[____] [____] The Space Debris problem can only be solved by removing them, something that international governments are unwilling to do. Megan Ansdell, Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton for Space Policy, Former Graduate Student Intern at NASA, 2010 “Active Space Debris Removal: Needs, Implications, and Recommendations for Today’s Geopolitical Environment,” www.princeton.edu/jpia/past-issues-1/2010/Space-Debris-Removal.pdf The biggest challenge, however, will be simply starting the process of active debris removal. Despite growing consensus within the space debris community that active removal will be needed over the next several decades, the fact that space activities continue today without significant interference causes the larger global community to not see space debris as an issue. Moreover, space suffers from the “tragedy of the commons,” a phenomenon that refers to the overexploitation of a shared resource when there is no clear ownership over it. This, in addition to the abovementioned challenges facing debris removal systems, means that the natural tendency of those in power will likely be to do nothing until they absolutely must. This is reminiscent ofresponses to climate change, where the failure of governments to take responsibilityfor their past actions and act preemptivelyis compromising the larger global good. Policy makers must therefore take necessary actions, as recommended in next section of this paper, to prevent what is now happening on Earth from also occurring in space.
Answers To: Space Debris Advantage
[____] [____] Our space satellites are resilient. Others would fill in if debris impacted one. David Perera, Special Contributor to Government Computer News, 2/22/2008, “'Space Pearl Harbor' overstated,”
http://www.gcn.com/online/vol1_no1/45866-1.html?topic=geospatial# However, even if the United States should find itself fighting an enemy with the will and capacity to destroy U.S. satellites, high-bandwidth communications would continue to operate, Mosher said. 'The key here is not to protect satellites. The key is to protect the function,' he added. That could be accomplished many ways, including ensuring that satellite systems are robust enough to survive the loss of some of their units. A prime example is the Global Positioning System, which consists of at least 24 satellites in medium Earth orbit. 'It would take a whole lot to significantly degrade GPS,' Mosher said. 'You'd have to shoot a lot of satellites.' Increased use of transoceanic fiber-optic cables could also make the military less dependent on satellites. Such cabling has already proven to be reliable and has done a great deal to reduce satellite use in the private sector, Mosher said. In any event,if a satellite-shooting war occurs, air vehicles with sensors and routers located lower in the atmosphere than satellites would already be active. 'That just makes sense in regional warfare anyway,' he said. A shot-down satellite would be a loss because alternatives would not perfectly compensate for the missing capacity, 'but it's not the end of the world,' Mosher said. [____] [____] Some space debris is too small to be tracked with current technology. Megan Ansdell, Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton for Space Policy, Former Graduate Student Intern at NASA, 2010 “Active Space Debris Removal: Needs, Implications, and Recommendations for Today’s Geopolitical Environment,” www.princeton.edu/jpia/past-issues-1/2010/Space-Debris-Removal.pdf The most dangerous pieces of space debris are those ranging in diameter from one to ten centimeters, of which there are roughly 300,000 in orbit. These are large enough to cause serious damage, yet current sensor networks cannot track them and there is no practical method for shielding spacecraft against them. Consequently, this class of orbital debris poses an invisible threat to operating satellites (Wright 2007, 36). Debris larger than ten centimeters, of which there are roughly 19,000 in orbit, can also incapacitate satellites but they are large enough to be tracked and thus potentially avoided. Debris smaller than one centimeter, in contrast, cannot be tracked or avoided, but can be protected against by using relatively simple shielding (Wright 2007, 36).
Answers To: Space Debris Advantage
[____] [____] Scientists are already working on techniques to deal with space debris. Asian News International 4/28/2011, “Technique to trace space junk with help of stars developed” Washington, May 27 (ANI): A team of researchers have developed a method to track the movement of geostationary objects using the position of the stars, which could help to monitor space debris. The technique of researchers from the Royal Institute and Observatory of the Navy (ROA) in Cadiz (Spain) can be used with small telescopes and in places that are not very dark. Objects or satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO) can always be found above the same point on the Equator, meaning that they appear immobile when observed from Earth. By night, the stars appear to move around them, a feature that scientists have taken advantage of for decades in order to work out the orbit of these objects, using images captured by telescopes, as long as these images contain stars to act as a reference point. "Against this backdrop, we developed optical techniques to precisely observe and position GEO satellites using small and cheap telescopes, and which could be used in places that are not particularly dark, such as cities",Francisco Javier Montojo, a member of the ROA and lead author of the study, told SINC. The method can be used for directly detecting and monitoring passive objects, such as the space junk in the geostationary ring, where nearly all communications satellites are located. At low orbits (up to around 10,000 km) these remains can be tracked by radar, but above this level the optical technique is more suitable. The team has created software that can precisely locate the centre of the traces or lines that stars leave in images (due to photograph time exposure). The study is detailed in the journal Advances in Space Research.