Part I. Inorganic Materials (1997).
Part II. Metals (1999).
Part III. Organic Materials (2003).
Part IV. Instrumental Methods (2000).
Part V. Environment (1999).
Part VI. Museology (2003).
Part VII. Dating and Provenance (2003).
Part VIII Library and Archive Materials (1999).
Part IX Stone (1999).
Part X. Dyes and Pigments (2003).
May be obtained from:
Institute of Fine Arts
New York University
14 East 78th Street
New York, New York 10021
PART VII: DATING AND PROVENANCE
Archaeometry: General References 1
Bone and Ivory: Provenance 2
Case Studies: Asyut Hoard 3
Case Studies: Bronze Horse (MMA) 4
Case Studies: Etruscan Warriors (MMA) 4
Case Studies: Getty Kouros 4
Case Studies: Mansoor Collection 5
Case Studies: Metallurgy in Chalcolithic Cyprus 7
Case Studies: Piltdown Man Forgery 7
Case Studies: Riace Bronzes 7
Case Studies: Schliemann and Troy 8
Case Studies: Sevso Treasure 8
Case Studies: Shroud of Turin 9
Case Studies: Thera Eruption 9
Case Studies: Tomb of Ramses II Sons 13
Case Studies: Vinland Map 13
Ceramics: Characterization 13
Ceramics: Firing Chemistry 14
Ceramics: Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis 15
Ceramics: Neutron Activation Analysis 16
Ceramics: Petrographic Analysis 16
Ceramics: X-ray Methods 17
DNA Profiling 18
Field Methods 19
Forensic Anthropology 19
Geochemistry: Potassium-Argon Dating 20
Glass: Dating and Provenance 20
Glass: Fission Track Dating 20
Glass: Weathering (Glass Layer Counting) 21
Ice Cores 21
Location Methods: Aerial Photography 21
Location Methods: General 21
Location Methods: Magnetic Prospecting 22
Location Methods: Radar 23
Marble Provenance: Cathodoluminescence 23
Marble Provenance: General 23
Marble Provenance: Isotope Analysis 24
Neutron Activation Analysis 25
Obsidian: Dating and Provenance 25
Racemization Dating 27
Radiocarbon Dating: Bone 27
Radiocarbon Dating: General References 27
Radiocarbon Dating: Mortars 29
Rescue Archaeology: Temple of Dendur 29
Stone Provenance: Chemical and Isotopic Analysis 30
Stone Provenance: Desert Varnish 31
Stone Provenance: General 32
Stone Provenance: Petrographic Analysis 33
Stone Provenance: Quarries 33
Stone Provenance: Thermoluminescence Dating 34
Stone Provenance: Ultraviolet Examination 34
Stone Provenance: Wear Analysis 34
Technology and Culture 35
Thermoluminescence Dating 35
Archaeometry: General References
M.J. Aitken, Physics and Archaeology, 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1974). viii + 291pp.
M.J. Aitken, Science-Based Dating in Archaeology, Longman, London and New York (1990). xix + 274pp.
T.E. Allibone, Editor, The Impact of the Natural Sciences on Archaeology, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, London (1970). vii + 185pp.
A. Aspinall, "Hard Science: Too Hard for Archaeology," In Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science, J.L. Bintliff and C.F. Gaffney, Editors, BAR International Series, No.3, Oxford (1986). pp.130-132.
R. Berger, Scientific Methods in Medieval Archaeology University of California Press, Berkeley (1970). 459 pp.
S. Binford and L. Binford, Editors, New Perspectives in Archeology, Aldine, Chicago (1968). x + 373pp.
S. Bowman, Editor, Science and the Past British Museum Press, London (1991). 192pp.
R.H. Brill, Editor, Science and Archaeology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1970). xi + 288pp.
D. Brotherwell and E. Higgs, Editors, Science in Archaeology: A Comprehensive Survey of Progress and Research, Thames and Hudson, London (1969). 595pp.
D. Brotherwell and E. Higgs, Editors, Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, Revised and Enlarged Edition, Praeger, New York (1970). 720pp.
K. Butzer, Environment and Archeology: An Ecological Approach to Prehistory, 2nd Edition, Aldine, Chicago (1971). xxvi + 703pp.
D. Clarke, Analytical Archaeology, 2nd Edition, Revised by B. Chapman, Columbia University Press, NY (1978). xxi + 526pp.
J.S. Dean, "Independent Dating in Archaeological Analysis," Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory1 223-255 (1978).
R.C. Dunnell, "Why Archaeologists Don't Care about Archaeometry," Archaeomaterials7 (Part 1) 161-165 (1993).
M. Ferretti, Scientific Investigations of Works of Art ICCROM, Rome (1993).
S. Fleming, "Scientific Measurement of Archaeology: Historical Review," In Archaeometry: An Australasian Perspective, W. Ambrose and P. Duerden, Editors, Australian National University, Canberra (1982). pp.7-21.
M.C. Ganorkar and N. Rama Rao, Editors, International Colloquium on the Role of Chemistry in Archaeology, Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Hyderabad, India (1991). xxiii + 147pp.
Z. Goffer, Archaeological Chemistry: A Sourcebook on the Applications of Chemistry to Archaeology Wiley, New York (1980). xvi+376pp.
J. Henderson, Editor, Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and its Interpretation, Oxford Committee for Archaeology/UCLA Institute for Archaeology, Oxford/Los Angeles (1989). xix + 311pp.
Review: D. Killick, Journal of Field Archaeology19 117-121 (1992).
F. Hole and R.F. Heizer, An Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology, 3rd Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1973). xv + 574pp.
R. Jones, "Ions and Eons: Some Thoughts on Archaeological Science and Scientific Archaeology," In Archaeometry: An Australasian Perspective, W. Ambrose and P. Duerden, Editors, Australian National University, Canberra (1982). pp.22-35.
F.D. Neiman, An Evolutionary Approach to Archaeological Inference: Aspects of Architectural Variation in the 17th Century Chesapeake, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI (1990).
H.N. Michael and N.K. Ralph, Editors, Dating Techniques for the Archaeologist, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1971). xi + 226pp.
J.W. Michels, Dating Methods in Archaeology, Seminar Press, New York (1973). xiv + 230pp.
H. Mommsen, Archäometrie: Neuere naturwissenschaftliche Methoden und Erfolge in der Archäologie Teubner, Stuttgart (1986). 304pp.
R.M. Organ, "The Value of Analyses of Archaeological Objects," Archaeometry13 27-28 (1971).
M.V. Orna and J.B. Lambert, "New Directions in Archaeological Chemistry," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 1-9.
H.L. Peterson, How Do You Know It's Old? A Practical Handbook on the Detection of Fakes for the Antiques Collector and Curator, Scribner, New York (1975). ix + 166pp.
F. Plog, "The Integration of Archaeometry into Archaeological
Research," In Future Direction in Archaeometry, J. Olin, Editor, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (1982). pp.75-79.
A.M. Pollard, Editor, New Developments in Archaeological Science, Oxford University Press (1992). 293pp.
A.M. Pollard, Report of the Coordinator for Science-Based Archaeology, 1987-1990, Science and Engineering Research Council, Swinton (n.d)..
D. A. Scott and P. Meyers, Editors, Archaeometry of Pre –Columbian Sites and Artifacts, Getty Trust, CA (1994). 432pp.
D.H. Thomas, Predicting the Past: An Introduction to Anthropological Archaeology, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1974). x + 84pp.
M.S. Tite, Methods of Physical Examination in Archaeology, Seminar Press, New York (1972). xxx + 389pp.
M.S. Tite, "Archaeological Science: Past Achievements and Future Prospects," Archaeometry33, Part 2 139-151 August (1991).
R.H. Tykot and S.M.M. Young, "Archaeological Implications of Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 116-130.
P. Vandiver, J. Druzik, and G.S. Wheeler, Editors, Materials Issues in Art and ArchaeologyII, Materials Research Society, Symposium Proceedings Volume185, Pittsburgh, PA (1991). xxviii + 844pp.
M.R. Waters, Principles of Geoarchaeology, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ (1992). 398pp.
W.S. Williams, "Science and the Art Museum: The Analysis of Archaeological Materials," In Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials," S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, Editors, Gordon and Breach, Langhorne, PA (1993) pp. 157-186.
S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, "Why Study Artifacts? An Interdisciplinary Approach," In Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials," S.U. Wisseman and W.S. Williams, Editors, Gordon and Breach, Langhorne, PA (1993) pp. 3-16.
J.E. Yellen, "Archaeometry and the National Science Foundation," SAS Bulletin15 (Part 2) 2-3, 16 (1992).
Bone and Ivory: Provenance
N.S. Baer, T. Jochsberger and N. Indictor, "Chemical Investigations on Ancient Near Eastern ArchaeoProtein -logical Ivory Artifacts: III. Fluorine and Nitrogen Composition," Archaeological Chemistry II, Advances in Chemistry171, Edited by G.F. Carter, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1978). pp.139‑149.
N.S. Baer and N. Indictor, "Chemical Investigations on Ancient Near Eastern Archaeological Ivory Artifacts," Archaeological Chemistry, Advances in Chemistry138, Edited by C.W. Beck, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1974). pp.236‑245.
V. Balter, J.-F. Saliège, H. Bocherens, and A. Person, "Evidence of Physico-Chemical and Isotopic Modifications in Archaeological Bones During Controlled Acid Etching," Archaeometry44 Part 3 315-504 August (2002).
A. Balzer, G. Gleixner, G. Grupe, H-L. Schmidt, S. Schramm, and S. Turban-Just, "In Vitro Decomposition of Bone Collagen by Soil Bacteria: the Implications for Stable Isotope Analysis in Archaeometry," Archaeometry39, Part 2 415-430 August (1997).
J.C. Barton and C.B. Stringer, "An Attempt at Dating the Swanscombe Skull Bones Using Non-Destructive Gamma-Ray Counting," Archaeometry39, Part 1 205-216 February (1997).
A. Berzero, V. Caramella-Crespi, and P. Cavagna, "Direct Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Dating of Fossil Bones: Preliminary Results," Archaeometry39, Part 1 189-204 February (1997).
J.H. Burton, "Trace Elements in Bone as Paleodietary Indicators," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 327-334.
M. Castellano Arroyo and E. Villanueva Canadas, "Study on the Evolution of Lipids in Bone Remains in Relation to the Date. II. Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids," Zacchia14 No.1 61‑72 (1978).
A.M. Child, "Amino Acid Racemization and the Effects of Microbial Diagenisis," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 366-377.
M. J. Collins, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, J. Hiller, C. I. Smith, J. P. Roberts, R. V. Prigodich, T. J. Wess, J. Csapò, A. R. Millard, and G. Turner-Walker, "The Survival of Organic Matter in Bone: a Review," Archaeometry44 Part 3 383-394 August (2002).
S. Costamagno, "Laboratory Taphonomy - Material Loss and Skeletal Part Profiles: the Example of Saint-Germain-la-Rivière (Gironde, France)," Archaeometry44 Part 3 495-504 August (2002).
M. Del Pilar Babot and M. C. Apella, "Maize and Bone: Residues of Grinding in Northwestern Argentina," Archaeometry45 Part 1 121-132 February (2003). C. Denys, "Taphonomy and Experimentation," Archaeometry44 Part 3 469-485 August (2002).
T. de Torres, J. E. Ortiz, F. J. Llamas, L. Canoira, R. Juliá, and M. J. García-Martínez, "Bear Dentine Aspartic Acid Racemization Analysis: a Proxy for the Dating of Pleistocene Cave Infills," Archaeometry44 Part 3 417-426 August (2002).
Y. Fernández-Jalvo, B. Sánchez-Chillón, and Luis Alcalá, "The Fourth International Meeting on Bone Diagenesis," Archaeometry44 Part 3 315-319 August (2002).
Y. Fernández-Jalvo, B. Sánchez-Chillón, P. Andrews, S. Fernández-López, and L. Alcalá Martínez, "Morphological Taphonomic Transformations of Fossil Bones in Continental Environments, and Repercussions on Their Chemical Composition," Archaeometry44 Part 3 353-362 August (2002).
E.-M. Geigl, "On the Circumstances Surrounding the Preservation and Analysis of Very Old DNA," Archaeometry44 Part 3 337-343 August (2002).
A. Götherström, M. J. Collins, A. Angerbjörn, and K. Lidén, "Bone Preservation and DNA Amplification," Archaeometry44 Part 3 395-404 August (2002).
D.M. Greenlee, "An Electron Microprobe Evaluation of Diagenetic Alteration in Archaeological Bone," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 334-354.
R. E. M. Hedges, "Bone Diagenesis: an Overview of Processes," Archaeometry44 Part 3 319-328 August (2002).
M. M. E. Jans, H. Kars, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, C. I. Smith, A. G. Nord, P. Arthur, and N. Earl, "In situ Preservation of Archaeological Bone: a Histological Study Within a Multidisciplinary Approach," Archaeometry44 Part 3 343-352 August (2002).
J.B. Lambert and J.M. Weydert-Homeyer, "The Fundamental Relationship Between Ancient Diet and the Inorganic Constituents of Bone as Derived from Feeding Experiments," Archaeometry35, Part 2 279-294 August (1993).
A.G. Latham, "Uranium-Series Dating of Bone by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry: Comment," Archaeometry39, Part 1 217-220 February (1997).
J. Lee-Thorp, "Two Decades of Progress Towards Understanding Fossilization Processes and Isotopic Signals in Calcified Tissue Minerals," Archaeometry44 Part 3 435-446 August (2002).
E. Leitner-Wild and I. Steffan, "Uranium-series Dating of Fossil Bones from Alpine Caves," Archaeometry35, Part 1 137-146 February (1993).
T. Matthews, "South African Micromammals and Predators: Some Comparative Results," Archaeometry44 Part 3 363-370 August (2002).
P.T. McCutcheon, "Thermoluminescent Analysis of Burned Bone: Assessing the Problems," In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, M.V. Orna, Editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1996) pp. 311-326.
D.E. Nelson and K.N. Slessor, "Stable Carbon Isotope Measurements of the Carboxyl Carbons in Bone Collagen," Archaeometry41, Part 1 151-164 February (1999).
A. Nicholls, E. Matisoo-Smith, and M. S. Allen, "A Novel Application of Molecular Techniques to Pacific Archaeofish Remains," Archaeometry45 Part 1 133-148 February (2003). C.M. Nielsen-Marsh and R.E.M. Hedges, "Bone Porosity and the Use of Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry in Bone Diagenesis Studies," Archaeometry41, Part 1 165-174 February (1999).
T. C. O'Connell and R. E. M. Hedges, "Isolation and Isotopic Analysis of Individual Amino Acids from Archaeological Bone Collagen: A New Method Using Rp-hplc," Archaeometry43 Part 3 421-438 August (2001). D.J. Ortner, D.W. Von Endt and M.S. Robinson, "The Effect of Temperature on Decay in Bone: Its Significance in Nitrogen Dating of Archaeological Specimens," American Antiquity37 No.4 514‑520 (1972).
T. D. Price, J. H. Burton and R. A. Bentley, "The Characterization of Biologically Available Strontium Isotope Ratios for the Study of Prehistoric Migration," Archaeometry44 Part 1 117-136 February (2002). I. Reiche, C. Vignaud, and M. Menu, "The Crystallinity of Ancient Bone and Dentine: New Insights by Transmission Electron Microscopy," Archaeometry44 Part 3 447-460 August (2002).
S. J. Roberts, C. I. Smith, A. Millard, and M. J. Collins, "The Taphonomy of Cooked Bone: Characterizing Boiling and Its Physico-Chemical Effects," Archaeometry44 Part 3 485-495 August (2002).
M. Shimoyama, H. Maeda, H. Sato, T. Ninomiya and Y. Ozaki, “Nondestructive Discrimination of Biological Materials by Near-Infrared Fourier Transform Raman Spectrascopy and Chemometrics: Discrimination among Hard and Soft Ivories of African Elephants and Mammoth Tusks and Prediction of Specific Gravity of the Ivories,” Applied Spectroscopy 51 No. 8 1154-1158 (1997).
C. I. Smith, C. M. Nielsen-Marsh, M. M. E. Jans, P. Arthur, A. G. Nord, and M. J. Collins, "The Strange Case of Apigliano: Early 'Fossilization' of Medieval Bone in Southern Italy," Archaeometry44 Part 3 405-416 August (2002).
B.J. Szabo, "Dating Fossil Bone from Cornelia Orange Free State, South Africa," Journal of Archaeological Science6 201‑203 (1979).
I. Taufer and J. Tauferová, "The Design of Evaluation of Assays of Trace Elements in a Fossil Bone," Archaeometry36, Part 1 93-114 February (1994).
H. S. Taylor, “Part VII, Chemical Investigations on Ivory,” In Mycenne 1939-1954 (1955). pp. 248-250.
C. N. Trueman and D. M. Martill, "The Long-Term Survival of Bone: The Role of Bioerosion," Archaeometry44 Part 3 371-382 August (2002).
G. Turner-Walker and U. Syversen, "Quantifying Histological Changes in Archaeological Bones Using BSE-SEM Image Analysis," Archaeometry44 Part 3 461-469 August (2002).
N. Tuross, "Alterations in Fossil Collagen," Archaeometry44 Part 3 315-504 August (2002).
G. Wessen, F.H. Ruddy, C.E. Gustafson and H. Irwin, "Characterization of Archaeological Bone by Neutron Activation Analysis," Archaeometry19 (Part 2) 200‑205 (1977).
See Also: Amino Acids and Proteins (Part 3); Paleobotany; Racemization Dating (Part 3); Case Studies: Piltdown Man Forgery; and Radiocarbon Dating.
Case Studies: Asyut Hoard
H.A. Cahn, "Dating the Early Coinages of Athens," In Kleine Schriften zur Münzkunde und Archäologie, Archäologischer Verlag, Basel (1975). pp.81-97.
N.H. Gale, W. Gentner, and G.A. Wagner, "Mineralogical and Geographical Silver Sources of Archaic Greek Silver," In Metallurgy and Numismatics, vol.1, W.A. Oddy, Editor, The Royal Numismatic Society, London (1980). pp.3-49.
W. Gentner, O. Müller, G.A. Wagner and N.H. Gale, "Silver Sources of Archaic Greek Coinage," Naturwissenschaften65 278-284 (1978).
C.M. Kraay, "The Asyut Hoard: Some Comments on Chronology," The Numismatic Chronicle17 189-198 (1977).
C.M. Kraay, "Hoards, Small Change and the Origin of Coinage," Journal of Hellenic Studies84 76-91 (1964).
O. Müller and W. Gentner, "On the Composition of the Aeginetan Coins from the Asyut Hoard,"
M.J. Price, "The Uses of Metal Analysis in the Study of Archaic Greek Coinage: Some Comments," Metallurgy in Numismatics, vol.1, D.M. Metcalf and W.A. Oddy, Editors, The Royal Numismatic Society, London (1980).
M. Price and N. Waggoner, Archaic Greek Coinage: The Asyut Hoard, V.C. Vecchi and Sons, London (1975).
M. Thompson, "Hoards and Overstrikes: The Numismatic Evidence," Expedition21 No.4 40-46 (1979).
Case Studies: Bronze Horse (MMA)
L. Brown, “Two Small Bronze Horses,” Curator 263-292 (1969).
C. Brumel, “Das Bronzepferd in New York ist keine Fälschung,” Die Weltkust Heft 12, p. 568 (1968). (As summarized and translated in New York Times, August 10, 1968).
E.R. Caley, Analysis of Ancient Metals, Macmillan Company, New York, N.Y. (1964). pp. 116-117.
E.R. Caley, “Chemical Composition of Greek and Roman Statuary Bronzes,” In Art and Technology, M.I.T., Cambridge (1970). pp.37-49.
P.T. Craddock, “The Composition of Copper Alloys Used By the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Civilizations: 1. The Greeks Before the Archaic Period," Journal of Archaeological Science3 93-113 (1976); 2. “The Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greeks," Journal of Archaeological Science4 103-123 (1977); 3. “Origins and Early Use of Brass," Journal of Archaeological Science5 1-16 (1978).
S. Hemingway, “How Bronze Statues Were Made in Antiquity," The Fire of Hephaistos, Harvard University Art Museums Gallery Series, No. 19, p.2-5.
K.C. Lefferts, L.J. Majewski, E.V. Sayre and P. Meyers, “Technical Examination of the Classical Bronze Horse From the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Journal of American Institute For Conservation 21 1-42 (1981).
S.Z. Lewin, “A New Approach to Establishing the Authenticity of Patinas on Copper-base Artifacts," In Applications of Science in Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1970). pp. 62-66.
C.C. Mattusch, Greek Bronze Statuary, Cornell (1988). pp. 16-30.
J.V. Noble, “The Forgery of Our Greek Bronze Horse,” MMA Journal 26 253-256 (1968).
D.W. Zimmerman, M.P. Yuhas, and P. Meyers, “Thermoluminescent Authenticity Measurements on Core Material From the Bronze Horse of the Metropolitan Museum,” Archaeometry16 19-30 (1974).
D. von Bothmer, Re: Dating of Greek Bronze Horse, Interdepartmental Letter of Metropolitan Museum of Art, p.1-3.
Case Studies: Etruscan Warriors (MMA)
Anon, “Museum Visitors Smile as They Pass Three Fake Etruscans," New York Times 20 February (1961).