The parties to an arbitration can also determine by agreement the degree of court intervention of their choice. Yet they can do this only within the limits of domestic law and court practice. These limits are of three different kinds.
First, under domestic law courts may refuse to take a measure for which they lack statutory authority, even if authorized by the parties to the agreement to arbitrate;
Second, courts may consider null and void or inoperative an agreement to exclude any of its statutory powers;
Third, an agreement modifying, limiting or increasing the powers of courts to take measures in connection with arbitration may require special formalities
Courts may not take measures contrary to that duty; and
Courts are under a duty to recognize and enforce a foreign arbitral award.
Within this framework, court measures are primarily regulated by domestic law and practice, which vary considerably among countries. The parties to arbitration can regulate the availability of court measures within the framework of domestic law. This framework consists of: