At the first meeting in Amersfoort it was decided that the activities of the joint working group should be based around setting up a road map for the development towards market ready PV/T systems. The first step to provide an overview of this roadmap is shown below.
The activities of the working group are illustrated in the centre of the diagram. Purpose of the working group is to catalyse the exchange of information and ideas between the three major players: The building Professionals (Architects, Engineers etc.), the Manufacturers of PV/T systems and the Research Community. At the present stage the information passes through the working group but the objective is to develop the direct communication between the three bodies.
According to the action plan listed in chapter 6, the verbal description will be written during the Summer and distributed to all participants.
4.Commitment for participation and funding possibilities
None of the countries are currently in the position to commit themselves due to the situation of funding of the work in the joint working group. In short the situation can be described as follows:
Morgan Bazilian reports back to Martin Green during July 2000 and investigate the possibilities for funding af PV/T activities. Personally Morgan Bazilian is working on a Ph.D. on PV/T systems and is interested to exchange information and stay in contact with the joint working group no matter how the possibilities for official participation via separate funding will be possible. During the present year Australia probably will participate with the funding for Task 7 where overlap exists with activity 2.5 on PV/T systems.
The work in the new PV/T research project is in line with the planned activities in the joint working group and funding for co-ordination and work in the different activities are secured for the rest of the year and is very likely to be continued. The Danish manufacturer of PV/T systems is interested in participation and providing test collectors for further analysis and monitoring purposes.
The government has confirmed the interest in participation and together with private funding the Israeli participation is secured. Link with the ongoing Eureka project will probably be established, and panels for analysis and monitoring will be provided. Main interest will be market analysis and the evaluation of performance under standardised conditions for the Multi Solar product.
Novem would like to see Dutch participation if certain requirements to the workplan are fulfilled: The analysis of the market, regarding potential and the technical and economical analysis of combined systems, should be included. In principal, Novem is interested in financing part of the development of the roadmap, provided a joint international interest exists. Input from Novem will probably imply that the major Dutch PV/Th players will contribute (and learn!) from the joint working group.
Participation depends on the BIPV research programme expected to be launched in the beginning of 2001. The major interest would be the theoretical studies and simulation work.
Good possibilities exist for financing. Very interested in the development of the new absorber for concentrating systems. Wattenfall has already an available test site where other products also could be tested. Currently two Swedish absorber manufacturers: TechnoTerm and Anders Plät are possible participants. Students at Wattenfall would also be available for monitoring programmes etc. Mats Andersson (Swedish Task 7 participant) will also be linked to the Swedish participation.
Participation is almost certain due to the strong interest of Switzerland on PV/T. Participants is in discussion, but will probably be Daniel Ruoss (Enecolo) strongly linked to the Task 7 participation or as alternative Andreas Haller (Schweizer) or Pascal Affolter (LESO), but this has to be confirmed. Main interest areas are materials (lamination, improvement of emissivity, heat exchanger, etc.), guidelines and concepts for the building design with PV/T together with comprehensive analysis of performance and identification of the technical and economical limits.
Situation is not clear but Spanish expert appointed by Exco and funding might already be available. Henrik Sørensen follows up on this.
Some projects already exist, e.g. the project at Applebees. Henrik Sørensen will follow up regarding the US situation for participation.
5.Any other business
Practical issues regarding circulation of material discussed. Agreed that Henrik Sørensen uploads a Word documents ver. 6.0 or 97 to the website which will be ready in the beginning of August 2000, which can only be reached through a password. The document should be edited by the participants and e-mailed to the author. There should also be a list with dates and names of participants who have read and edited the document.
All communication will basically happen through e-mail.
6.Conclusions and action plan
In the table below the primary action items for the coming period are listed.
In the table below the initials of the participants are listed: MG: Morgan Brazilian, Aus. HS: Henrik Sørensen, DK.
The paper “Building Integrated Multi PV/T/a Solar System roof tile” by Ami Elazari is enclosed in a separate pdf-file taken from the EuroSun 2000 CD-Rom: "D:\05 Combined PV Solar Thermal Systems\05_Ami_Elazari_Building_Integrated_Multi_pv_t_a_Solar_System_.pdf"
Conclusions from Amersfoort (Sept. 1999)
State of the Art
PVPS Task VII PV/Th database
Research on PV/Th focuses on efficiency improvement
Air: low temperature applications
Water: low & medium temperature applications
List of research items
Currently, no need for integrated PV/Th but for combined PV & Th
Nice appearance, easy to integrate, easy to buy, easy to use, easy to service
PV (air) PV & Th PV/Th
Th (water) integrated
Parallel combined & optimised International collaboration
< 5 jr. info exchange (R&D, applications, rules and guide-lines, universal calculation tools etc.
5 - 10 jr. optimised, integrated PV/Th
> 10 jr. fundamental research
ROAD MAP ROAD MAP (Concept)
Short Term (< 3~5 jr.)
To create an international environment that enables / convinces industry to develop PV/Th systems.
Tools: Secure information exchange
Establish R&D network
Develop and implement test methods
Define market needs
Assess market potential
Set “PMC’s: Product Market Combinations”
Develop niche markets
Mid term (3 ~ 7 jr.)
To have integrated PV/Th systems on the market that compete with separate PV & solar thermal systems on costs, aesthetics, comfort, …
Tools: (See above)
Generic R&D on critical PV/Th research items
Confidential R&D on PV/Th product developments
Long term (> 7~10 jr.)
To have integrated PV/Th systems on the market that compete with non-renewables.
SPAIN PV Technology Status and Prospects Jesús García Martín, Alfonso de Julián
* Luis Alberto Calvo and Estefanía Reolid
* External collaborators
General framework Power generation is dominated by nuclear energy and hydroelectricity, but 75% of primary energy is imported. That is why, utilities realice increasingly the renewable energies (among them, photovoltaic solar energy) are a good solution to increase electricity production and this way Spain could become self sufficient. On the other hand, gas emissions must decrease to achieve the objectives fixed by European Union for the year 2010.
Several Spanish utilities have invested substantially in grid-connected PV projects such as IBERDROLA with a new project to build 1,3 MW plant in Navarra through EHN participation. ENDESA and UNION FENOSA are two of the main partners in the 1 MW Toledo PV plant, which has been operating for several years. The general public perception is positive particularly due to the low visual impact of PV.
In 1999, the total photovoltaic power installed in Spain was around 9 MW (78% isolated systems and 22% grid-connected systems).
In Spain, the number of photovoltaic systems connected to grid have increased in this year due to a new law, which mandates that local electricity utilities must purchase renewable energy supplied electricity at prices set by national authority. Also people are aware that the use of renewable energy (for example, photovoltaic solar energy) is a clean way to eliminate and reduce polluting gases.
NATIONAL PROGRAM The Spanish Goverment has opted for Renewable Energy to make its contribution to national energy a relevant factor. That is why, in the early Ninties the Renewable Energy Program was planned 1991-2000, whose main objective was to increase the contribution of Renewable Energies to the national energy total.
In the photovoltaic solar energy area, the objective was to increase the installed power of 2.5 MW during the Program. These figures have been easily exceeded and photovoltaic power has increased by 5 MW since the start of it.
However, in spite of this important development, photovoltaic solar energy does not yet make an important contribution to total renewable energies. To promote this type of energy even more, two important measures have been considered, that deeply affect photovoltaic solar energy. An one hand, the approval of Royal Decree 2818/1998 in which incentives were given to electrical energy produced from renewable facilities, especially those conceded to photovoltaic soalr energy, and on the other hand a new Program of renewable energies 2000-2006 currently pending approval, whose main objective is to achieve development of renewable energies to reach 12% in 2010, according to the White Book of European Union.
In this new Plan of renewable energies, the main conclusions regarding photovoltaic solar energy are the contribution of grants to photovoltaic facilities and the establishment of technical specifications to the connection of photovoltaic systems to grid.
R&D and Demonstration Cells
The Spanish manufacturers of photovoltaic panels are developing and researching new materials and technologies to achieve low costs of modules and to permit this type of energy to come into commercial production.
In a effort to decrease prices, they are focused mainly on thin silicon cells, which can be deposited on module-sized subtrates in integrally-interconnected structures.
Companies like BP Solar, Atersa, Isofotón are developing also modules with differents coulours and sizes, according to needs of users, which can be integrated on roofs.
ENERTRON is an Spanish company that designs and manufactures photovoltaic inverters.
During the last year ENERTRON has manufactured the following converters in the field of photovoltaic applications:
- 1x50KVA DGT inverter and 3x14KVA SOLETE inverters for a photovoltaic plant in Ghana.
- 2x18KVA ACEF-SOLAR inverters for the project “Pérgola fotovoltaica” in the “Palacio de Moncloa” (Presidencia de Gobierno) , Madrid.
In addition to this, within this last year ENERTRON manufactured the first series of the SOLETE inverters for connection to the grid of small photovoltaic plants from 4kVA up to 14KVA.
At this moment ENERTRON is manufacturing the following converters for photovoltaic applications:
- 1x45kVA ACEF-SOLAR inverter for a photovoltaic plant in Alcobendas/Madrid.
- 1x60KVA ACEF-SOLAR inverter for the second stage of the JAEN-UNIVER project.
ATERSA is a private company specialized exclusively in photovoltaic technology (modules, regulators, DC/AC inverters)
TAURO inverter has been developed by ATERSA. It is a last generation sine-wave inverter specially designed for grid-connected applications.
TAURO inverter provides a modular solution for grid-connected systems, being adequate for use in building integration because of its low maintenance, low sound level and easy use. This inverter can be modified in case of new applications, in order to form a system open to possible future changes.
"Sunflower Project" (BP-SOLAREX)
BP Amoco has developed the project " Sunflower ", that calls for the installation of photovoltaic panels in the network of company stations. This project has begun in new stations and the ones that will be rebuilt. To date, the company has already six prepared stations and at the end of this year there will be 22 solar stations of BP Amoco in Spain. In each station they installed an average of 220 solar pannels, each one of them with 36 silicon cells, that turn the solar energy into electrical. The energy thus produced is sent to the local grid in a co-generation process. The generated power is equivalent to about 18 kW, enough to give service to the jets and to the illumination of the station
The installation of this solar system means an average investment by station of about 150602 euros. The annual production for a minimum of 1,000 hours of average insolation would be of about a 18,000 kWh.
"Sunflower" is a global project of BP Amoco that, in its first phase, foresees the incorporation of solar energy in 200 stations of nine countries (Germany, Australia, Austria, Holland, Japan, Portugal, United Kingdom, Switzerland and Spain).
As of result of this project and as a whole, all the network of BP Amoco will obtain a reduction in CO2 emissions of 3,500 tons a year.
BP Solarex, the solar division of energy of BP Amoco, is the company that will provide panels and modules to the stations which are included in the project " Sunflower ".
Technology Demostration Centre activities on PV systems (IBERDROLA)
Technology Demonstration Centre (TDC) is located in San Agustín de Guadalix, 33,5 km from MADRID.It is divided in three Areas: Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Efficiency and Quality and New Power Generation Technologies. Within the Renewable Energy Area, it is presented a brief look over the systems and works that IBERDROLA has developed in the field of Photovoltaics this year.
a) PV Sound Barrier in a water purification installation
This project consists of the construction of a 8.6 kWp photovoltaic fence in the Technology Demostration Center which IBERDROLA has in San Agustin del Guadalix (Madrid), and whose main objectives are to avoid the negative visual impact of water purification systems and to reduce the noise produced by the operation of these systems.
The main scientific innovation of this project is to show a new application of photovoltaic modules as a constructive element. This way, the photovoltaic module can be considered as a power-generating element and also as a new material for the construction. Also a new inverter developed by a Spanish company will be tested in this project. The use of PV modules instead of conventional construction materials and its integration in buildings or structures, will open a new market for the photovoltaic solar energy. Architects will have a new construction element which is besides a power generator. It will contribute to spread the different applications of grid connected PV systems.
b) New mobile system for the supply of photovoltaic electricity
The main objective of this system is to allow electricity supply to remote customers under service conditions equivalent to those provided by the grid.
There is a former version of 3,3 kW which has been suppliying electricity to a worshopthat specialized in renewable energies for one year. The generated energy is emploied for different activities, like music concerts, in order to demonstrate the reliability of photovoltaic solar energy.
This project consists of the construction of 1.5 kWp portable photovoltaic system. This is the second version made by IBERDROLA, in which one of the most important aspects is a new design of the system. This photovoltaic unit will be formed by a container which due to low dimensions and weight is fit to be transported by plane, train, lorry and boat.
When this container is installed in the chosen place, it can be opened, unfolding the solar field. This operation is designed to be performed by only one person. Inside the container, batteries will be located and also the necessary elements to use the system. At one side of the container, it possible to access to an emergency energy source (fuel engine).
The tallest side of the container folds down and becames available for each uses of the system. Opening this compartment, one has access to the inside of the container, in order to keep specific equipments of each application, for example fridge for medicines, foods, etc…
The main scientific innovation is to design and construct a portable photovoltaic system which can be transported by whatever any kind of transport to be used at sites which are at some distance from the grid. This system not only generates electricity but also can be used as a warehouse and place to work, mainly in underdeveloped countries.
This new prototype is being tested and evaluated at TDC installations.
c) Plug and Play Technology for Hybrid Power Systems (HYBRIX)
This project deals with research in AC coupled systems based on plug and play technology, energy management systems and combination of several energy sources like solar PV, wind, diesel and other options in the future. The intention is to develop a new generation of AC-coupled PV/WIND/DIESEL power supply systems for the introduction into the world-wide rural electrification market. Such systems will be able to cover power needs in the range from some kW up to about 100 kW total installed power.
The proposed system will provide a big degree of modularity in terms of installed power capacity and type of connection while maintaining simplicity and reduced cost for applications in rural areas.
The final prototype of the hybrid power supply system, developed under this project, will be installed and tested at TDC installations.
d) Characterization of new PV technologies at Technology Demonstration Center
Grid-connected PV systems are expected to increase during the next years in Spain due to the profitable economic conditions for this type of installations. That is why, the latest technology of PV roof systems for grid connection are tested in TDC. After the monitoring time of these systems, the TDC will obtain valuable information about their behaviour, in order to introduce these new systems in Spain.
Also, a new technology of AC-modules will be developed under an European consortium. The final product will be analized at TDC in order to verify if this type of PV modules are a reliable future option for grid-connected PV systems.
Development of a photovoltaic parking for the charging of electric vehicles
This project has been developed by Enerman S.A. and the participation of IBERDROLA, AEMVA and CARTIF.
The objectives of this project consists of the installation of a surface parking structure, in which a grid-connected photovoltaic plant has been integrated. Electric chargers for vehicles have been provided in the botton of that cover. The installation is located in the parking of the Multiple Uses Building in Valladolid The system is also capable of managing a group of electric vehicles.
The PV array consists of 176 photovoltaic modules with a power installed of 7,5 kWp. The photovoltaic modules are located in a parking structure mainly designed for this project. This structure permits the park of 8 vehicles under the cover.
The inverter is single-phase of the type autoconmuted with IGBT's whose control works like source of current, extracting the maximum available power in the PV array each instant.
Four electric chargers are installed to recharge electric vehicles. For their use, it is necessary to know the access code following several options that appear of the screen of the charger.
This project promotes the building integration of PV systems and the use of electric vehicles through the implantation of suitable infrastructure.
Centralised generation from photovoltaic in Cuba (ATERSA)
ATERSA is a private company specialized exclusively on photovoltaic technology. They produce a range of PV products including modules, regulators, DC/AC inverters, monitoring systems, etc.. which are manufactured in Valencia. The company has pursued an active policy of increasing their exports, focusing their activities in EU, Africa and LatinAmerica as main markets.
During 1999, Atersa has developed the first centralised power station in Cuba, in collaboration with SERC (Solar Energy Research Centre). The site ( Santa María de Loreto, Cuba) was chosen because of the difficulty of extending the grid in such a mountainous region and the urgent need for a reliable power source to support the rural economy, which is based on coffee and small fruit production.
The ATERSA PV system was favoured above other suppliers because of the use of an innovative “ Home Load Limiter ” (HLL) which limits individual consumption and ensures equitable and efficient distribution of the electricity produced. This system had already been successfully demonstrated in Llaveria , Tarragona ( Spain), where an 18 kWp solar PV power station supplies electricity for 47 dwellings, public lighting and the drinking water supply.
The HLL maintains consumption levels within the margins provided for by the system design, only allowing energy consumption to exceed programmed levels when the load status of the system is good. In periods of low tension, the system disconnects any “additional“ consumption .Different limiters can be installer according to the energy requirements of the user, so houses and community services such as public lighting and schools can be supplied by the same PV power station.
The PV system, coupled with the HLL, will provide a reliable and equitable power supply, to help serve the domestic needs of the community´s 250 inhabitants, a primary school, health centre, shop, laundry and coffee processing plant.
At present, there are 3 important manufacturers of photovoltaic cells and modules in Spain which are developing new technologies to improve the efficiency and cost. These manufacturers are ISOFOTON, ATERSA, BP-SOLAREX.
The technologies, which these manufacturers are developing, are mainly thin-film cells, concentration cells, and photovoltaic modules to integrate on roofs.
The production of modules and PV cells is represented in the following figure:
Cell Production (MWp)
Module Production (MWp)
Production Capacity (MWp)
BP Solar España
Involved in cell, module and system manufacture including production of ‘Saturn’ Laser Grooved Buried Grid cells. Modules available in a variety of colours.
Modules from 5 to 110 Wp in many different configurations.
Table 1: Modules maufacturers in Spain Market development
There are three main ways to promote photovoltaic solar energy installations in Spain:
- The Energy Saving and Efficiency Program (PAEE) is run by the different regional governments in Spain. The PAEE subsidises PV installations to a maximum of USD 4.1/Wp for on-grid systems and USD 8.2/Wp for off-grid systems. PAEE has ended this year, but a new program to promote photovoltaic solar energy is being made and it will be approved next year.
- Also, each Spanish Autonomous Region has developed specific programs to support photovoltaic solar energy. These programs subsidize photovoltaic solar systems (both stand-alone and grid-connected) with a grant of over 25% of the total installation cost.
- The Royal Decree provides an advantageous power rate to kWh produced by photovoltaic solar facilities connected to grid. Utilities must buy photovoltaic electricity at 0,4 EUROS for systems of less than 5 kW and at 0,2 EUROS for systems of more than 5 kW.
Due to these measures of promotion, grid-connected photovoltaic systems are experiencing very important growth, while stand-alone systems show a stabilized market.
The traditional model, which has served the industry very well the past quarter century, starts with finding opportunities for PV in niche markets. The original niche was space, then terrestrial niches were opened up, for example recreational vehicles, remote telecoms installations and navigational aids. Since then the industry has tried to mobilize government aid to diffuse the technology to others markets and to make it a commercial reality.
Over the long term, innovation is the key to change power business, for example photovoltaics in buildings. Photovoltaics can be installed on a wide range of surfaces and be integrated into materials such as glazing, opening up the possibility of combining energy production with other functions of the building envelope, such as roof and facade integration.
This report has been produced with the collaboration of BP-SOLAREX, ENERTRON, ATERSA., ISOFOTON