Identify the best answer. Answers are on the last page. The classical planets in order from the Sun are

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  1. The classical planets in order from the Sun are:

    1. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus

    2. Jupiter, Venus, Mars, Earth, Mercury, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus

    3. Mars, Venus, , Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury Neptune, Uranus

    4. Venus, Mars, Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus

    5. None of the above

  2. Nuclear fusion

    1. Is the source of Sun’s energy

    2. Occurs when the nucleus of an atom fissions and releases energy

    3. Radiates throughout the universe

    4. Is the reason that Jupiter has no solid surface

    5. All the above

  3. Mercury, Venus, and Mars are different than Earth because:

    1. They are closer to the Sun.

    2. Earth has volcanoes and they don’t.

    3. Earth currently has liquid water and they don’t.

    4. Earth is the only planet with ice this close to the Sun.

    5. None of the above.

  4. The largest storm in the Solar System is found on which planet?

    1. Uranus

    2. Earth

    3. Mars

    4. Jupiter

    5. Pluto

  5. The basic structure of the Solar System is described as

    1. the ecliptic.

    2. the Oort Cloud.

    3. inner terrestrial and outer gaseous planets.

    4. the asteroid filter.

    5. rotating nuclear fission.

  6. Why do the outer planets and their moons consist mostly of ice and gas while the inner planets are made up mostly of rock and metal?

    1. The solar wind stripped the inner planets of volatile compounds.

    2. The outer gas giants had greater volcanism, which produced large quantities of gases.

    3. Gravity sucked the gases from the inner planets into the Sun.

    4. Solar heat is so limited in the outer portion of the Solar System that solids turn into gas.

    5. All of the above.

  7. The dwarf planets are:

    1. Mercury, Earth, and Mars

    2. Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, and Mercury

    3. Eris, Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, and Makemake

    4. There are no “dwarf” planets, only moons

    5. None of the above

  8. What is planetesimal accretion?

    1. The collapse of the Kuiper Belt into the core region.

    2. Collisions of bits of ice, gas, and dust grew into planetesimals, and planetary embryos, and eventually planets.

    3. Jupiter, with its huge mass, broke into pieces that eventually became the major planets.

    4. The solar wind tore the young planets into smaller pieces called planetesimals, and these later grew together to form the present planets.

    5. All of the above.

  9. Which of the following is the name of a hypothesis explaining the origin of the Solar System?

    1. planetesimal collision

    2. nebular expansion

    3. solar nebula

    4. nuclear fusion

    5. solar objects

  10. The major gases in the Solar System include

    1. Ice, argon, methane, and carbon.

    2. Water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, helium, hydrogen, carbon monoxide

    3. Lithium, carbon dioxide, carbon, hydrogen, carbon monoxide

    4. Ammonia, oxygen, helium, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and water

    5. Water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, helium, lithium, carbon monoxide

  11. Comets are made of:

    1. Molten rock

    2. Ice and mineral grains

    3. Gas and ice

    4. Rock and a thin atmosphere of water

    5. None of the above

  12. Extraterrestrial impacts

    1. Probably occurred in two waves

    2. May have delivered water to Earth and an early atmosphere

    3. May have originated at the Oort cloud and Kuiper belt regions

    4. Produced the scars on the Moons surface

    5. All the above

  13. The primary source of Earths heat is a combination of

    1. Extraterrestrial impacts, gravitational energy, radioactivity

    2. Nuclear fusion, volcanism, compression

    3. Compression, volcanism, solar wind

    4. Solar wind, radioactivity, gravitational energy

    5. None of the above

  14. During the Hadean Era, which of the following is thought to have occurred?

    1. Growth of the modern seas

    2. Formation of modern continents

    3. The “iron catastrophe”

    4. Origin of life on Earth

    5. All the above

  15. How does the chemical differentiation of Earth today reflect the influence of the “iron catastrophe”?

    1. There is more iron in the core than in the crust.

    2. The lower lithosphere stores most of Earth’s iron.

    3. Much of Earth’s iron has escaped as a result of extraterrestrial impacts.

    4. Iron is largely rare on Earth

    5. None of the above

  16. What are the principal differences between the average chemistry of the crust and the average chemistry of Earth as a whole?

    1. The crust is relatively enriched in less dense compounds and relatively depleted in iron.

    2. The crust is relatively enriched in magnesium and relatively depleted in oxygen.

    3. Earth as a whole has a greater abundance of silicon than does the crust.

    4. The crust contains a greater abundance of heavier elements than does Earth as a whole.

    5. None of the above

  17. How is Earth organized?

    1. Earth has an inner and outer core, a mantle, and a crust.

    2. Earth has an inner mantle and an outer lithosphere, with a liquid inner core.

    3. Earth’s crust rests atop the liquid mantle and the solid outer core.

    4. The inner core is solid, the mantle is solid, and the crust is solid under the continents and they are all liquid under the oceans.

    5. None of the above

  18. Subduction occurs:

    1. When one plate crashes into another

    2. When a lithospheric plate is recycled into Earth’s interior

    3. When a plate enters the inner core

    4. When a continent is recycled beneath an overriding plate

    5. During orogenesis

  19. Oceanic crust

    1. Is formed by asteroid impact.

    2. Is enriched in iron and magnesium compared to continental crust.

    3. Forms from sea salt.

    4. Is made of metamorphic rock.

    5. None of the above

  20. Magnetic reversals are caused by:

    1. Lunar gravitational effects.

    2. Changes in the rate at which Earth orbits the Sun.

    3. Impacts of extraterrestrial objects.

    4. Unknown causes.

    5. Faster subduction rates across Earth

  21. Evidence that the polarity of Earth’s geomagnetic field has reversed in the past is found:

    1. As magnetic striping in volcanic arcs

    2. In magnetic reversals recorded by iron minerals in oceanic crust

    3. In accretionary prisms

    4. Where magma develops above a subducting slab

    5. All of the above

  22. Three plate boundaries, defined by relative motion, are:

    1. Converging, diverging, and lateral.

    2. Convergent, divergent, and transform.

    3. Strike slip, hotspot, and spreading center.

    4. Spreading center, transform, and divergent.

    5. All of the above

  23. The three types of convergent plate boundaries are:

    1. Convergent, divergent, and volcanic.

    2. Ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent.

    3. Subducting, divergent, and shearing.

    4. Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

    5. None of the above.

  24. At ocean-ocean convergent boundaries:

    1. Younger, less dense crust tends to subduct

    2. Island arcs tend to subduct

    3. Transform faults will typically develop

    4. There are rarely earthquakes

    5. None of the above.

  25. The Himalayan Mountains are an example of:

    1. Extraterrestrial impact.

    2. Continent-ocean convergence.

    3. A subduction zone.

    4. Continent-continent convergence.

    5. All the above

  26. At the San Andreas transform fault,

    1. Lithosphere is subducted as one plate dives below another.

    2. New lithosphere is formed as two plates pull away from each other.

    3. Decompression melting recycles old crust.

    4. The Pacific Plate moves to the north relative to the North American Plate

    5. All of the above.

  27. Earthquakes occur at:

    1. Divergent plate boundaries.

    2. Ocean-ocean convergent plate boundaries.

    3. Ocean-continent plate boundaries.

    4. Transform boundaries.

    5. All of the above

  28. The rock cycle is a concept that

    1. Has no relationship to plate tectonics.

    2. Is not a well-accepted hypothesis.

    3. Describes the recycling of rock.

    4. Was first described only two decades ago.

    5. All of the above

  29. Which of the following is part of the definition of a mineral?

    1. Liquid

    2. Electrically charged

    3. Inorganic

    4. Synthetic

    5. None of the above

  30. Many minerals are useful in everyday life. Some examples include:

    1. Feldspar and quartz

    2. Clay and gypsum

    3. Graphite and chalcopyrite

    4. Copper and titanium

    5. All of the above

  31. To quickly identify a mineral sample, geologists use

    1. Physical size

    2. Color

    3. Physical properties

    4. Laboratory analysis

    5. None of the above

  32. “Fool’s gold” is

    1. Hematite

    2. Calcite

    3. Pyrite

    4. Native gold

    5. None of the above

  33. One of the isotopes of the element carbon (atomic number 6) has a mass number of 13. How many neutrons does this isotope have in its nucleus?

    1. 5

    2. 6

    3. 7

    4. 14

    5. None of the above

  34. What are formed when sodium ions and chlorine ions combine to produce NaCl?

    1. Ionic bonds

    2. Covalent bonds

    3. Organic structures

    4. Isotopes

    5. Native elements

  35. What property causes the mineral biotite to break into flat sheets?

    1. Its density

    2. Its electrical charge

    3. Its crystalline structure

    4. Its hardness

    5. None of the above

  36. Silicates are constructed by

    1. Carbon and hydrogen.

    2. Iron and oxygen.

    3. Silica and feldspar.

    4. Silicon and oxygen.

    5. None of the above

  37. Single substitution occurs during crystallization because

    1. Neutral compounds attract ions.

    2. The number of leftover ions must be balanced.

    3. A charged compound is formed.

    4. Ions of similar size can substitute for one another.

    5. To form a dense compound.

  38. The two most abundant elements in the crust form

    1. Oxides.

    2. Sulfates.

    3. Silicates.

    4. Carbonates.

    5. Halides

  39. The important rock-forming minerals include

    1. Feldspars, biotite, and goingouttonight.

    2. Calcite, feldspars, biotite, and amphiboles.

    3. Amphiboles, feldspars, quartz, and rutile.

    4. Rutile, amphibole, calcite, and garnet.

    5. Quartz, feldspar, granite, basalt

  40. The silica compound takes the shape of

    1. A rectangle.

    2. A tetrahedron.

    3. A polygon.

    4. A polymer.

    5. Magma

  41. Plagioclase feldspar is a

    1. Mineral element.

    2. Type of carbon compound.

    3. Mineral

    4. All of the above

    5. Type of quartz

  1. What is igneous rock?

    1. Rock produced by melting

    2. Rock composed of sediments

    3. Rock derived from pressure

    4. Rock that mixes the mantle and crust

    5. None of the above

  2. Most melting in the mantle is a result of

  1. High-pressure melting.

  2. Decompression melting.

  3. Sudden increases in temperature.

  4. Turbulent mantle plumes.

  5. None of the above

  1. In most cases, magma differentiation produces magma with higher _________ content than the parent magma.

  1. iron

  2. silica

  3. calcium

  4. mineral

  5. None of the above

  1. Magma that is cooling undergoes

  1. Crystallization.

  2. Recrystallization.

  3. Partial melting.

  4. Refractionation.

  5. Erosion

  1. Bowen’s reaction series describes

  1. the sequence in which minerals melt in rapidly heating magma.

  2. the sequence in which plutons are formed in migrating magma.

  3. the sequence in which rocks are formed in average continental crust.

  4. The sequence in which minerals crystallize in cooling magma.

  5. None of the above

  1. The order of mineral crystallization is typically

  1. felsic, mafic, intermediate, ultramafic.

  2. felsic, intermediate, mafic, ultramafic.

  3. ultramafic, mafic, intermediate, felsic.

  4. mafic, ultramafic, felsic, intermediate.

  5. All of the above

  1. Mafic means________; felsic means_________.

  1. high in iron, magnesium, and calcium; high in silicon and oxygen

  2. high in calcium and magnesium; high in silicon, oxygen, and iron

  3. high in iron and oxygen; high in silicon, calcium, and magnesium

  4. high in silicon, oxygen, and calcium; high in iron and magnesium

  5. Volcanic; plutonic

  1. The composition of dark igneous rock is likely to be

  1. Felsic

  2. Mafic

  3. Rhyolitic

  4. Plutonic

  5. None of the above

  1. Which of the following best describes igneous evolution?

  1. All rocks evolved as a result of partial melting.

  2. All rocks evolved as a result of hotspot volcanism.

  3. All rocks evolved as a result of differentiation of recent metamorphic rocks.

  4. All rocks are a result of meteorite impacts.

  5. None of the above

  1. Which of the following is correct?

    1. Granite is formed at spreading centers.

    2. Andesite is formed at subduction zones.

    3. Basalt is a mineral commonly in granite.

    4. Gabbro is formed by chemical weathering.

    5. None of the above

  2. Volcanic arcs are primarily composed of

  1. granite and phyllite.

  2. gabbro and gneiss.

  3. basalt and pyroxenite.

  4. andesite and diorite.

  5. All of the above

  1. Plutons are

  1. magma bodies within the deep crust.

  2. intrusive igneous rocks in the lower mantle.

  3. magma bodies produced by volcanism.

  4. igneous rocks produced by fissure eruptions.

  5. made by contact metamorphism

  1. Plate tectonics is important to igneous evolution because:

  1. Plate tectonics formed the first igneous rock billions of years ago.

  2. Melting does not occur at plate boundaries

  3. Mantle plumes only occur at spreading centers

  4. Plate tectonics provides for many igneous environments

  5. Plate tectonics does not allow for partial melting

  1. Spheroidal weathering is caused by

    1. sand abrasion in running water.

    2. crystal growth in cold climates.

    3. chemical weathering of angular rocks.

    4. a combination of slaking and mass wasting.

    5. None of the above

  1. The chemical interaction of oxygen with other substances is known as

  1. Dissolution

  2. Hydrolysis

  3. Saturation

  4. Oxidation

  5. None of the above

  1. The most important form of chemical weathering of silicate minerals is

  1. Crystal growth

  2. Slaking

  3. Hydrolysis

  4. Dissolution

  5. Frost wedging

  1. Insoluble residues are:

  1. Minerals produced by weathering

  2. Dissolved compounds resulting from chemical weathering

  3. Soils that are rich in organics

  4. All the above

  5. Typically dissolved in hydraulic acid

  1. The tendency of silicates to weather on Earth’s surface is predicted by

  1. Mineral texture

  2. Rock color and environment of deposition

  3. Bowens Reaction Series

  4. Tectonic setting

  5. Their roundness

  1. The variable that most affect the weathering process are rock composition and __________.

  1. Topography

  2. Surface area

  3. Living things

  4. Climate

  5. None of these

  1. Which of the following statements about soil erosion is true?

  1. It is a form of pollution that affects biological communities.

  2. It is a major problem affecting millions of acres of cropland.

  3. It threatens to impact food production.

  4. It takes centuries to make soil and only minutes to erode it

  5. All the above

  1. Karst topography is the result of

  1. Soil erosion

  2. Biological weathering of silicate rock

  3. Chemical weathering of carbonate rock

  4. Spheroidal weathering

  5. All the above

  1. Aluminum ore comes from

  1. Spheroidal weathering

  2. Tundra environments

  3. Humid tropical settings

  4. Physical weathering

  5. All the above

  1. Weathering consists of

    1. Erosion, tectonics, and uplift.

    2. Chemical, biological, and physical degradation.

    3. crust age, chemistry and sedimentary minerals

    4. Sedimentary quartz, hematite, and sillimanite.

    5. None of the above

  2. Geologists study sedimentary rocks because

  1. They provide a record of Earth’s history.

  2. They are sources of fossil fuels.

  3. They may contain important mineral resources.

  4. They may contain fossils, providing a history of life including human evolution

  5. All of the above

  1. Sediments produced by the action of living organisms are called

  1. Chemical sediments.

  2. Physical sediments.

  3. Clastic sediments.

  4. Biogenic sediments.

  5. None of the above

  1. Well-sorted and well-rounded sand grains indicate that sediment

  1. Came from a nearby source area.

  2. Was deposited at the location where it was found.

  3. Traveled from a distant source area.

  4. Have not been influenced by weathering

  5. None of the above

  1. Lithification refers to

  1. the set of natural processes that turn sediment into rock.

  2. the processes of erosion and tectonic uplift.

  3. the effects of chemical weathering.

  4. erosion

  5. None of the above

  1. After being created by weathering, sediments may

  1. Experience more weathering

  2. Combine with chemical sediments

  3. Combine with biogenic sediments

  4. Experience sorting and abrasion

  5. All of the above

  1. The sedimentary cycle refers to

  1. The continual erosion of sediments from mountainsides.

  2. The process of recycling sediments.

  3. The formation of rock through compaction of sediments.

  4. The formation of rock through chemical precipitation of sediments.

  5. None of the above

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. Clastic sedimentary rocks include sandstone.

  2. Biochemical sedimentary rocks include Andesite

  3. Biochemical sedimentary rocks include shale and mudstone.

  4. Clastic sedimentary rock includes chert and coal.

  5. All of the above

  1. Biochemical sedimentary rocks may form by

  1. Evaporation

  2. Erosion

  3. Metamorphism

  4. Floods

  5. None of the above

  1. Rock fragments are known as

  1. Clasts

  2. Bioclastic sediments.

  3. Evaporites

  4. Natural cements.

  5. None of the above

  1. Particle sizes are described using the following terms

  1. Sand, gravel, lithic fragments, and natural cements.

  2. Gravel, sand, silt, and clay.

  3. Conglomerate, sandstone, arkose, and shale.

  4. Abraded, sorted, rounded, and spherical.

  5. High grade and low grade

  1. Organisms play a significant role in the origin of _____ sedimentary rock.

  1. Clastic

  2. Biogenic

  3. Chemical

  4. Lithologic

  5. None of the above

  1. Sedimentary rocks are classified by

  1. Mineralogy and fossils.

  2. Cementation and compaction.

  3. Environment of precipitation and environment of deposition.

  4. Composition and texture.

  5. All the above

  1. Primary sedimentary structures are

  1. Physical features of a rock related to the environment of deposition.

  2. Physical features of a rock related to the process of cementation.

  3. Chemical features of a rock produced by the motion of water and wind.

  4. Sediment forms produced by biogenic processes.

  5. Related to plate convergence

  1. Metamorphic rocks are formed by increased

    1. Pressure and cementation.

    2. Heat and melting.

    3. Pressure and heat.

    4. Cooling and solidification.

    5. None of the above

  1. Metamorphism occurs when

  1. Minerals partially melt and quickly recrystallize.

  2. Recrystallization occurs in the solid state.

  3. Loose sediments grow new crystals that cement grains together.

  4. Igneous minerals have solidified.

  5. None of the above

  1. What type of metamorphism is local in extent and results from the rise in temperature in country rock surrounding an igneous intrusion?

  1. Regional

  2. Contact

  3. Burial

  4. Metasomatism

  5. Plutonism

  1. The metamorphic index minerals are:

  1. Kaolinite, garnet, quartz, chlorite, biotite, and schist.

  2. Chlorite, garnet, sillimanite, hornfels, schist, and muscovite.

  3. Slate, phyllite, schist, chlorite, greenschist, and gneiss.

  4. Chlorite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, and sillimanite.

  5. Gneiss, slate, chlorite, quartz

  1. Foliated metamorphic rocks, in order of increasing metamorphic grade, are:

  1. Clay, chlorite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, and sillimanite.

  2. Marble, quartzite, mylonite, and gneiss.

  3. Slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss.

  4. Shale, slate, quartzite, marble, and schist.

  5. Gneiss, slate, schist, chlorite, and phyllite

  1. Marble is related to limestone in the same way that

  1. Basalt is related to granite.

  2. Slate is related to shale.

  3. Gravel is related to siltstone.

  4. Gneiss is related to marble.

  5. Sandstone is related to basalt.

  1. Which of the following statements about foliated rocks is correct?

  1. They reflect the influence of directed stress in the crust.

  2. They are usually formed within intruded country rock.

  3. They are the product of metasomatism.

  4. They rarely develop at convergent margins.

  5. None of the above

  1. Which of the following tectonic processes is (are) most important to metamorphism?

  1. Plate rotation

  2. Sediment accumulation and erosion

  3. Subduction and plate convergence

  4. Paleomagnetic wandering

  5. Plate tectonics is not related to metamorphism

  1. Common contact metamorphic rocks include

  1. Zeolite, hornfels, and shale.

  2. Slate, gneiss, and marble.

  3. Quartzite, marble

  4. Basalt, granulite, and blueschist.

  5. None of the above

  1. Regional metamorphosis of shale occurs in the following sequence:

  1. Zeolite, gneiss, slate

  2. Slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss

  3. Gneiss, marble, schist, hornfels

  4. Greenschist, slate, hornfels, basalt

  5. None of the above


  1. E

  2. A

  3. C

  4. D

  5. C

  6. A

  7. C

  8. B

  9. C

  10. B

  11. B

  12. E

  13. A

  14. C

  15. A

  16. A

  17. A

  18. B

  19. B

  20. D

  21. B

  22. B

  23. B

  24. E

  25. D

  26. D

  27. E

  28. C

  29. C

  30. E

  31. C

  32. C

  33. C

  34. A

  35. C

  36. D

  37. D

  38. C

  39. B

  40. B

  41. C

  42. A

  43. B

  44. B

  45. A

  46. D

  47. C

  48. A

  49. B

  50. A

  51. B

  52. D

  53. A

  54. D

  55. C

  56. D

  57. C

  58. A

  59. C

  60. D

  61. E

  62. C

  63. C

  64. B

  65. E

  66. D

  67. C

  68. A

  69. E

  70. B

  71. A

  72. A

  73. A

  74. B

  75. B

  76. D

  77. A

  78. C

  79. B

  80. B

  81. D

  82. C

  83. B

  84. A

  85. C

  86. C

  87. B

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