How Do Pre-Retirement Job Characteristics Shape One’s Post-Retirement Cognitive Performance?



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Table A2. Propensity Model for Selection into Occupation and Retirement Treatment

(Retired, Low is omitted)









Intellectual Complexity

Mechanical Complexity







Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Retired, Medium

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.0541

0.2684

0.6044+

0.3236

Cognitive performance (time 2)

-0.0166

0.0301

-0.1207**

0.0447

Education (years)

0.2443***

0.0435

-0.3827***

0.0596

Age (time 1)

0.0136

0.0285

-0.0231

0.0386

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.0531

0.3122

0.4486

0.4224

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

-0.0048

0.0207

-0.0106

0.0262

Female

-0.6977***

0.1827

-1.0485***

0.2558

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0202

0.0308

-0.0683+

0.0410

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

0.1099***

0.0316

-0.2750***

0.0472

Frailty Score (time 2)

0.4628

0.9091

-1.6778

1.1175

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

0.0011

0.1117

-0.1238

0.1408

Regular moderate exercise

-0.1496*

0.0744

0.0271

0.0891

Constant

-3.4824

2.3097

9.8422**

3.1447

Retired, High

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.8321+

0.4421

0.1059

0.3312

Cognitive performance (time 2)

0.0235

0.0358

-0.1163***

0.0347

Education (years)

0.2478***

0.0500

-0.5235***

0.0473

Age (time 1)

0.0300

0.0349

-0.0042

0.0335

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.1895

0.3718

-0.5445

0.3592

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0288

0.0231

-0.0176

0.0231

Female

-0.4257

0.2244

-2.7988***

0.2499

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0863

0.0399

-0.0448

0.0360

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

0.1620

0.0465

-0.1401***

0.0373

Frailty Score (time 2)

0.9360

1.1119

-0.6445

0.9726

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

-0.0868

0.1373

-0.1032

0.1242

Regular moderate exercise

-0.1366

0.0915

-0.0034

0.0854

Constant

-9.0993***

2.7448

12.1640***

2.6609

Working, Low

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.1115***

0.2268

-0.2404

0.2244

Cognitive performance (time 2)

0.0032

0.0260

-0.0386+

0.0219

Education (years)

0.0928**

0.0331

0.1727***

0.0360

Age (time 1)

-0.0932**

0.0301

-0.0942***

0.0245

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.5881*

0.2849

-0.7339**

0.2396

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0784***

0.0191

0.0852***

0.0149

Female

-0.0582

0.1632

-0.1862

0.1440

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0334

0.0281

-0.0132

0.0236

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0206

0.0284

-0.0823***

0.0257

Frailty Score (time 2)

3.4858***

0.7976

2.6317***

0.7336

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

0.0302

0.0951

0.0728

0.0844

Regular moderate exercise

0.0521

0.0642

0.0914

0.0567

Constant

0.1433

2.1944

-0.5280

1.8248


Table A2. Propensity Model for Selection into Occupation and Retirement Treatment (cont.)







Intellectual Complexity

Mechanical Complexity







Coef.

Robust SE

Coef.

Robust SE

Working, Meidum

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.0474

0.2460

0.9130***

0.2457

Cognitive performance (time 2)

0.0216

0.0270

-0.0131

0.0272

Education (years)

0.3417***

0.0419

-0.2185***

0.0449

Age (time 1)

-0.0623*

0.0312

-0.0710*

0.0319

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.8965**

0.2934

-0.8351**

0.3046

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0784***

0.0200

0.0630**

0.0201

Female

-0.9128***

0.1661

-1.1840***

0.1897

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0010

0.0286

-0.0284

0.0324

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

-0.0330

0.0285

-0.2625***

0.0337

Frailty Score (time 2)

4.0690***

0.8356

4.0456***

0.9287

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

0.1073

0.1009

-0.0160

0.1061

Regular moderate exercise

-0.0565

0.0699

0.1451*

0.0737

Constant

-4.7183*

2.3038

5.2816*

2.3747

Working, High

Non-Hispanic Black

-0.1397

0.2804

0.2069

0.3016

Cognitive performance( time 2)

0.0024

0.0299

-0.0449

0.0298

Education (years)

0.3889***

0.0422

-0.4795***

0.0481

Age (time 1)

-0.0474

0.0318

-0.0889*

0.0378

Age 62 or Higher (time 2)

-0.7179*

0.3192

-0.7033*

0.3315

Time Span (Months between time 1 and time 4)

0.0975***

0.0217

0.0508*

0.0213

Female

-0.7066***

0.1809

-2.9036***

0.2179

Wealth (in quintiles, time 2)

0.1364***

0.0340

-0.0571+

0.0335

Income (in quintiles, time 2)

0.0176

0.0323

-0.2698***

0.0327

Frailty Score (time 2)

3.8207***

0.9297

2.6107**

1.0167

Change in Self-Rated Health (time 3 relative to time 2)

0.0917

0.1116

0.0209

0.1091

Regular moderate exercise

0.0027

0.0749

0.0235

0.0812

Constant

-9.2290***

2.3906

12.2583***

2.6382

REFERENCES

Abadie, A., & Imbens, G.W. (2012). Matching on the estimated propensity score: Harvard University & National Bureau of Economic Research.

Ahlskog, J. E., Geda, Y. E., Graff-Radford, N. R., & Petersen, R. C. (2011). Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. Mayo Clin Proc, 86(9), 876-884. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2011.0252

Bonsang, E., Adam, S., & Perelman, S. (2012). Does retirement affect cognitive functioning? J Health Econ, 31(3), 490-501. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2012.03.005

Brandt, J., Spencer, M., & Folstein, M. . (1988). The telephone interview for cognitive status. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychol. Behav. Neurol. , 1, 111-117.

Cattaneo, Matias D. 2010. “Efficient Semiparametric Estimation of Multi-Valued Treatment Effects under Ignorability.” Journal of Econometrics 155: 138–45.

Celidoni, Martina, Chiara Dal Bianco, and Guglielmo Weber. 2013. Early Retirement and Cognitive Decline. A Longitudinal Analysis Using SHARE Data.



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