Ice nucleation captures water: lichen Fungus provides uv protection: lichens



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  1. 植物






Ice nucleation captures water: lichen

Fungus provides UV protection: lichens

Communities prevent asbestos dispersion: plants and lichens

Organism tolerates heat and desiccation: lichen

Lichen metabolite has antimicrobial activity: lichens

Leaves survive desiccation: Spanish moss

Compounds repel slugs: Dicranum moss




Mechanism concentrates inorganic carbon: diatoms

Algae produce oil: diatoms

Tiny capsules trap prey: bladderwort

Toxic blooms aid predation: dinoflagellates

Moving parts are lubricated: diatoms

Intricate silica architecture survives forces: diatoms

Estuaries rely on ecosystem engineers: diatoms

Membranes tolerate high alkalinity: cyanobacteria

Organisms concentrate carbon dioxide: green algae

Pulled support stalks have low flow stress: algae

Leaves resist tearing: brown algae

Extensibility helps stop spread of cracks: macroalgae

Compounds cause UV radiation tolerance: dinoflagellates

Red pigment protects against UV rays: snow algae

Algae protects from freezing: snow algae

Bioluminescence protects from predation: dinoflagellates

Biofilm-inhibiting chemical protects surfaces: red alga

Biofilm inhibition protects surfaces: freshwater algae

Protective coating prevents dehydration: sea-wracks

Stretchable architecture resists breakage: bull kelp

Joint shaped as suction cup prevents peeling: bull kelp

Spiral-shaped flow is optimal: bull kelp

Blades balance light interception, drag: bull kelp

Stabilized bromine protects from bacteria: kelp



  1. 水果

Case protects during years at sea: Polynesian box fruit

Flexibility encourages twisting, not bending: banana

Chemical protects from disease: grapes


  1. 瓜類

Juice launches seeds: squirting cucumber

Convex surface geometry resists adhesion: pumpkin

Skin protects from fungal pathogens: pumpkin

Leaves disorient beetles, prevent attack: cucumber


  1. 豆類

Valve regulates water permeability: yellow bush lupine

Seeds dispersed across the sea: sea bean

Transport tubes plugged when damaged: fava bean

Biofilm inhibition protects surfaces: peas

Hydration increases internal pressure: legumes


  1. 紅樹

Leaves optimize internal state: mangrove

Seeds float to the best conditions: red mangrove

Seedpod autorotates: sycamore

Bill reduces drag: black skimmer

Leading edge of seed creates vortex lift: maple

Seed glides to earth: Alsomitra vine

Single-winged seeds travel far: sycamore

Seeds disperse long distances: liana

Wrinkly surface provides desert camouflage: Tamaulipas living rock cactus





Fibonacci sequence optimizes packing: sunflowers

Modified leaves assist climb: passion flower

Flower structures protect pollen: angiosperms

Pollen catapults from flower: bunchberry

Hooked beak snags flowers: flowerpiercer

Light-transmitting fibers: Venus flower basket

Flowers follow sun: snow buttercups

  1. 其它植物

Wood resists fracture: trees

Leaves resist bending: trees

Leaves resist gravitational loading: broad-leaved trees

Resin protects damage: conifer trees

Continuous fibers prevent structural weakness: trees

Bark protects buds from fire: eucalyptus trees

Bark resists fire: ordeal tree

Branches protected from the sun: quiver tree

Iridescent thin layer provides photoprotection: understory rainforest plants

Features enhance cooling effect: shade trees

Bark keeps surface cool under the sun: trees

Elevated leaves reduce evaporation: quiver tree

Tree structure reduces water loss: umbrella thorn trees

Ecosystem manages poor soils: tropical rain forest

Leaves protect from the elements: conifers

Branches protect plant from wind: Arctic willow

Flexibility limits bending in wind: trees

Roots stabilize trees against wind: longleaf pine

Poison protects seeds: yews

Strychnine protects seeds: strychnine trees

Toxic sap protects tree seeds: hura tree

Coating removes unwanted organisms: trees

Excretions provide antimicrobial protection: olive trees

Transport system prevents spread of embolisms: conifersBurning stimulates flowering: grass treesBurning stimulates flowering: grass treesBurning stimulates flowering: grass treesBurning stimulates flowering: grass trees

Investing resources increases competitive success: trees

Growth rate aids fire resistance: camel's foot tree

Relationships essential to pollination: Brazil nut tree

viding shelter for multiple organisms: English oak

Dormant buds ensure fire survival: jarrah

Branches survive intense wind: live oak

Poisonous sting wards off predators: nettles

Trunk protected from predators: half-mens plant

Torpor conserves energy: common poorwill

Thin-walled tubular stems resist buckling: bamboo

Plants survive repeated drying and rehydration: lesser clubmoss

Vines repair themselves: pipevine

Rind resists rotting: flowering plants

Plants rise above flooding: peatland plants

Glassiness protects plants in drought: blue gem plant

Pollen coat prevents dehydration: plants

Hairs prevent evaporation: arid zone plants

Bulk prevents moisture loss: cushion plants

Tightly packed stems insulate against cold: cushion plants

Weak leaves deal with strong winds: plants

Red leaves hide plants from insects: plants

Plant poison neutralizes digestive juices: cotton grass

Thylakoidal system transports folded proteins: plants

Photosynthesis with low CO2: peatland plants

Surviving low nutrient, low light conditions: peatland plants

Enzyme catalyzes many reactions: plants

Creating energy from sunlight: plants

CO2 breakdown used in organic compound manufacturing: plants

Cork bars water, dissolved ions and gases: plants

Catalysts facilitate water-splitting: plants

Structures optimize material use: plants

Dead leaves insulate against fire: cape aloe

Increasing fire resistance: Arizona fescue

Nanoparticles block UV light: English ivy

Waxy coating protects from heat and drought: euphorbia

Flower's pattern attracts/deters insects: Aaron's beard

Chemical repels insects: catnip

Compounds deter insect feeding: water smartweed

Dead leaves function as insulation: giant groundsel

Fatty acids prevent freezing: cotton plants

Small leaves buffer ambient temperature: sacred datura

Flexibility reduces drag: daffodil

Scales prevent structural penetration: fig

Camouflage reduces herbivory: pebble plants

Photosynthesis: Cooke's koki'o

Flower creates heat: philodendron

Structure and shape provide flexibility: vines

Leaves resist crosswise tearing: grasses

Floating mats adjust to water levels: beaked sedge

Flexibility allows twisting, not bending, in wind: sedges

Microscopic silica blades protect: meadow grasses

chers prevent fungal growth: pitcher plant

Fungal gardens kept free of 'weeds': leaf-cutter ants

Ecosystem withstands attack: Kentucky bluegrass

Fronds hyperaccumulate arsenic: ladder brake fern

Cells survive extreme water loss: resurrection fern

Hydrophobic surface allows self-cleaning: sacred lotus

Slime inhibits evaporation: lobelia

Furry bracts serve as insulation: lobelia

Ice in rosette protects bud from frost: lobelia

Dense covering protects from cold: snow lotus

Seed coat and enzymes protect seed: lotus

Bract forms waterproof structure: titan arum

Internal thermostat regulates temperature: skunk cabbage

Leaf surfaces are hydrophobic: Lady's mantle

Thick leaves, pseudobulb resist fire: Victorian orchid

Compacted leaves form efficient heat insulation: grass tree

Round shape reduces water loss: pebble plants

Pheromone mimic repels aphids: South American potato

Leaves convert photons to energy: spinach

Lightweight structure aids dispersal: dandelions

Symbiosis enhances pollutant breakdown: plants and microbes

Roots absorb nutrients from dead leaves: cushion plants

Leaves maximize sun exposure: plants

Pigment enhances light absorption: tropical plants

Structures maximize light absorption: plants

Crystals draw sunlight into plant: window plants

Pressure sucks moisture from soil: desert plants

Walls keep insect feet from sticking: pitcherplants

Flowers selectively attract pollinators: orchid-flower plants

Internal leaf surface increases gas exchange: plants

Vascular systems transport fluids and solutes: plants

Xylem conduits transport water: plants

Rod-like reinforcements provide strength: plants

Enzymatic liquid digests insects: green pitcher-plant

Hairs cause loss of footing: marsh pitchers

Long roots grow in saline water: Tamarix tree

Leaf fan optimizes cooling and wind resistance: fan palm tree

Trees comb water from clouds: cloud forests

Suckers steal water and nutrients: Australian Christmas tree

Trees generate pressure: oaks

Structures absorb amino acids: potbelly airplant

Leaves capture water: bromeliads

Epiphytes capture nutrients: bromeliads

Membranes desalinate water: mangrove

Aerating device delivers oxygen: mangroves

Calming coastal waters: red mangrove

Pressure makes air move: black mangrove

Oxygenating soil: mangroves

Tissues absorb nitrogen: haircap moss

Rootlets reabsorb nutrients: giant groundsel

Leaves optimize photosynthesis: giant water-lily

Photosynthesis in low-light conditions: Taeniophyllum orchid

Leaves focus light: begonias

Leaves retain air films underwater: water fern

Grooves gather water: thorny devil

Water absorbed from humid air: brown dog tick

Leaf arrangement collects water: epiphytes

Roots absorb moisture from humid air: orchids

Ribbon-like roots absorb moisture: Taeniophyllum orchid

Rosettes capture fog: Tillandsia

Spores are self-propelled: wood ear mushroom

Filter feeding moves water: Venus flower basket

Elaborate stigmas capture pollen grains: grasses

Stems move air: Phragmites australis

Branching pattern enhances exchange and transport: cypress

Mats uniformly distribute resources: black grama grass

Water aids pollination: eelgrass

Elevated rings increase diversity: seaside arrowgrass

Disturbances maintain heterogeneity: Great Plains mesic grasslands

Species diversity maintains grasslands: Tanzania's Serengeti Plain

Tree and grass savanna maintains equilibrium: Transvaal savanna

Diversity creates long-term stability: prairie grassland

Mutualistic relationship is maintained: fig tree and fig wasp

Leaves channel water: sacred fig

Internal perforations transport nutrients: sphagnum moss

Vessels resist bubble formation: trees

Underground storage enables regeneration: jarrah trees

Interwoven trees gain structural support: tropical trees

Relationship provides nutrients, stability: bracket fungi and trees

Leaves deter herbivory: birch trees

Wood self-assembles: trees

Evaporation releases seeds: Brazilian hura trees

Spiral fibers strengthen tree trunks: whitebark pine

Seeds survive extreme falls: Brazil nut tree

Fruiting tree holds key role in forest: Caesaria tree

Vein system resilient to damage: plants

Seeds disperse by jet action: ice plants

Root systems control erosion: vascular plants

Structural composition provides strength in changing conditions: plants

Reinforced fibers provide strength: plants

Lignified parenchyma cells provide strength: plants

Sclereid cells prevent soft tissue collapse: plants

Collenchyma cells provide strength, flexibility: plants

Circular, tapering beams stabilize: plants

Stems resist buckling: plants

Lower water content releases seeds: petunia

Surface tension flings spores: fern

Hooks adhere to wooly coats: burdock

Glands excrete excess salt: mangrove

Old leaves help remove excess salt: mangrove

Selective strategies aid competitive success: mangrove forests

Collaboration benefits multiple participants: mangrove forests

Seeds survive various conditions: mangroves

Corky tuber stores water: Hottentot bread plant

Surface cells store water: ice plant

Relationship provides nutrients: pitcher plant

Seeds are dispersed long distances: South African grapple plant

Interaction helps retain water: forests

Ecosystems recover after disturbance: forests

Multiple organisms strip nutrients: forests

Seed dispersal aids recovery from disturbance: tropical rain forests

Disturbances help maintain diversity: western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests

Disturbances maintain habitat: Scandinavian heath and beech forests

Pit-and-mound topography fosters biodiversity: Douglas fir forests

Fallen trees stabilize, enrich soil: Douglas fir forests

Fungal root-rot renews forest: mountain hemlock forests

Ecosystems recover from disturbance: forests

Buttressing resists uprooting: English oak

Pollen release triggered by bird landing: mistletoe

Sticky berries adhere: European mistletoe

Shrub maintains biodiversity: Banksia

Lightweighting: Scots pine

Maintaining genetic and species diversity: black mustard

Seeds survive long sea voyages: coconut palm

Compounds control 'weeds': fine-leaf fescue

Nurse logs provide new habitat: western hemlock

Tussocks enhance species diversity: upright sedges

Branches provide support: Russian thistle

Skeleton provides support: sponges

Spicules are rigid structural materials: sponges

Support cells resist compression: nasturtium

Trusses provide support: Cholla cactus

Fibers reinforce hydrostatic skeletons: sunflowers

Leaves given structural support: giant water-lily

Fibers keep tall spikes upright: titan arum

Deciduous trees produce more soil water: oaks

Flowers selectively deter insects: acacia

Microbial biodiversity maintained: heather moorland

Folds allow efficient leaf deployment: plants

Roots maximize water uptake: plants

Pollen survives extreme dehydration: flowering plants

Flowers accommodate short growing season: alpine snowbell

Orchids capture pollen: bucket orchids

Pollen fastens to a bee's head: orchids

Flowers increase pollen transfer: orchids

More successful pollination: orchids

Sticky hairs capture insects: Roridula plant

Leaves change colors under different lighting: Selaginella ferns

Burning stimulates flowering: grass trees

Optimizing size aids survival: sessile barnacles

Spring directs spore dispersal in high humidity: horsetail

Oils vaporize to create scent: titan arum

Cactus hides from the sun: mescal cactus

Leaves glued together: grass trees

Running up and down trees: treecreepers

Structures facilitate pollen dispersal: pine trees

Seeds dispersed over long distances: Anisoptera tree

Odor attracts seed dispersers: Durio tree

Hairs change position quickly: sundew

Plants use osmosis to create an actuator.

Leaves fold in response to touch: sensitive plant

Stem sends out climbing gear: cheese plant

Folding allows compact shape: hornbeam

Cone scales are humidity-sensitive: pine

Mutant gene flattens leaves: snapdragon

Leaves have elasticity, shape memory: resurrection fern

Signal directs sperm: fern

Roots attach firmly: English ivy

Tendrils enable upward climb: rattan palm

Sticky berries adhere: Australian mistletoe

Leaves modified for climbing: glory lilies

Adhering to multiple substrates: blackberry

Stem used for climbing: honeysuckle

Seeds drilled into soil: wheat

Plant growth responds to touch: wall cress

Capsules launch seeds: Namaqualand mesems

Leaves transmit long-distance signals: Arabidopsis

Compounds protect against predators: milkweed

Cyanogenic poison protects from herbivores: acacia

Thermogenesis attracts pollinators: cycads

Electron flow generates heat: sacred lotus

Luminescence signals ripening: banana

Fire opens seed capsules: banksia

Bumblebees get a foothold: snapdragons

Leaves signal presence of predators: acacia

Underwater roots get oxygen: giant water-lily

Wood reacts to bending: poplar


  1. 水中生物

  1. 有脊椎



Mucus reduces turbulence: barracuda

Highly effective swimming: fish

Fins provide streamlined shape: tuna

Fish maintain stability in turbulence: spotted boxfish

Immune system protects from toxin: horse mackerel

Mucus coat protects against stings: clownfish

Respiration rate allows survival in low oxygen: blind shark

Shell provides drought protection: lungfish

Blood flow regulates heat exchange: alligator

Glycoprotein prevents ice crystals: Antarctic ice fish

Bodies stay warm in cold water: skipjack tuna

Rapid color change used for protection: cuttlefish

Electric organ stuns prey, deters attackers: electric catfish

Stripes serve as long-distance camouflage: lionfish

Pigment granules assist hiding: ray-finned fish

Scales protect skin: cartilaginous fish

Fins used to communicate: fish

Light used for camouflage: hatchet fish

Mucus has antibacterial properties: bony fish

Skin inhibits microbes: shark

Fish thrives in freshwater and seawater: Atlantic salmon

Surviving extended confinement: lungfish

Cells manage monovalent ions: fish

Intestine osmoregulates: marine teleosts

Lure attracts prey: anglerfish

Organ generates electricity: electric stargazer

Electric organs generate volts: ray

Scales form protective armor: garpike

Tail prevents sinking: sturgeons

Gills exchange oxygen efficiently: fish

Chin used to hunt: elephantnose fish

Hunting in murky water: goldfish

Scales form protective layer: bony fish

Stream community depends on ecosystem engineers: sediment-processing fish

Swimbladder retains gases: ray-finned fish

Capturing prey above the water's surface: archer fish

Teeth scrape and grind to break down coral: parrotfish

Jelly substance provides structural support: jellyfish

Excavating behavior increases ecosystem biodiversity: red grouper

Gas-holding structure aids buoyancy: cuttlefish

Swim bladder helps maintain buoyancy: ray-finned fish

Eggs are buoyant: oviparous fish

Muscular system enables jet propulsion: cuttlefish

Tails aid fast swimming: swordfish

Eggs adhere in seawater: cuttlefish

Beak holds fish: puffin

Slime reduces drag: fish

Moving in tune with body size: penicillate jellyfish

Pulsing used for underwater movement: jellyfish

Swimming forward and backward: knife fish

Skin helps save swimming energy: fish

Tissue provides neutral buoyancy: ocean sunfish

Electric organs used in navigation: knifefish

Lateral line system acts as sonar: fish

Blind cave-dwellers have super senses: Alabama cavefish

Fish body is a swimming tongue: channel catfish

Fish respond to magnetic fields: rainbow trout

Eyes see above and below water surface: four-eyed fish

Special eyes increase photosensitivity: spookfish

Crystals create iridescent sheen: rainbow trout

Shooting snout snags prey: sling-jaw wrasse

Efficient propulsion system: bluefin tuna

Sucker-like structure used to attach: remora

Energy boost from vortices: bull trout

Olfactory sense pinpoints spawning river: Atlantic salmon

Tusks sense chemicals: Narwhal

Fins taste by touch: gurnards


  1. 鯨魚

Baleen plates filter food: blue whale

Lungs efficiently expel air: fin whale

Branching protects from blockages: blue whales

Lingual rete precools blood: gray whale

Deep divers manage temperature: beaked whales

Skin resists microorganisms: pilot whale

Navigation underwater: whales

Flippers provide lift, reduce drag: humpback whale

Powerful tail used for swimming: humpback whale


  1. 海豚

Noise stuns prey: spinner dolphin

Sound waves stun prey: bottlenose dolphin

Blubber absorbs heat: bottlenose dolphin

Snout reduces turbulence: dolphin

Body shape reduces friction: dolphin

Organs aid navigation: dolphin

Chirps carry through water: dolphins

Blubber structure stores and releases energy: porpoise


  1. 海象

Teeth crush shells: walrus

Tusks conserve materials: walrus


  1. 海豹

Whiskers reduce drag: harbor seals

Nasal turbinates reduce water loss: northern elephant seal

Bulging proboscis amplifies sound: southern elephant seal

Whiskers sense prey movement: harbor seals

Fur decreases water turbulence: seals

Guard hairs form waterproof barrier: seals


  1. 海獺

Teeth are resilient: sea otter

Ear flaps keep water out: otters


  1. 鰻魚

Tongue cuts through fish scales: lamprey

Electric organs have many purposes: Amazon electric eel

Extra jaws help hold, transport prey: moray eel

Slime and fibers protect: hagfish

Adapting swimming technique: lamprey

Alkaline surfaces volatilize ammonia: loach

Body moves smoothly through water: African freshwater electric eel

Energy-efficient long distance swimming: eel

Senses help navigat during migration: European eel

Electricity helps communications: mormyrid electric eels


  1. 鯊魚

Specialized gills filter plankton: basking shark

Conserving energy in times of scarcity: basking shark

Light used for camouflage: velvet belly lantern shark

Sharp teeth always available: nurse sharks

Swimming efficiently: sharks

Body designed for fast, efficient swimming: shortfin mako shark

Skin reduces drag: shark

Nostrils detect minute quantities of blood: great white shark

Organs detect electrical currents: great white shark

Spaced eyes enhance visual fields: hammerhead shark

Skin detects thermal signals: blacktip reef shark

Hunting in the dark: piranha


  1. 河豚

Pigment filters excessive light: balloonfish


  1. 海狸

Teeth are self-sharpening: American beaver


  1. 無脊椎

  1. 海葵

Stalk structure improves feeding position: sea anemone

Tissues resist bending under stress: giant green anemone

Relationship protects from predators: clownfish, anemones

Inflating for protection: porcupinefish

Body changes shape: sea anemone

Supportive gel enables extreme shape change: sea anemone


  1. 海星

Tube feet assist locomotion, feeding: lined sea star

Microscopic holes deter fractures: starfish

Body buffers thermal variations: sea star

Limb shedding assists escape: starfish

Skeleton components arranged efficiently: starfish


  1. 海膽

Vision without eyes: purple sea urchin

Radiating shape makes for efficient transport: sea urchin

Teeth self-sharpen: sea urchins

Thin "shells" resist impact loading: sea urchins

Shape distributes stress: sea urchin

Crystals co-orient: purple sea urchin


  1. 海參

Threads adhere underwater: sea cucumber

Secondhand weapons protect from predators: sea slug

Skin lights up when touched: swimming sea cucumber

Body changes stiffness: sea cucumber


  1. 水母

Toxins protect from predators: jellyfish

Light used for instant signaling: comb jellies

Moving cilia create iridescence: comb jellies


  1. 章魚

Ink cloud distracts predators: octopus

Deployable web distracts predators: blanket octopus

Muscular system enables jet propulsion: octopus

Tentacles adhere underwater: octopus

Siphon directs underwater movement: octopus


  1. 珊瑚

Secretions break down algal walls: stony corals

Optimizing exposure to sunlight: stony corals


  1. 海綿

Matrix stiffens connective tissue: sponges

  1. 有殼類(蝦蟹)

Fluid pressure provides support: blue crab

Pressure provides structural support: blackback land crab

Limbs sacrificed to escape predators: crabs

Portable cases protect from predators: caddisflies

Minerals conserved during moult: crustaceans

Claw snaps shut: pistol shrimp

Appendage strikes with force: mantis shrimp

Breaking down wood: galatheid crab

Setae draw water from mud: marsh crab

Hair-like structures filter fine materials: fiddler crab

Social networking aids housing search: hermit crabs

Underwater sensors detect odors: spiny lobster

Eyes sensitive to circular polarized light: mantis shrimp

Eyes see color with precision: mantis shrimp

Hairs detect changes in water current: shrimp

Complex structures focus reflected light: lobster

Microscopic plates produce interference colors: copepods

Eyes allow periscopic vision: ghost crabs

Eyes perceive polarized light: horseshoe crab


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