Long Essay Question answers periods 1 & 2 Question 1


Application of Historical Thinking Skills



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Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The attempts to dominate overseas possessions by European powers continued well into the 20th century.

  • The reinvigorated imperialism of European powers in the 19th century generated new and powerful opposition from native groups around the world which adopted European concepts about nationalism and applied these ideas to their own cause for independence.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The European race for Empire in the 19th century parallels the arms races of the twentieth century.

    • Military expansion was a key factor leading to World War I, particularly the naval arms race between Britain and Germany.

    • The Cold War was characterized by the nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and the NATO allies.

Periods 2 & 3

Question 5. Evaluate the extent to which the French Revolution can be viewed as a turning point in European history. Provide specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-10 Explain the role of social inequality in contributing to and affecting the nature of the French Revolution and subsequent revolutions throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

OS-3 Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered the role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges.

SP-1 Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance, as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual.

SP-4 Analyze how new political and economic theories from the 17th century and the Enlightenment challenged absolutism and shaped the development of constitutional states, parliamentary governments, and the concept of individual rights.

SP-7 Explain the emergence of representative government as an alternative to absolutism.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Periodization



Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


2.1.IV


SCORING NOTES

Thesis: Possible thesis statements addressing continuity and change include the following.

  • The French Revolution was a profound turning point in European history, impacting all aspects of society and all areas of the continent.

  • The French Revolution had important implications for some aspects of society and certain regions of Europe, while other regions and segments of society were relatively unaffected.

  • The French Revolution continued trends and movements which had existed long before 1789.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • The rise of Napoleon as Emperor in France illustrates that the majority of people still sought the stability and familiarity of monarchical rule.

    • Napoleon’s seizure of power as a popular hero and his ability to revert to traditional norms on many social and religious issues showed the conservative tendency of the French population and the powerful hold of tradition.

  • Following the fall of Napoleon, the monarchy was restored and lasted for another thirty-three years in France under different dynasties.

  • Despite the religious changes attempted under the Revolutionary government, Catholicism returned to the fore under Napoleon and remains the majority religion in France until this day.

  • The majority of the French people continued life in agriculture without a significant impact upon the numbers employed in other professions.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following:

  • The French Revolution toppled the idea of absolute monarchy in France.

    • The Revolution sparked a series of reforms, curtailing the power of the monarchy and nobility, while granting ever greater freedoms to the middle and working classes.

  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen illustrates the revolutionary shift toward a new foundation for society upon universal rights rather than upon monarchical divine right or political tradition.

  • Popularly elected assemblies became the key governmental agency in France as seen with the Estates General, the Assembly and the Convention.

  • The French Revolutionary governments made important strides in reducing the influence of the Church upon politics.

  • The French Revolution ushered in improved legal status for women.

  • The wars of the French Revolutionary period forced the institution of mass conscription for the first time European history.

  • The desire to export the benefits of the Revolution to other lands led to warfare and turmoil throughout Europe.

    • Success by French armies led to the implementation of revolutionary reforms throughout much of Europe.

  • The model of the French Revolution led to revolutionary movements throughout the world, such as the revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture in Haiti.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following.



  • The tumults of the French Revolution broke the dominance of monarchs and nobles in France and throughout much of Europe.

  • The changes of the French Revolution were temporary as conservative regimes reinstated monarchy and noble privilege throughout Europe in the early nineteenth century.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The French Revolution was an important turning point in the concept of equality and liberty for all citizens, although it would be as much as a century before such concepts were implemented.

Question 6. Evaluate the extent to which the Industrial Revolution can be viewed as a turning point in European history. Provide specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-1 Explain how and why wealth generated from new trading, financial, and manufacturing practices and institutions created a market and then a consumer economy.

PP-3 Explain how geographic, economic, social and political factors affected the pace, nature and timing of industrialization in western and eastern Europe.

PP-4 Explain how the development of new technologies and industries—as well as new means of communication, marketing, and transportation—contributed to expansion of consumerism and increased standards of living and quality of life in the 19th and 20th centuries.

PP-7 Explain how environmental conditions, the Agricultural Revolution, and industrialization contributed to demographic changes, the organization of manufacturing, and alterations in the family economy.

SP-5 Assess the role of colonization, the Industrial Revolution, total warfare, and economic depressions in altering the government’s relationship to the economy, both in overseeing economic activity and in addressing its social impact.

IS-3 Evaluate the role of technology, from the printing to modern transportation and telecommunications, in forming and transforming society.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Periodization

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


3.1.I

3.1.II


3.1.III


ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements addressing continuity and change include the following:

  • The Industrial Revolution had a momentous impact upon European society, commerce, and politics.

  • The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact upon commerce and the means of production but much of society continued in the same manner as it always had in Europe.

  • The Industrial Revolution had little impact upon the major aspects of European society.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing continuity over time includes the following:

  • The majority of Europeans continued to work in traditional roles, particularly agriculture, despite increased industrialization.

  • Although industrialization had an impact on the economics of Europe, the religious, social and political lives of the average citizen did not change.

    • The dominant Christian churches maintained their hold upon the religious lives of the majority of Europeans.

    • Government continued to be dominated by monarchs, nobles and other ruling elites throughout the 18th and 19th century.

    • The family continued to be the primary social and economic unit of society.

  • Although industrialization changed the name and nature of class conflict, Europe continued to be divided along the same lines as in pre-industrial society—i.e, those who had power and wealth versus those who lacked power and wealth but sought it for themselves.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument stressing change over time includes the following:

  • Industrialization caused great dislocations in society and the family.

    • Increasing numbers of working class people shifted to industrial rather than agricultural work.

    • Low wages in industrial jobs saw a dramatic increase in woman and child labor as families attempted to compensate for the inadequate wages of adult males.

    • In response to the tumult and changes of industrial life a variety of ideological responses sought to reshape society.

      • Chartists, socialists, and communists all sought a reshaping of society to provide protections or equality for the working classes.

  • Rapid urbanization accompanied the rise of industry.

    • As more and more people moved to industrial centers in pursuit of employment, urbanization accelerated throughout Europe.

    • The rapid urbanization which accompanied industrialization led to new and expanded urban, social problems.

      • Large numbers of poor and unemployed crowded the city streets without a means to support themselves.

      • Crime increased as did the numbers of orphans left in the cities, increasing demands upon civil government to house and rehabilitate such persons.

      • Disease and pollution became increasingly disturbing problems as industrialization and urbanization spread.

  • Advances in technology and transportation made possible the increased production and trade of manufactured goods and its accompanying specialization of production.

    • The steam engine and its accompanying advances of the steam ship and railroad reshaped transportation and production.

    • The development of canals expedited trade and travel throughout the continent.

  • European economies became increasingly dependent upon foreign markets for their goods and foreign resources to feed industrial production.

    • This dependency led to increased competition for international markets and the acquisition of colonies.

  • Labor became increasingly organized in opposition to industrial exploitation.

    • Labor unions pushed for women’s and child labor laws.

    • Labor agitated for better wages, shorter work-weeks, and safer working conditions.

  • Industrialization provided the opportunity for an increase in the size and importance of the middle class.

    • The growing middle class placed increased importance upon education and expertise in employment.

    • The expendable income of the middle class professionals led to the development of consumerism and its stress upon luxury, leisure and acquisition of status items.

    • While working class women were employed outside the home in increasing numbers, middle class women adopted the “cult of domesticity” and the premium it placed upon women’s domestic sphere.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The earlier agricultural revolution allowed the dramatic growth of the Industrial Revolution. Without the increased production of agriculture goods, the urban workforce of the Industrial Revolution would have been untenable.



Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The earlier agricultural revolution allowed the dramatic growth of the Industrial Revolution. Without the increased production of agriculture goods, the urban workforce of the Industrial Revolution would have been untenable.

  • The Industrial Revolution reshaped society and international relations and provided the means for total war and the impetus for conflict on a grand scale in competition for resources and trade. Without industrialization, World Wars I and II would never have occurred.

Periods 3 & 4

Question 7. Some historians argue that the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe were effective means of establishing and maintaining international peace and stability throughout the nineteenth century. Support, modify, or refute this stance, providing specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-14 Analyze the role of warfare in remaking the political map of Europe and in shifting the global balance of power in the 19th and 20 centuries.

SP-16 Explain how the French Revolution and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars shifted the European balance of power and encouraged the creation of a new diplomatic framework.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.

SP-18 Evaluate how overseas competition and changes in the alliance system upset the Concert of Europe and set the stage for World War I.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Historical Argumentation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


3.4.I

3.4.II



ANSWER

Thesis: Possible thesis statements supporting, modifying, or refuting the interpretation may include the following:

  • The Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe succeeded in maintaining peace and order in Europe for the better part of a century.

  • The Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe achieved some success in maintaining stability of Europe for most of a century; however, there were significant upheavals that served as exceptions to the rule.

  • The Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe failed to maintain peace and stability in Europe, serving only to mask the underlying turmoil with an appearance of tranquility.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument supporting the interpretation includes the following:

  • The Congress of Vienna and the Congress system/Concert of Europe it established sought a conservative approach to the maintenance of the status quo in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon.

    • Metternich’s plans for Europe included cooperation between the ruling elites of the major powers as a means to suppress radical and nationalist demands.

    • Concerted efforts by conservative ruling elites quelled the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 throughout Europe, thwarting the ambitions of nationalists and radicals.

  • Under the Congress system, no major war among factions of European nations disturbed the peace of Europe for nearly a century from the fall of Napoleon until the outbreak of World War I.

    • Those wars which did erupt were relatively short affairs and did not include a majority of the great powers of Europe.

  • The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 managed to negotiate peaceful means to resolve conflicts over colonial territories in Africa.

Support for argument: Possible evidence that could be used for an argument refuting the interpretation includes the following:

  • The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 illustrate that the maintenance of the status quo was not an acceptable state of affairs in the view of a large number of Europeans.

  • The success of the July Revolution in France (1830) showed the ability of revolutionaries to push for change despite the actions of reactionary ruling elites.

  • The toppling of the July Monarchy in France (1848) and the establishment of the Second French Republic showed that revolutionary discontent was not quelled by the Congress system.

  • The unification of Italy and then Germany showed the power of a nationalist movement in accomplishing its aims despite the opposition of conservative powers.

  • The 19th century was far from free of armed conflict.

    • The Boer Wars in South Africa included precursors of the guerilla warfare and concentration camps that would be seen in later conflicts.

    • The Crimean War saw a war between Russia and an alliance of other European powers.

    • The Franco-Prussian War was in many ways the first modern, industrial war including new weapons and the use of the railroad in the war effort.

Application of Historical Thinking Skills

Students earn points by using the evidence offered in support of their argument to identify and illustrate continuity and change over time. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe only succeeded in repressing the movements of nationalism and republicanism temporarily. The problems and tensions continued to percolate under the surface.

Synthesis

Students can earn the point for synthesis by crafting a persuasive and coherent essay. This can be accomplished by providing a conclusion that extends or modifies the analysis in the essay or by connecting to another historical period or context. Examples could include, but are not limited to, the following:



  • The Conservative movement in 19th century Europe, as epitomized by Metternich’s Concert of Europe, failed to address the growing movements for social and political change which had their roots prior to the French Revolution, opting instead for oppression to maintain the status quo. These repressed movements would eventually burst forth and destroy the balance of power the Concert of Europe had sought and continue unabated into the 20th century.

  • Just as the Industrial Revolution transformed the economic and social lives of Europe despite efforts to maintain the pre-industrial status quo, the development of nationalist and republican movements was unable to be stopped by conservative political elites.

Question 8. Some historians argue that the League of Nations was a dismal failure as a means of establishing and maintaining international peace and stability. Support, modify, or refute this stance, providing specific evidence to justify your answer.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-8 Analyze socialist, communist and fascist efforts to develop response to capitalism and why these efforts gained support during times of economic crisis.

SP-6 Explain how new ideas of political authority and the failure of democracy led to world wars, political revolutions, and the establishment of totalitarian regimes in the 20th century.

SP-14 Analyze the role of warfare in remaking the political map of Europe and in shifting the global balance of power in the 19th and 20 centuries.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.


Patterns of Continuity and Change over Time

Historical Argumentation

Appropriate use of Relevant Historical Evidence


4.1.II

4.1.III


4.2.II



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