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Table 2. Characteristics of Student Participants and Their Most Recent Assessment Data



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Table 2. Characteristics of Student Participants and Their Most Recent Assessment Data
Student
Grade
Age
Ethnicity/Language
English
Proficiency*
Reading
Level*
Mathematics
Level*
M


Hmong
Oral= (19 pts,
SOLOM)
Reading= (237
TEAE reading)
. (GE)
/ (514; low
performance)
T


Mexican-American/
Spanish
Oral= (LAS-O) Intermediate
(706, RTPE)
-II (Grade
4 Level II,
SDAA II)

**
-II (Grade 4,
level II, SDAA
II)**
T


Mexican-American/
Spanish
Oral= (LAS-O)
Reading= Intermediate
(711, RTPE)
-III (Grade
3, level III,
SDAA II)**
-III (Grade 3,
level III, SDAA
II)**
T


Mexican-American/
Spanish
Oral= (LAS-O)
Reading= Beginner (588,
RTPE)
 (Did
Not Meet
Standard;
TAKS)
 (Did Not
Meet Standard
TAKS)
*GE = Grade Equivalent, LAS-O = Language Assessment Scales-Oral, SOLOM = Student Oral Language Observation Matrix, TEAE = Test of Emerging Academic English, RTPE = Reading Test of Proficiency in English, SDAA = State Developed Alternative Assessment II, TAKS = Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills.
**The Texas Education Agency describes the levels of achievement on the SDAA in the following manner There are three achievement levels (I-III) within each instructional level…Level I Few, if any, of the test questions were answered correctly (beginning knowledge and skills Level II Many of the test questions were answered correctly developing knowledge and skills Level III Most or all of the test questions were answered correctly (proficient knowledge and skills (TEA, Student M was a 15 year old U.S.-born Hmong girl in the 8th grade. She spoke Hmong as her primary language and was identified as an English language learner who also had a learning disability. Her tested English proficiency level based on the state-mandated Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM, California Department of Education) was at level
3 in listening comprehension and speaking which the state classifies as intermediate English proficiency. Minnesota gives a state-developed test of proficiency in reading English called the



NCEO
Test of Emerging Academic English (TEAE). Student M had scored at level 3 of 4 levels on the TEAE Reading Test on her most recent attempt in the previous school year. Teacher records indicated that her independent reading level was tested at 2.5 (equivalent to a student who has been in second grade for five months. Her scores on the statewide content assessment of basic skills at the time of the study were Reading Year 1: 205 (state average 244.3), Year 2: 237 (state average 247.9)
Writing Year 1: 21 (state average 23.4), Year 2: 19 (state average 23.8).
Math Year 1: not available, Year 2: 25/75 or scale score of 514 (state average This student demonstrated low performance on all types of mathematics items except Shape & Space where she had correct answers for 6 of 7 possible items. The student was deemed by her teacher as a quiet and cooperative personality willing to work on improving her mathematics skills in this study. Student Twas a 13 year old Mexican-American girl in the 6th grade. Her oral English proficiency using the Language Assessment Scales-Oral (LAS-O, Duncan & DeAvila, 1990) was measured as fluent in Spanish (LAS 5) and proficient in English (LAS 4). She demonstrated intermediate reading skills on the state-developed English Reading Proficiency Test (RPTE). As a sixth grader, her English reading scores on the State Developed Alternattive Assessment II
(SDAA II) were measured at the 4th grade level. Her mathematics scores (SDAA II) also placed her at the 4th grade level fully 2 years below expected grade level at the time of testing.
Student Twas a 13 year old Mexican-American girl in the 6th grade. Her oral proficiency using the LAS-O was measured as fluent in Spanish (LAS 5) and proficient in English (LAS 4). Her English reading proficiency test scores (RTPE) were at the intermediate range of proficiency for her grade level. As a sixth grader, her reading scores on the State Developed Alternative Assessment (SDAA II) were assessed at the third grade level. Student Ts mathematics scores
(SDAA II) were also assessed at the third grade level fully 3 years below expected grade level at the time of testing.
Student Twas a 12 year old Mexican-American girl in the 6th grade. Her oral proficiency using the LAS-O was measured as proficient in Spanish (LAS 4). She was found to have beginning proficiency in both spoken English (LAS 1) and reading English (Beginning level, RPTE). This student took the regular state content assessment (TAKS) in reading and her score did not meet the standard according to Texas Education Agency specifications. Student Ts mathematics score (TAKS) also received a designation of did not meet the standard.”


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