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Chm.3.2 Interaction of Energy and Matter

Chm.3.2 Understand solutions and the solution process.


Classify substances using the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations.


Summarize the properties of acids and bases.


Infer the quantitative nature of a solution (molarity, dilution, and titration with a 1:1 molar ratio).


Summarize the properties of solutions.


Interpret solubility diagrams.


Explain the solution process.

Big Ideas

Essential Questions

         Know the properties of acids and bases.

         Know how to calculate pH, pOH, [H+1], and [OH-1] using formulas given in the reference tables. (pH=-log [H+1], pOH=-log [OH-1], [H+1]=10-pH, and  [OH-1]=10-pOH )                       

         Understand the pH an pOH scale

         Understand the purpose and use of indicators.

         Use lab data and solve problems with concentration molarity and titration data.

         Understand the properties of solutions.

         Know the concept of solubility and be able to interpret solubility graphs

         Understand the nature and energetics of the solution process.

         How do I identify acids and bases based on the chemical formula?

         How do I identify acids and bases based on chemical and physical properties?

         What is the relationship between concentration of solutions and the degree of dissociation?

         How is the pH /pOH scale used to determine acidity /basicity of a solution?

         How is the pH/pOH related to the concentration of hydrodgen/hydroxide ions in a solution?

         How do I use indicators to determine the pH of a solution?

         What are the different indicators used to determine the acidity of solutions?

         How do I calculate pH, pOH, [H+1], and [OH-1] given the formulas provided in the reference tables? (pH=-log [H+1], pOH=-log [OH-1], [H+1]=10-pH, and  [OH-1]=10-pOH )              

         What information do the values of pH, pOH, [H+1], and [OH-1] provide about a solution?

         How do I calculate the molarity of a solution given grams and the volume of water? (using formula: M= moles of solution / liter of solution)

         How do I calculate the grams of solute necessary to make a given volume of solution with a known molarity?(using formula M= moles of solute / liter of solution

         How do I solve dilution problems given molarity and volume data?(using formula M1V1=M2V2)

         How do I solve titration problems for an unknown molarity?(using formula M1V1=M2V2)

         How are titration curves interpreted to determine the properties of the acid and base titrated?

         How can titration curves be used to determine the end point and equivalence point of a titration?

         What are the properties of solid, liquid, aqueous, and gaseous solutions?

         Why are solutions considered homogenous mixtures?

         What are the quantitative characteristics of the solutes and the solvent as compared to the whole solution?

         What are the characteristics of electrolytic and nonelectrolytic solutions?

         How is the electrical conductivity of a solution determined?

         What are colligative properties?

         What causes colligative properties?

         What are the qualitiative consequences of adding solutes to pure liquids in terms of the vapor pressure, the boiling point, the freezing point, and the osmotic pressure of the resulting solution?

         What are the properities that solubility of a substance is dependent on?

         How is the solubility of a substance related to the type of compound (ionic or covalent) as the temperature changes?

         How is the solubility of a substance related to the state of matter (solid or gas)as the temperature changes?

         How can I determine the solubility of a substance using a solubility graph?

         How can I use a solubility graph to tell whether a solution is saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated at a given temperature?

         How are the forces of attraction (intermolecular forces) related to the solubility of the solution?

         How can I show using particle diagrams the forces of attraction among soluble and insoluble particles that make up solutions?

         How is the heat transfer (released or absorbed) related to the dissolving process?

         How can I determine whether dissolving is an endothermic or exothermic process?

         How is solubility related to the attraction of the solute and solvent as the temperature is changed?

         How is the solubility of a gas related to the attraction of the solute and solvent as the pressure is changed?



pH scale

Litmus paper


Electrolytic solution         


Electrical conductivity      

Nonelectrolytic solution



Titration curve                  

Molar ratio

Electrolytic solutions


Electrical conductivity
Nonelectrolytic solutions
Colligative properties


Freezing point depression


Boiling point elevation

Osmotic pressure              

Vapor pressure reduction



Solubility diagrams




Solute-solvent attraction

Learning Targets

Criteria for Success

I will…

I can…


  • Be able to distinguish between acids and bases based on formula and chemical properties.

  • Be able to differentiate between concentration (molarity) and strength (degree of dissociation). No calculation involved.

  • Be able to use the pH scale to identify acids and bases.

  • Be able to interpret pH scale in terms of the exponential nature of pH values in terms of concentrations.

  • Relate the color of indicator to pH using pH ranges provided in a table.

  • Be able to compute pH, pOH, [H+1], and                


  • Be able to distinguish properties of acids and bases related to taste, touch, reaction with metals, electrical conductivity, and identification with indicators such as litmus paper and phenolphthalein.

  • Be able to compute concentration (molarity) of solutions in moles per liter.

  • Be able to calculate molarity given mass of solute and volume of solution.

  • Be able to calculate mass of solute needed to create a solution of a given molarity and volume.

  • Be able to solve dilution problems:

      M1V1 = M2V2.

  • Perform 1:1 titration calculations:

      MAVA = MBVB

  • Be able to determine the concentration of an acid or base using a titration. Interpret titration curve for strong acid/strong base.

  • Be able to identify types of solutions (solid, liquid, gaseous, aqueous).

  • Define solutions as homogeneous mixtures in a single phase.

  • Distinguish between electrolytic and nonelectrolytic solutions.

  • Summarize colligative properties (vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure).

  • Be able to use graph of solubility vs. temperature to identify a substance based on solubility at a particular temperature.

  • Be able to use a graph of solubility vs temperature of several substances to relate the degree of saturation of solutions to temperature.

  • Develop a conceptual model for the solution process.

  • Be able to describe the energetics of the solution process as it occurs and the overall process as exothermic or endothermic.

  • Be able to explain solubility in terms of the nature of solute-solvent attraction, temperature and pressure (for gases).

    • Distinguish between acids and bases on the basis of the chemical formula and physical and chemical properties.

    • Differentiate between strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases by knowing the molarity and concentration.

    • Use the pH/pOH scales to identify acids and bases.

    • Understand the logarithmic nature of the pH/pOH scales

    • Use indicators to determine the acidity/basicity of solutions based on numbers and/or color changes and tables

    • Calculate pH, pOH, [H+1], and [OH-1] using the formulas given in the reference tables.

    • Perform experiments and analyze lab data to distinguish acids and bases using indicators and physical properties.

    • Work problems given grams and volume to find molarity of solutions.

    • Work problems given molarity and volume to find grams of solute required to make solutions.

    • Solve problems related to dilutions and titrations to find unknown volumes or molarities.

    • Perform titrations in the lab to determine an unknown molarity of a solution such as vinegar or how much of a substance is neutralized such as aspirin.

    • Interpret titration curves by finding the end point, equivalence point, the pH at the equivalence point and the strength of the acid and base titrated.

    • Identify solutions based on physical properties such as state of matter, electrical conductivity, and concentration.

    • Describe the similarities and differences among different types of solutions.

    • Describe the solute(s) and solvent that make up solutions.

    • Perform lab experiments to determine the electrical conductivity of solutions and relate it to the type of solution.

    • Describe how colligative properties of solutions are determined by the addition of solute and dependent upon the quantity of solute added.

    • Show qualitatively that all solutions posses the following colligative properties because of the addition of solutes:  vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and changing the osmotic pressure.

    • Interpret solubility curves to show the temperature that a substance is saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated when dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (water).

    • Use solubility curves to determine the relative solubility of one substance compared to others as the temperature changes.

    • Describe and explain why some solutions release heat when they are created and some solutions absorb heat in terms of solute-solvent attraction.

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