Identify network hardware and protocols Identify network hardware and protocols
3 Application layer
The application layer consists of many different protocols because it needs to provide an interface between the many different application programs that may be installed on a device.
The protocols in the application layer ensure that data is exchanged between devices using an agreed format and in an agreed manner.
Some common application protocols and the programs they support include:
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
: used by email programs such as Outlook and Thunderbird when they need to send emails.
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
: used by email programs when they need to receive emails.
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
: used by web browsers such as Edge and Firefox to request and transfer webpages from the WWW.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
: often used by file sharing programs in order to send and receive files between users across the Internet.
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