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Space Debris Extensions – Debris Impacts



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Space Debris Extensions – Debris Impacts


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[____] Top experts confirm the military would collapse without satellites
Kevin Johnson and John G. Hudson, Lieutennant and project supervisor at the Global Innovation and Strategy Center (GISC) Internship program, Fall 2007, “Eliminating Space Debris – Applied Technology and Policy Perscriptions” http://www.slideshare.net/stephaniclark/giscinternpaperspacedebriselimination
General Kevin P. Chilton, Commander of United States Strategic Command, recently wrote: “Military and civilian entities are heavily reliant on services that satellites provide, and space operations are so pervasive that it is impossible to imagine the U.S. functioning without them.”4 During Operation Desert Storm, commercial satellites provided 45% of all communications between the theater and the continental United States.5 Today, according to General Chilton, “We rely on satellites to verify treaty compliance, monitor threats and provide advance warning of missile attacks. It's important to remember that every soldier, sailor, Marine and airman in Iraq and Afghanistan relies on space technology for crucial advantages in the field.”6
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[____] Satellites collisions would cause economic panic.
Space Daily, 8/31/2009, “Space Debris – Problem Solved,” http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Space_Debris_Problem_Solved_999.html
Upper stages must vent tanks to rid them of residual propellant that might later result in explosions. Many satellites are maneuvered to avoid close-conjunction events. JSpOC is beefing up its satellite and debris tracking capabilities. National and international working groups are meeting regularly to assess the threat and to recommend actions for all space-faring nations. The world is just one major satellite collision event away from panic. Instances of close conjunction events in highly congested orbital bands have increased dramatically in the past few years. In fact, the frequency of close encounters between active satellites and large debris objects within the Iridium constellation has reached a frighteningly high level. Odds are that there will be another Iridium/Cosmos type of event in the near future. Should such an event occur, several bad things will happen to many satellite operators. If another Iridium satellite is involved the company would be forced to replace the lost satellite. The frequency of close encounters in orbits near that of Iridium's constellation would suddenly increase to levels that would cause several operators to reassess the viability of existing space applications. Satellite insurance providers might be forced to raise premiums on in-orbit performance to record high levels. Future launch plans for almost all low orbit satellites may be curtailed. Space-based services to the world would diminish over time. The economic impact is not even calculable. This is scary!

Solvency Extensions – ATA Leads to Contact


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[____] Fully functioning telescope array means that alien contact could happen in the next 25 years.
United Press International, source for science news, 8/16/2010, “Scientist: SETi success within 25 years?”
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence could yield proof of its existence with 25 years, a U.S. scientist involved in the quest says. Speaking at the SETI Con convention in Santa Clara, Calif., Seth Shostak -- senior astronomer at the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute in Mountain View, Calif. -- said, "I actually think the chances that we'll find ET are pretty good," SPACE.COM reported Monday. "Young people in the audience, I think there's a really good chance you're going to see this happen," he said. The SETI search will take a giant step forward when the Allen Telescope Array, a network of radio dishes under construction in northern California, is fully operational, Shostak said. By 2015, the array should be able to scan hundreds of thousands of stars for signs of extraterrestrial intelligence, he said. Detecting an alien signal within 25 years is one thing, but figuring out the message could take much longer, Shostak said. An alien civilization would likely be as technologically advanced compared to us as Homo sapiens are to our hominid relatives Neanderthals, he said. "We could give our digital television signals to the Neanderthals, and they'll never figure it out. And they're not stupid," he said.
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[____] The ATA means that we will encounter alien communications soon.
Michael Shermer, Columnist for Scientific American, 06/2011, Scientific American, Volume 304, Issue 6, p86-89, EBSCO, “The Myth of the Evil Aliens”
With the Allen Telescope Array run by the SETI Institute in northern California, the time is coming when we will encounter an extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). Contact will probably come sooner rather than later because of Moore's Law (proposed by Intel's co-founder Gordon E. Moore), which posits a doubling of computing power every one to two years. It turns out that this exponential growth curve applies to most technologies, including the search for ETI (SETI): according to astronomer and SETI founder Frank Drake, our searches today are 100 trillion times more powerful than 50 years ago, with no end to the improvements in sight. If E.T. is out there, we will make contact. What will happen when we do, and how should we respond?

Solvency Extensions – Radio Searching Best


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[____] Radio experiments are better than observational experiments because they have a lower energy cost.
Seth Shostak, senior astronomer at the SETI institute, 04/2001, Vol. 101, Issue 4, Sky & Telescope, EBSCO, “The Future of SETI”
Radio works. And 30 years ago, researchers were convinced it works best -- better than light, for instance. The argument was twofold. Microwaves handily penetrate interstellar dust, whereas visible light is blocked. But a subtler point is that radio requires less energy per bit of information, which ought to make it the communication medium of choice for any alien engineers. In the radio regime, the minimum background noise you'll encounter is the faint, 2.7 degrees Kelvin afterglow of the Big Bang. In the microwave part of the spectrum this means you typically need to receive just 50 photons per bit to stand out from the noise. No problem. But at higher, optical frequencies, a photon is more energetic and expensive. Even a single infrared photon packs 5,000 times more punch than the group of 50 necessary to send one bit at microwave frequencies. So higher frequencies mean higher energy costs.
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[____] Radio searching is the best method, the improving technology means it will be successful.
Seth Shostak, senior astronomer at the SETI institute, 04/2001, Vol. 101, Issue 4, Sky & Telescope, EBSCO, “The Future of SETI”
Radio SETI may no longer be the only game in town, but it's still the game to which most researchers belly up. That's because the odds of a jackpot, though quite unknown, are unquestionably getting better all the time -- because the instruments are growing more capable by leaps and bounds. The ideal SETI radio telescope can only be imagined. It would monitor every point on the sky, in every radio channel from one end of the microwave window to the other (about 1,000 to 11,000 megahertz), all the time -- a true Omnidirectional Search System, or OSS. Unfortunately, this ideal is a very long way off. But it's no longer impossible to work toward. The STWG team considered what it would take to build a reasonable interim OSS. They were seduced by the thought of a telescope able to find powerful but intermittent signals, the kind that none of the current large SETI experiments has a hope of detecting.


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