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Mixed reality
Mixed reality combines physical objects with information displays, for example by projecting digital data onto objects on a table, or onto paper. Fiducial markers can be used to determine the identity and location of individual sheets of paper, and project additional information onto them. The ISMAR conference series presents new results in Mixed and Augmented Reality, often based on machine vision techniques.
Eye tracking and gaze control
Originally developed for psychological research into visual attention processes, eye-
trackers are now used fairly routinely in HCI research to study what position on the screen

24 users are looking at. A high resolution closeup camera is used to capture video of one of the user’s eyes, and the precise position where they are looking is deduced from the position of the pupil, often combined with reflections from a pair of small infrared (LED) spotlights. One company sells a device with the camera and spotlights integrated into the surround of a monitor, to be unobtrusive. However, almost all systems like this require the user to sit fairly still, and to undergo a calibration procedure in which they look at points on the screen in sequence. Performance can be poor when there is strong ambient lighting, when the user wears spectacles, has watery eyes or shiny skin. Often practice is required to get good results. Chapter 3 of the Cairns and Cox book (by Natalie Webb and Tony Renshaw) is devoted to eyetracking in HCI Eye trackers are occasionally used to make gaze-controlled interfaces. At first sight, it seems that these might be especially natural and intuitive to use. In practice, natural eye movement of fixations and saccades can confuse the eye-tracker inference algorithms, it is hard work to keep your eyes fixated on control locations for substantial periods of time, and the natural temptation to glance elsewhere (check work in progress, look at the time, look down at your hands etc) or to blink excessively must be constantly fought.

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