Name Chemistry Review



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Learning Targets

Criteria for Success

I will…


I can…


  • Be able to interpret and construct phase diagrams

  • Be able to interpret and construct heating/cooling curves

  • Explain the difference between heat and temperature

  • Explain the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy

  • Explain how vapor pressure is dependent upon temperature and concentration

  • Solve word problems using the energy and gas law formulas

  • Explain the differences between an ideal and real gas

  • Explain gas solubility rules and characteristics

  • Correctly construct a phase diagram for water and carbon dioxide

  • Correctly interpret and read phase diagrams for any substance

  • Correctly interpret and design energy diagrams for any substance

  • Describe the differences between endothermic and exothermic reactions

  • Use the following formulas to solve given word problems and explain the outcome:



  • Explain temperature is the average molecular movement of particles and more molecular movement will equal more kinetic energy

2.2 Analyze chemical reactions in terms of quantities, product formation, and energy

Chm.2.2.1

Explain the energy content of a chemical reaction.

Chm.2.2.2

Analyze the evidence of chemical change.

Chm.2.2.3

Analyze the law of conservation of matter and how it applies to various types of chemical equations (synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion).

Chm.2.2.4

Analyze the stoichiometric relationships inherent in a chemical reaction.

Chm.2.2.5

Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance (empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and hydrates).



Big Ideas




Essential Questions

         Relate collision theory to activation energy.

         Interpret potential energy diagrams

         Know the evidences of chemical change.

         Recognize reactions by type.

         Predict products of synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion reactions.

         Balance reactions using the law of conservation of matter and coefficients.

         Perform stoichiometric calculations in different units (grams, moles, liters, molecules, etc.)

         Calculate empirical and molecular formulas.

         Calculate percentage composition of compounds and hydrates.





         How do I explain collision theory?

         How must molecules collide in order to react?

         What must be achieved before a reaction occurs in terms of energy?

         How are potential energy diagrams interpreted?

         What are the differences between the diagrams of exothermic and endothermic reactions?

         Where on a potential energy diagram is the activated complex located? What is the significance of the activated complex?

         What are the criteria used to determine whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred?

         What is a precipitate and how can solubility rules be used to predict precipitate formation?

         How can I test for the presence of hydrogen being produced in a reaction?

         How can I test for the presence of oxygen in a chemical reaction?

         How can yI test for the presence of carbon dioxide being produced in a chemical reaction?

         How can I test for the presence of water produced in a chemical reaction?

         How does absorption and release of heat indicate that a chemical change occurs?

         What are the signs of ∆H for endothermic and exothermic reactions?

         How do I predict products and balance chemical reactions once the type of reaction is known?

         How do I identify the type of reaction, given the reactants?

         How do I identify a double replacement reaction as acid-base neutralization?

         How do I write and balance ionic reactions?

         How do I write and balance net ionic reactions?

         What does a net ionic reaction show?

         How do I recognize combustion reactions?

         What are hydrocarbons? How can hydrocarbons be identified by the elements in their formulas?

         How can I predict products to show how the law of conservation of mass is satisfied?

         How do I use the activity series to predict products of single replacement reactions?

         How do I use solubility rules to predict whether or not a precipitate will occur in a double replacement reaction when both reactants are aqueous?

         What do coefficients in balanced reactions represent?

         How do I perform stoichiometry calculations given grams, moles, liters and particles and finding grams, moles, liters and particles?

         How do I convert between units using the definitions of:

1 mol= 6.02 X 1023 atoms, molecules particles,                                                                                                                                              formula units

1 mol = grams of an element or compound

1 mol of a gas at STP= 22.4L
         How do I calculate the empirical formula given percentage composition data for a compound?

         How do I calculate the molecular formula of a compound given the empirical formula and the molar mass?

         How do I calculate the molecular formula given the molar mass and percentage composition data for the compound?

         How do I determine the percentage composition by mass of a compound?

         How do I perform calculations based on percent composition?

         How do I interpret lab data to find the composition of a hydrate?





endothermic

exothermic

potential energy

products


reactants

activated complex

activation energy

reactants

products

precipitate



reactants

products


double replacement

hydrocarbon

combustion

ionic equations

net ionic equations

single replacement

activity series

solubility rules

synthesis


mole ratio

molecular weight

stoichiometry

reactants

products

law of conservation of matter



empirical formula

molecular formula

molecular weight

percentage composition

hydrates

law of conservation of matter





Student Performance Goals

Learning Targets

Criteria for Success

I will…


I can…

 


         Be able to explain collision theory.

         Interpret potential energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions including reactants, products, and activated complex.

         Be able to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred based evidence of chemical changes and reaction thermodynamics.

         Be able to write and balance chemical equations predicting product(s) in a reaction using the reference tables.

         Be able to identify acid-base neutralization as double replacement.

         Be able to write and balance ionic and net ionic equations.

         Be able to identify combustion reactions.

         Be able to use reference table rules to predict products for all types of reactions to show the conservation of mass.

         Be able to use activity series to predict whether a single replacement reaction will take place.

         Be able to use the solubility rules to determine the precipitate in a double replacement reaction if a reaction occurs.

         Be able to interpret coefficients of a balanced equation as mole ratios.

         Be able to use mole ratios from the balanced equation to calculate the quantity of one substance in a reaction given the quantity of another substance in the reaction. 

         Be able to calculate empirical formula from mass or percent using experimental data.

         Be able to calculate molecular formula from empirical formula using molecular weight.

         Be able to determine percentage composition by mass of a given compound.

         Be able to perform calculations based on percent composition.

         Be able to determine the composition of hydrates using experimental data.


         Discuss the need for effective collisions between molecules in order to overcome activation energy and react.

         Interpret potential energy diagrams so that the activated complex, reactants, products, change in enthalpy can be determined.

         Identify exothermic and endothermic reactions from potential energy diagrams.

         Determine whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred by looking for precipitate formation, color change, production of gases(hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor), or temperature change.

         Distinguish between color change as a result of new substances being made and dilution with water.

         Show that the enthalpy change is negative for an exothermic reaction using lab data and that the enthalpy change is positive for an endothermic reaction using lab data.

         Use the reference tables to identify types of reactions given reactants.

         Predict products of reactions once the type is identified.

         Balance reactions using the lowest whole number coefficients to satisfy the law of conservation of matter.

         Write and balance ionic reactions.

         Write and balance net ionic reactions.

         Write and balance acid base neutralization reactions.

         Write and balance combustion reactions.

         Identify hydrocarbons as compounds containing C and H.

         Use the activity series of metals and of halogens to predict products of single replacement reactions if they occur.

         Use the solubility rules in conjunction with double replacement reactions to predict if an insoluble precipitate will form.

         Interpret coefficients as mole ratios in a balanced reaction when performing stoichiometric calculations.

         Work stoichiometry problems given grams, moles, molecules, particles, liters (for gases) and looking for grams, moles, molecules, particles, liters (for gases).

         Determine the empirical formula for a compound given percentage composition data.

         Determine the molecular formula for a compound given the empirical formula and molar mass.

         Determine the molecular formula given the molar mass and percentage composition data.

         Determine the percentage composition by mass of a compound.

         Determine the formula for a hydrate by using experimental data such as the mass of the compound before and after heating.


Chm.3.1 Interaction of Energy and Matter
Chm.3.1 Understand the factors affecting rate of reaction and chemical equilibrium.

Chm.3.1.1

Explain the factors that affect the rate of a reaction (temperature, concentration, particle size and presence of a catalyst).


Chm.3.1.2

Explain the conditions of a system at equilibrium.


Chm.3.1.3

Infer the shift in equilibrium when a stress is applied to a chemical system (Le Chatelier’s Principle).




Big Ideas

Essential Questions

  • Know the factors that affect the rate of a reaction.

  • Explain how the number of effective collisions affects the reaction rate by changing temperature, pressure, concentration and adding a catalyst.

  • Analyze the factors that affect the equilibrium in balanced reactions.

  • Know that the equilibrium constant expression measures the extent that a reaction proceeds to equilibrium.

  • Understand Le Chatelier’s principle and how it explains the effects of concentration, temperature, pressure on the equilibrium.

  • Know that the entropy change in a reaction is related to the equilibrium shift.




         How are reaction rate and number of effective collisions related?

         What are the factors that affect the number of collisions in a reaction?

         How do increases in temperature, pressure, concentration and surface area affect the number of collisions in a reaction?

         How does a catalyst increase the rate of reaction?

         What is chemical equilibrium?

         What type(s) of reactions reach equilibrium?

         How are equal rates of reactions and equal concentrations of reactants/products related?

         How are equilibrium constant expressions for reactions written?

         How are equilibrium constant expressions evaluated as a measure of the extent that a reaction proceeds to completion?

         What does the value of the equilibrium constant expression express?

         What are some factors that affect the equilibrium?

         How do temperature, pressure, and concentration affect the equilibrium of a reaction?

         How is the shift in equilibrium in response to a stress related to the entropy change of the reaction?




pressure    
concentration   
surface area    
catalyst
collision    
energetics        
kinetic energy  
order  
reactant   
product

            

reaction rate


Chemical equilibrium      
Equilibrium expression      
Equilibrium constant
Le Chatelier’s principle      

Reactant     
Product     
Heat    
Pressure
Order

          

Disorder    

Equilibrium   

Le Chatelier’s Principle




Student Performance Goals

Learning Targets

Criteria for Success

I will…


I can…

 


  • Understand qualitatively that reaction rate is proportional to number of effective collisions.

  • Be able to explain that nature of reactants can refer to their complexity and the number of bonds that must be broken and reformed in the course of reaction.

  • Be able to explain how temperature (kinetic energy), concentration, and/or pressure affect the number of collisions.

  • Be able to articulate how increased surface area increases number of collisions.

  • Be able to explain how a catalyst lowers the activation energy, so that at a given temperature, more molecules will have energy equal to or greater than the activation energy.

         Define chemical equilibrium for reversible reactions.

         Be able to distinguish between equal rates and equal concentrations.

         Be able to explain equilibrium expressions for a given reaction.

         Be able to evaluate equilibrium constants as a measure of the extent that the reaction proceeds to completion



  • Be able to determine the effects of stresses on systems at equilibrium. (Adding/ removing a reactant or product; adding/removing heat; increasing/decreasing pressure)

  • Be able to relate the shift that occurs in terms of the order/disorder of the system.




  • Describe the effect of collisions among molecules on the reaction rate.

  • Look at the formulas for compounds in reactions and know that energy is stored in bonds that are formed and broken during a chemical reaction.

  • Determine how the reaction rate will be affected by changes in the temperature, pressure, and concentration of reactants or products.

  • Describe how the number of collisions among molecules is affected by using smaller or larger particles to perform the reaction.

  • Analyze lab data concerning the reaction rate and changing the temperature or concentration of a reactant.

  • Interpret reaction energy diagrams for catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions.

  • Discuss the purpose of equilibrium constant expressions and show that when Keq=1 the reaction is at equilibrium, when Keq<1 the reaction is making reactants (shifting left), and when Keq>1 the reaction is making products(shifting right).

  • Determine the correct equilibrium constant expression for a reaction as

     

  • Use Le Chatelier’s Principle to determine which way a reaction at equilibrium will shift in response to a stress such as increasing/decreasing the temperature, adding/removing a reactant or product, adding a catalyst, and for gases increasing/decreasing the temperature.

  • Articulate in terms of entropy changes, why the equilibrium shifts in response to stresses added.

  • Explain the applications of Le Chatlier’s Principle in the lab and industry.

  • Analyze lab data obtained by adding or removing reactants/products or increasing/decreasing the temperature using Le Chatelier’s Principle.





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