the castle Douzain, an iron cage, which the said lord (i. e., Louis)
has ordered to be made for the security and guard of the person of the
Cardinal of Angers (Balue)." Vatout, Château d'Amboise, 64, 65, note.
States General held during the minority of Charles the Eighth; but, notwithstanding the well-known opinion of all the orders, this reign
passed without the adoption of any decided action.
Action of Louis XII. His motto.
It was reserved for Louis the Twelfth to take the desired step. In 1499
he published the Pragmatic Sanction anew, and ordered the exclusion from
office of all that had obtained benefices from Rome. In vain did the
Pope rave. In vain did he summon all upholders of the ordinance to
appear before the Fifth Lateran Council. The sturdy prince--the "Father
of his people"--who had chosen for his motto the device, "Perdam
Babylonis nomen," made little account of the menaces of Julius the
Second, whom death overtook, it is said, while about to fulminate a bull
transferring the title of "Very Christian King" from Louis the Twelfth
of France to Henry the Eighth of England.
Concordat of Leo X. and Francis I.
Thirsting for military distinction, Francis the First had no sooner
obtained the throne than he entered upon the career of arms in northern
Italy, and the signal victory of Marignano, won less than ten months
after his accession (September 13, 1515), closed his first campaign.
This success was productive of more lasting results than merely the
temporary possession of the Milanese. It led to a reconciliation with
the Pope, and to a stately interview in the city of Bologna. All that
was magnificent and captivating to the senses had been studied to dazzle
the eyes of a young and imaginative prince; for Leo the Tenth, patron of
the arts and of artists, was an adept in scenic effects. Certainly never
did pomp and ceremony more easily effect the object for which they were
employed. The interview of Bologna paved the way for a concordat, in
which the rights of the Gallican Church were sacrificed, and the spoils
divided between king and pontiff. Three cardinals took part in the
elaboration of the details of the instrument--two on the pontifical, the
third on the royal side. The last was the notorious Cardinal Duprat,
elevated by Francis to the office of chancellor--a minister of religion who
1 Fleury, ubi supra, 340.
2 See Capefigue's animated description of the scene in the
resistance from a body so completely dependent on the sovereign was not
to be thought of. Yet, even when compelled to yield, parliament, at the
suggestion of the gens du roi, coupled the registry of the concordat
with a declaration that it was made at the express
command of the king several times reiterated, that parliament disapproved of
the revocation of the Pragmatic Sanction; and that, in the adjudication of
causes, it would continue to follow the ordinance of Charles the Seventh,
while appealing to the Pope under better advisement, and to a future council
of the church. Thus the concordat, projected at Bologna in 1515, and
signed at Rome on the sixteenth of August, 1516, was registered by the
Parliament of Paris de expressissimo mandato regis, on the
twenty-second of March, 1518.1 The university remonstrates.
Even now Francis had not quite silenced all opposition. The rector of
the University of Paris, not content with entering a formal
remonstrance,2 took a bolder step. Making use of a prerogative long
since conceded to the university, of exercising a censure over the
press, he posted a notice to all printers and publishers forbidding the
reproduction of the concordat on pain of loss of their privileges. The
dean and canons of the cathedral church of Paris also handed in a
protest. The preachers of several churches rivalled the rector in
audacity, by publicly inveighing against the dangers of the
ecclesiastical innovations introduced by the king. It is not surprising
that a prince impatient even of wholesome rebuke was enraged at this
monkish tirade. Parliament was ordered to bring the culprits to justice;
but, strange to say, none could be discovered--a circumstance certainly
attributable rather to the supineness of the judges than to any lack of
witnesses. To the university Francis wrote in a haughty vein,
threatening the severe punishment of any of its doctors that dared
preach against the government; while, by an edict from
1 Leue, publiée et registrée par l'ordonnance et du