Identify network hardware and protocols Identify network hardware and protocols



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3  Application layer


  • The application layer consists of many different protocols because it needs to provide an interface between the many different application programs that may be installed on a device.

  • The protocols in the application layer ensure that data is exchanged between devices using an agreed format and in an agreed manner.

  • Some common application protocols and the programs they support include:

    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): used by email programs such as Outlook and Thunderbird when they need to send emails.

    • Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3): used by email programs when they need to receive emails.

    • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP): used by web browsers such as Edge and Firefox to request and transfer webpages from the WWW.

    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): often used by file sharing programs in order to send and receive files between users across the Internet.

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