Be able to distinguish between acids and bases based on formula and chemical properties.
Be able to differentiate between concentration (molarity) and strength (degree of dissociation). No calculation involved.
Be able to use the pH scale to identify acids and bases.
Be able to interpret pH scale in terms of the exponential nature of pH values in terms of concentrations.
Relate the color of indicator to pH using pH ranges provided in a table.
Be able to compute pH, pOH, [H+1], and
Be able to distinguish properties of acids and bases related to taste, touch, reaction with metals, electrical conductivity, and identification with indicators such as litmus paper and phenolphthalein.
Be able to compute concentration (molarity) of solutions in moles per liter.
Be able to calculate molarity given mass of solute and volume of solution.
Be able to calculate mass of solute needed to create a solution of a given molarity and volume.
Be able to solve dilution problems:
M1V1 = M2V2.
Perform 1:1 titration calculations:
MAVA = MBVB
Be able to determine the concentration of an acid or base using a titration. Interpret titration curve for strong acid/strong base.
Be able to identify types of solutions (solid, liquid, gaseous, aqueous).
Define solutions as homogeneous mixtures in a single phase.
Distinguish between electrolytic and nonelectrolytic solutions.
Summarize colligative properties (vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure).
Be able to use graph of solubility vs. temperature to identify a substance based on solubility at a particular temperature.
Be able to use a graph of solubility vs temperature of several substances to relate the degree of saturation of solutions to temperature.
Develop a conceptual model for the solution process.
Be able to describe the energetics of the solution process as it occurs and the overall process as exothermic or endothermic.
Be able to explain solubility in terms of the nature of solute-solvent attraction, temperature and pressure (for gases).
Distinguish between acids and bases on the basis of the chemical formula and physical and chemical properties.
Differentiate between strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases by knowing the molarity and concentration.
Use the pH/pOH scales to identify acids and bases.
Understand the logarithmic nature of the pH/pOH scales
Calculate pH, pOH, [H+1], and [OH-1] using the formulas given in the reference tables.
Perform experiments and analyze lab data to distinguish acids and bases using indicators and physical properties.
Work problems given grams and volume to find molarity of solutions.
Work problems given molarity and volume to find grams of solute required to make solutions.
Solve problems related to dilutions and titrations to find unknown volumes or molarities.
Perform titrations in the lab to determine an unknown molarity of a solution such as vinegar or how much of a substance is neutralized such as aspirin.
Interpret titration curves by finding the end point, equivalence point, the pH at the equivalence point and the strength of the acid and base titrated.
Identify solutions based on physical properties such as state of matter, electrical conductivity, and concentration.
Describe the similarities and differences among different types of solutions.
Describe the solute(s) and solvent that make up solutions.
Perform lab experiments to determine the electrical conductivity of solutions and relate it to the type of solution.
Describe how colligative properties of solutions are determined by the addition of solute and dependent upon the quantity of solute added.
Show qualitatively that all solutions posses the following colligative properties because of the addition of solutes: vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and changing the osmotic pressure.
Interpret solubility curves to show the temperature that a substance is saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated when dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (water).
Use solubility curves to determine the relative solubility of one substance compared to others as the temperature changes.
Describe and explain why some solutions release heat when they are created and some solutions absorb heat in terms of solute-solvent attraction.