.

Fair fight according to the rules of the sport offered (self-defence or fight).

Building on what has been acquired in previous years: establishing a competitive swimming technique in two swimming styles.

Performing outdoor activities (games).




TOPICS

CONTENTS


Marching

Counter-marching with running, as in Year 7.

Independent organisation of the forms of work (forming teams, organising the order of games and substitutions, rotations).

Complete range of marching used and required in physical education.




Preparation and prevention

2-4-8-16-pace free exercises or team, hand apparatus and simple apparatus exercises of free exercise form including 2 to 3 basic forms simultaneously and independently.

Exercises correcting posture, ensuring the automation of the muscular balance of the spinal column and the equilibrium of the pelvis, and exercises preventing and compensating other orthopaedic deformations.

Playful preparatory task solving.




Athletic-type exercises

Special preparatory and focused with a view to running, jumping and throwing.
Running

Successful start in task situation.

Gradually accelerating run, sprint.

Running with variations (terrain, obstacles).

Sustained running with increasing distances. Relays.
Hopping and jumping

Hopping schools.

Jumping from stationary position.

Series of jumps.

Long and high jumps with advanced techniques described in athletics.
Throwing

Throwing a small ball for distance.

Shot-put from stationary position and motion with slide using a stuffed ball.

Tossing a stuffed ball with two hands to both sides.

Games, competitions involving running, hopping and throwing.


Gymnastics type exercises

Special preparatory and focused exercises with a view to the particular topic.

Physical education games combining somersaults and rolling, as in Year 7.


Support positions and exercises

Floor gymnastics.

Somersaults forwards and backwards, in series, too, jumping up with a half and a full turn between two somersaults.

Fly-over somersault over objects preventing injuries (rolled up mats, stools covered with mats) and over a lying, kneeling partner.

Headstand.

Handstand.

Handspring sideways.

Back-boarding forwards and backwards on two parallel high benches.

Continuous floor exercise consisting of elements learnt.
Support jumps

Squatting up, landing in straddle alongside a 4-piece crosswise vaulting-box.

Straddle and squatting jump over a 4-piece crosswise vaulting-box.
Hanging positions and exercises

Climbing and drifting on ropes.

Hanging attempts

Swinging on rings, two ropes forwards, backwards; floating hanging, hanging upside down, hanging with hands behind the back; swinging backwards and introflex landing.

Continuous exercise consisting of 3 to 4 elements.
Beam

Moving as in Year 7, lowering into and standing up from squatting support.

Scale position with face down.
Rhythmic Sports Gymnastics (for girls only)

Elements learnt in sports gymnastics and combinations thereof.

Introflex landing.


Physical education and sports

games: handball, basketball, football, volleyball, table tennis, tennis, badminton, floor-ball

Special preparatory and ball skills developing exercises and games.

Physical education games designed to improve motor abilities and to satisfy the demand of students for games.

Enhancement of the elements of two sports games chosen according to local conditions, student interest and teacher specialisation, mastering the key elements of defence and offence.


Extracurricular sports activities

Preparing for ski, hiking, waterway and cycling camps.

Depending on the circumstances: skating, skiing, toboggan, cycling, roller-skating, skateboarding, rowing, kayak and canoe, etc.

Folk games combined with running, throwing and punching.



Self-defence and fighting

Simple elements of wrestling (ground wrestling).

Judo: rolling, falling and diving, cross-buttock, flinging over the head.

Aikido: as in Year 7, countering throat grip.




Swimming

Increasing the distance of swimming in the two selected swimming styles.


Prerequisites of moving ahead
Disciplined execution of instructions received during marching. Knowing and executing the effect of exercises designed for versatile preparation and prevention according to the student’s age. Presentation of athletic movements in an organised manner with improving success on an individual basis. Secure execution of gymnastic exercises with the intention to maintain a proper posture. Command of basic ball-handling skills, adapting to game situations. Self-defence, knowing how to put up a fair fight. Aiming to achieve in the swimming styles learnt.



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