Introduction the relevance of thesis topic

“Teheran: Legal Status of the Caspian Sea should be Based on USSR-Iran Treaties”, Gazeta Pravda, March 14, 2003

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101 “Teheran: Legal Status of the Caspian Sea should be Based on USSR-Iran Treaties”, Gazeta Pravda, March 14, 2003.

102 Sarah O'Hara, “Great game or Grubby game? The struggle for control of the Caspian”, Geopolitics, Vol. 9, No. 1, (March 2004) p.151.

103 Niklas Swanstrom, “China and Central Asia: a new Great Game or traditional vassal relations?”, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 14, No. 45, (November 2005), pp., 569-584.

104 Jan S. Adams, “The Dynamics of Integration: Russia and the Near Abroad”, Demokratizatsiya, (December, 1998) p.55.

105 Also see. Saivetz, op. cit., pp.53-59.

106 Hasene Karasac, “Actors of the new ‘Great Game’, Caspian oil politics”, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2002) pp.18-19.

107 Adam N. Stulberg, “Moving beyond the Great Game: The Geo-economics of Russia’s Influence in the Caspian Energy Bonanza”, Geopolitics, vol. 10, (2005) p.8.

108 Gavdat Bahgat also defines same argumants. see, Gawdat Bahgat, “Pipeline Diplomacy: The Geopolitics of the Caspian Sea Region”, International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 3, No.3 (August 2002) pp. 315-316.

109 Vadim Rubin, “The Geopolitics of Energy Development in the Caspian Region: Regional Cooperation or Conflict?”,, (December 1999) [19.11.2008]

110 Ibid.

111 Saivetz, op. cit., p.54.

112 Bulent Aras, “Iran Policy toward the Caspian Sea Basin”, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 9 Issue 4, (Fall, 1998) p.69.

113 Ibid.

114 Amir Taheri, “The Caspian”, American Foreign Policy Interests, No. 29, (2007) p.396.

115 Barry Rubin, “The United States and the Middle East, 1995”, [05/03/2009]

116 Bulent Aras, op. cit., p.79.

117 Tadeusz Swietochowski, “Azerbaijan: perspectives from the crossroads”, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 18, Issue 4, (1999) pp.419-434.

118 Emil Souleimanov and Ondrej Ditrych, “Iran and Azerbaijan: A Contested Neighborhood”, Middle East Policy, Vol. XIV, No. 2, (Summer 2007) pp.105-106.

119 Nasib Nassibli, “Azerbaijan's Geopolitics and Oil Pipeline Issue” Journal of International Affairs Vol. IV, No. 4, (December 1999 – February 2000)

120 Bulent Gokay, Caspian Uncertainties: Regional Rivalries and Pipelines.

121 Andrei Shoumikhin, “Developing Caspian Oil: Between Conflict and Cooperation”, Comparative Strategy, Vol.16, Issue 4, (October 1997) p.346.

122 Bolukbasi, op. cit., pp.405-406.

123 Shoumikhin, op. cit., p. 346.

124 Ibid.

125 Emmanuel Karagiannis, “The US–Iranian relationship after 11 September 2001 and the transportation of Caspian energy”, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, (June/September, 2003) p.156.

126 United States Energy Information Administration,

127 Bruce R. Kuniholm, “The Geopolitics of the Caspian Basin”, Middle East Journal, Vol. 54, No. 4, (Autumn, 2000) p.568.

128 David L. Goldwyn, “Symposium: The Caspian Region and the new Great Powers”, Middle East Policy, Vol. VII, No. 4, (October 2000) pp.3-4.

129 Bahgat, Pipeline Diplomacy, p. 315.

130 Goldwyn, op. cit., p.3.

131 Karasac, op. cit., p.20.

132 Joyner, op. cit., p.208.

133 Also see. Sebnem Udum, “The Politics of Caspian Region Energy Resources: A Challenge for Turkish Foreign Policy”, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. VI, No.4 (December 2001- February 2002)

134 Gawdat Bahgat, “Energy Security: The Caspian Sea”, Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, Vol. 20, Issue 2 (June 2005) p.11.

135 James MacDougall, “A New Stage in U.S.-Caspian Sea Basin Relations” Central Asia No. 5, (1997),

136 Karasac, op. cit., p.20.

137 See also, Sarah O’hara, op. cit., p.148.

138 Europe Crude Oil Production and Consumption,

139 TACIS Programme, [09/02/2009]

140 TRACECA programme, [09/02/2009]

141 Ibid.

142 INOGATE Programme - Interstate Oil and Gas Pipelines Transport to Europe [12/02/2009]

143 Kim, op. cit., p.94.

144 Bahgat, Energy Security: The Caspian Sea, p.13.

145 Nassibli, Azerbaijan's Geopolitics and Oil Pipeline Issue.

146 Kim, op. cit., p.100.

147 Udum, The Politics of Caspian Region Energy Resources.

148 Bolukbasi, op. cit., pp.400-401.

149 Emin Arif, Kafkasya Jeopolitiğinde Rusya, Türkiye, Iran rekabetleri ve ermeni faktörü, (Ankara, 2004) pp.322-326.

150 Ibid., p.402.

151 Ozden Zeynep Oktav, “American Policies towards the Caspian Sea and the Baku –Tbilisi -Ceyhan Pipeline”, Journal of International Affairs, (Spring 2005) pp.25-26.

152 Bolukbasi, op. cit., pp.403-404.

153 Bahgat, Energy Security: The Caspian Sea, p.12.

154 Enayatollah Yazdani, “Competition over the Caspian oil routes: Oilers and Gamers perspective”, Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 5, No.1&2, (Spring & Summer 2006) p.57.

155 John Chan, “China pushes into Central Asia for oil and gas”, (3 January, 2001) (06/03/2009)

156 Bahgat, Energy Security: The Caspian Sea, p.13.

157 Karasac, op. cit., pp.23-24.

158 Gawdat Bahgat, “The Caspian Sea: Potentials and Prospects”, International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 17, No. 1, (January 2004) p.120.

159 Yazdani, op. cit., p.57.

160 Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, [22.03.2009]

161 Ibid.

162 Alec Rasizade, “The great game of Caspian energy: ambitions and realities”, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, Vol. 7, No. 1, (April 2005) p.4.

163 Laurent Ruseckas, “Caspian Oil Development: An Overview ”,The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, Caspian Energy Resources, (Abu Dhabi 2000) p.16.

164 Bahgat, Pipeline Diplomacy, p.323.

165 Omar Ashour, “Security, Oil, and Internal Politics: The Causes of the Russo–Chechen Conflicts”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 27, Issue 2, (2004) pp.134-135.

166 Christian von Hirschhausen and Hella Engerer, “Energy in the Caspian Sea region in the late 1990s: the end of the boom?”, OPEC Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, (December 1999) p.282.

167 Udum,

168 Yasin Aslan, Hazar Petrolleri, Kafkas Kördüğümü ve Türkiye, (Ankara, 1997) p.112-114.

169 Shah Alam, “Pipeline Politics in the Caspian Sea Basin”, Strategic Analyses: a monthly journal of the IDSA, Vol. XXVI No. 1, (Jan.-Mar. 2002) pp.1-3.

170 Lester W. Grau, “Hydrocarbons and a new Strategic Region: The Caspian Sea and Central Asia”, Military Review, (May-June 2001) pp.18-19.

171 Philip D. Rabinowitz et al., “Geology, Oil and Gas Potential, Pipelines, and the Geopolitics of the Caspian Sea Region”, Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 35, Issue 1, (2004) p.29.

172 Tuncay Babali, “Implications of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan main Oil Pipeline Project”, Journal of International Affairs, (Winter 2005) p.40.

173 Ibid., p.41.

174 Kim, op. cit., p.103.

175 Ibid.

176 Croissant,

177 Bahgat, The Caspian Sea: Potentials and Prospects, pp.121-122.

178 Rabinowitz, op. cit., p. 31.

179 Kuniholm, op. cit., p.553.

180 Bolukbasi, op. cit., p.406.

181 Croissant,

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