Gangs Aff/Neg



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Adv # Human Trafficking

Gangs are selling children like slaves in the United States because it is much safer and more lucrative



Bruner, has spent most of her adult life immersed in true crime, through a broad range of activites that includes active participation in various websites devoted to unsolved crime, and missing and exploited children and adults. She would like to share her knowledge and insight to provide accurate information on crime in Wichita, “Conference today to address growing problem in Wichita: child sex trafficking”, May 26, 2009, The Examiner, http://www.examiner.com/x-8028-Wichita-Crime-Examiner~y2009m5d26-Conference-today-to-address-growing-problem-in-Wichita-child-sex-trafficking, accessed on July 7th 2009 AR>

Police and social workers are concerned about the growing problem of child sex trafficking in Wichita, so they are holding a conference today called, “Community Action to End Domestic Sexual Exploitation.” Karen Countryman-Roswurm, a social worker and Ph.D. candidate organized the conference for the purpose of getting agencies to agree upon how to address the problem and help the victims. So far this year, police and social services have investigated four cases in which teenage girls from Wichita were forced into sex-slavery. They suspect far more are at risk. Based on their observations, they estimate that between 300 and 400 a year are at a high risk of becoming victims of sexual exploitation. Street gangs are largely responsible for the growing problem. A few years ago, they began pursuing sex trafficking in Wichita, according to police. The problem is said to be more extensive than it was first thought to be because the street gangs have significantly broadened the range and level of sophistication of the crime here. Mike Nagy, an officer with the Wichita-Sedgwick County Exploited and Missing Child Unit, says that gangs buy and sell children like slaves. Often, the gangs target runaways and homeless children, luring them with promises of food, money, clothing, shelter, and romance, police said. Gang members often train their victims in sex acts often using pornographic movies as “training films,” said detectives and other investigators with the Exploited and Missing Children’s Unit. Once they are “trained,” gang members either force them into the local sex trade, or traffic them over the internet to larger cities. Countryman-Roswurm, who has studied the problem extensively and interviewed hundreds of victims as well, says the pimps can make hundreds of thousands of dollars off of one child. Kent Bauman, an EMCU officer, said that street gangs have learned that sex trafficking is much safer and more lucrative than trafficking in guns or drugs.

Human Trafficking is morally atrocious and dehumanizing

Makonen Getu, Director for Strategic Alliances, Opportunity International, USA, “Human Trafficking and Development: The Role of Microfinance”, July 3, 2006, http://www.opportunity.org.uk/resources/file/MicrocreditSummit_HumanTrafficking_Makonen.pdf, accessed on july 6th 2009


Consequences of Trafficking in Persons (TIP) TIP steals and kills Millions of young men and women as well as boy and girl children are stolen from their families, communities and nations. They are taken away from their world and thrown into the dungeon of the decadent underworld unknown to them. They are held in captivity and reduced to work as slaves in illegal activities for the illicit enrichment of people enslaved by greed. As a result, many have lost their lives either through committing suicide, violent beating and stabbing and even open shooting. Large numbers of trafficked people are paralyzed due to drug and alcohol abuse. A huge amount of social capital is lost through deaths, physical and psychological disabilities. It presents a serious threat to humanity (Brown, 2002). TIP dehumanizes and erodes human dignity Working as prostitutes, domestic servants, brides and concubines, manual workers, camel jockeys under coercion, beating and constant threat is harmful and dehumanizing to any human being and more so to young women and children. Trafficked persons are subject to such brutal and damaging treatment that they are physically, emotionally and psychologically destroyed and disorientated. Being robbed of all forms of identity, they are denied contact with the outside world and kept in isolation in overcrowded and inhumane conditions. They are often drugged. The expenses the traffickers claim to have spent on them are held against them as debt which they have to settle. It is estimated that about 75% of women in prostitution are raped, 95% physically assaulted and about 70% met the criteria for post traumatic stress disorder in the same range as treatment-seeking combat veterans and victims of state organized torture. Women in the sex industrysuffer from physical injuries and illnesses caused by the violence inflicted upon them. TIP violates human rights and is simply “a form of modern day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded or coerced into labour or sexual exploitation” (US Department of State 2005a:1 and 2004). The story in Box 3 depicts a typical scenario. The Trafficking in Persons Report, 2005, notes, “The most egregious abuses are often borne by children, who are more easily controlled and forced into domestic service, armed conflict, and other hazardous forms of work” US Department of State 2005:14). In the case of child jockeys, the US Department of State observes: “Child jockeys face substantial risks. Each year, many are seriously injured and several are stampeded to death by the camels they ride. Almost all child jockeys live in camps encircled with barbed wire near the racetracks” (US Department of State June 2005b:1). Trafficked persons are also stigmatized and in certain cases socially rejected. As a result, there are cases where even when they escape from captivity, they do not return to their places of origin for fear of being stigmatized or susceptible to retrafficking (Turong and Angeles 2005). TIP fuels immorality and organized crime Human trafficking is immoral and knows no ethical boundaries. It thrives on immoral and criminal practices and constantly fuels immorality. Stealing, Box 3: Criminal Violence in the Sex Industry in Southeast and East Asia. Noi came from a poor community in rural Thailand. At 15, seeking to escape rape and sexual abuse in her foster family, she found a foreign labour agent in Bangkok who advertised well-paid waitress jobs in Japan. She flew to Japan and later learned that she had entered the country on a tourist visa under a false identity. She was taken to a karaoke bar where the owner raped her, subjected her to a blood test and then bought her. ‘I felt like a piece of flesh being inspected,’ she recounted. The brothel madam told Noi she had to pay off a large ‘debt’ for her travel expenses and was warned that girls who tried to escape were brought back by the Japanese mafia, severely beaten, and their ‘debts’ doubled. The only way to pay off the ‘debt’ was to see as many clients as quickly as possible. Some customers/ exploiters beat the girls with sticks, belts and chains until they bled. If the victims returned crying, they were beaten by the madam and told that they must have provoked the client. The prostitutes routinely used drugs before sex ‘so we don’t feel so much pain.’ Most clients refused to use condoms. The victims were given pills to avoid pregnancy, and pregnancies were terminated with home abortions. Victims who managed to pay off their ‘debt’ and work independently were often arrested by the police and deported. Noi finally managed to escape with the help of a Japanese NGO (US Department of State). smuggling, hijacking, raping and pimping of trafficked people and running of illegal drug cartels as well as trafficking and distribution of criminal activities constitute some of the organized crimes that go hand in hand with human trafficking.

DEHUMANIZATION IS THE ULTIMATE HORROR, OUTWEIGHING ALL OTHER IMPACTS



Berube 1997 (David, Ph.D. in Communications, June-July, Nanotechnological Prolongevity: The Down Side, Nanotechnology Magazine, P: http://www.cas.sc.edu/ENGL/faculty/berube/Nanotechnological%20Prolongevity.pdf )
This means-ends dispute is at the core of Montagu and Matson's treatise on the dehumanization of humanity. They warn: "its destructive toll is already greater than that of any war, plague, famine, or natural calamity on record -- and its potential danger to the quality of life and the fabric of civilized society is beyond calculation. For that reason this sickness of the soul might well be called the Fifth Horseman of the Apocalypse.... Behind the genocide of the holocaust lay a dehumanized thought; beneath the menticide of deviants and dissidents... in the cuckoo's next of America, lies a dehumanized image of man... (Montagu & Matson, 1983, p. xi-xii). While it may never be possible to quantify the impact dehumanizing ethics may have had on humanity, it is safe to conclude the foundations of humanness offer great opportunities which would be foregone. When we calculate the actual losses and the virtual benefits, we approach a nearly inestimable value greater than any tools which we can currently use to measure it. Dehumanization is nuclear war, environmental apocalypse, and international genocide. When people become things, they become dispensable. When people are dispensable, any and every atrocity can be justified. Once justified, they seem to be inevitable for every epoch has evil and dehumanization is evil's most powerful weapon.

Human Trafficking- Link

Human trafficking has drastically increased because Gangs have increased



Steven Johnson, Senior Policy Analyst for Latin America in the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies at the Heritage Foundation, “The Road to Hemispheric Security”, December 14, 2004,

http://www.heritage.org/research/latinamerica/hl859.cfm, Accessed on July 6th, 2009 AR


Street gangs have appeared and expanded among populations of youths who abandoned their countries and families during the conflicts of the 1980s, and also among children who have grown up in broken (or informal) homes. These individuals have found identity, culture, and socialization in lives of crime. Now the problem affects all of North America--particularly the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Weak justice systems in some of these countries are barely able to cope with the situation. Today, press reports tell us that there are 14,000 gang members in Guatemala; 10,000 in El Salvador; 36,000 in Honduras; and--according to figures from 1997--800,000 (from 30,000 different gangs) in the United States.3 The bigger gangs communicate with each other across borders and, if they were better organized, would constitute a formidable stateless army. Lucrative drug trafficking persists in South America's Andean ridge, despite efforts to reduce demand and eradicate primary drug crops. Local terrorist groups like the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), ELN (National Liberation Army), and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia support themselves by moving drugs in order to control territory as well as production areas. FARC deserters have indicated that their group has largely abandoned its political ideals: Its reason for existing has gradually changed from promoting revolution to enriching individual leaders through narcotics sales. These groups are naturally opposed to advances in establishing state authority and the rule of law--especially in the countryside where they operate. As a result, they have deployed some of their units across borders into Brazil, Ecuador, and Venezuela. In Central America, they exchange drugs for arms left over from 1980s conflicts. In the background, human trafficking has increased substantially between Mexico and the United States, China and Ecuador, and from Brazil through Venezuela to Europe.

Gangs cause multiple problems – trafficking weapons, kidnapping and they promote the trafficking of human beings



Trujillo, Amparo,  Journalist, "Cutting to the core of the gang crisis." Americas (English Edition) 57.6 (Nov-Dec 2005): 56(2). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Kansas State University Libraries. 6 July 2009 
.
The United States, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador are at the center of the crisis produced by violent gang crimes, though the phenomenon has extended to other countries in the region as well. Today the problem has grown to the point that members of gangs are accused of trafficking in human beings, smuggling migrants, trafficking in weapons, and kidnapping. These are transnational crimes--which can threaten hemispheric as well as national security, adding to growing concerns about the possible links between gangs, drug traffickers, and terrorism

Thousands of people are trafficked in the united states each year because of crime groups

Francis T. Miko, Specialist in International Relations Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, “Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response”, Updated July 10, 2003, http://www.eoir.us/crs_country/CRSReportTraffickingInWomenAndChildrenTheU.S.AndInternationalResponse(July10,2003)Updated.pdf, Accessed On July 7th 2009 AR


Some 18,000 to 20,00 people are trafficked to the United States each year, according to the most recent Department of State estimates.17 Most come from Southeast Asia and the former Soviet Union. About half of those are forced into sweatshop labor and domestic servitude. The rest are forced into prostitution and the sex industry, or in the case of young children, kidnaped and sold for adoption. While many victims come willingly, they are not aware of the terms and conditions they will face. Women trafficked to the United States most often wind up in the larger cities in New York, Florida, North Carolina, California, and Hawaii.18 But the problem is also migrating to smaller cities and suburbs. Russian crime groups are said to be actively involved in trafficking and the sex industry in the United States.

The reason there is still human trafficking is because of gangs

Lederer, Laura J., a legal scholar and former Senior Advisor on Trafficking in Persons in the Office for Democracy and Global Affairs of the United States Department of State.[1] She has also been an activist against human trafficking, prostitution, pornography, and hate speech. Lederer is founder of The Protection Project, a legal research institute at Johns Hopkins University devoted to combating trafficking in persons,  "Poor children targets of sex exploitation." National Catholic Reporter 33.n5 (Nov 22, 1996): 11(1). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Kansas State University Libraries. 6 July 2009  .


The congress met for five days during which over 100 governments, intergovernmental agencies and national and international nongovernmental organizations presented information on the situation in various regions of the world, the action governments are taking to prevent or reduce child sexual exploitation, and the advocacy work of the many nongovernmental organizations around the world.
The congress may not have solved the problem but it brought to light the urgency of the issue. Several important themes emerged. Media reports would have us believe that commercial sexual exploitation is confined to a few poor regions of the world. But new evidence demonstrates and children for mail order brides, prostitution and slave labor. As experts testified at the World Congress, it is now possible for a child pornographer to transmit a single child pornography image to thousands of sites instantaneously and simultaneously. Encryptation allows a new level of private and secret trade in child pornography. In addition, computer morphing allows pornographers to create child pornography by altering images - using one child's head and another's body. It has become increasingly clear that, as in drug trafficking and gunrunning, child traffickers are organized. Reports from human rights groups say international motorcycle gangs are trafficking in Filipino women in Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland and other Scandinavian countries.






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