Name: SURname: form: date: 30th November I. E. S. “Zorrilla” Valladolid Curso 2010/2011 management in america



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NAME: SURNAME:

FORM: DATE: 30th November

I.E.S. “Zorrilla” - Valladolid Curso 2010/2011
MANAGEMENT IN AMERICA

Do it my way
Cultural differences between Japanese and American managers have presented the biggest obstacles to Japanese companies investing in America.

A seminar for Japanese executives working in America was attended by 25 men, nearly all of them in identical dark suits. Despite the room's stifling heating system, they resolutely refused to remove their jackets. Their coffee break lasted exactly the scheduled ten minutes. They did not ask any questions until after they had got to know one another a bit better at lunch. They were usually deferential and always polite.

A similar seminar for 25 Americans working for Japanese subsidiaries in America included eight women. Several of the men removed their jackets on entering the room. A ten-minute coffee break stretched beyond 20 minutes. Participants asked questions and several aggressively contradicted what the speakers had to say.

According to Mr Thomas Lifson of Harvard and Mr Yoshihiro Tsurumi of New York's Baruch College — the two main speakers at both seminars misunderstandings between Japanese and American managers are possible at nearly every encounter. They can begin at the first recruiting interview. A big American company typically hires people to fill particular slots. Its bosses know that Americans are mobile people, who have a limited commitment to any particular employer or part of the country. As a result, jobs are clearly defined and so are the skills needed to fill them. American firms hire and fire almost at will.

The assumptions (and the expectations) of the Japanese managers of Japanese subsidiaries in America could hardly be more different. They hire people more for the skills they will acquire after joining the company than for their existing skills.

American managers rely heavily on number-packed memoranda and the like. The Japanese colleagues prefer informal consultations which lead eventually to a consensus. According to Mr Tsurumi, they find comical the sight of American managers in adjacent offices exchanging memos.

Confronted with a dispute between middle managers, most Japanese superiors refuse to become involved, expecting the managers themselves to resolve the issue. The Americans conclude, wrongly, that their Japanese bosses are indecisive or incompetent. Japanese managers do not share the American belief that conflict is inevitable, and sometimes healthy. They want to believe that employees form one big happy family.


  1. Decide whether these statements are true V) or false (X), according to the article.

1 This article is about American companies in Japan. F

2 At one seminar the Japanese removed their jackets when they got hot. F

3 The Japanese did not ask questions until after lunch. T

4 At another seminar, some of the Americans were not polite to the speakers. T

5 Americans and Japanese are likely to misunderstand each other in any situation.T

6 American employees are very loyal to their companies. F

7 Japanese companies are likely to recruit less experienced employees. T

8 The Japanese rely less on meetings than the Americans. T

9 Japanese managers send more memos than their American counterparts. F

10 Japanese managers solve problems without involving their boss. T



  1. Choose the correct words in italics to complete the telephone conversation.




A Fenton Engineering.

B 1)Number / Extension 473, please.

A I’m afraid the line’s 2)broken / engaged .

Will you hold?

B Yes.
A The line’s free now. I’ll 3)put / connect you through.

B Thank you.

C Paint shop.

B I’d like to speak to Mrs. Isaacs.

C 4)Who's / Whose calling, please?

B Jacques Duval,

C 5)Wait / Hold on , M Duval. I’ll 6)bring / get

her.


C I’m 7)afraid / regret - she’s in a meeting. Do you want to call 8)up / back later?

B No, it's urgent. Could you 9)leave / take a message?

C Yes, 10)I will / of course

B 11)May / Could you ask her to call me back?

C Does she have your number?

B No. It’s Paris the 12)code / area is 00 331 then the number is 46 58 93 94.

Could you 13)say / read that back to me?

C 00 331 46 58 93 94.

B That’s right.

C 14)Anything / What else?

B No, that’s 15)anything / all . Thank you very much.

C You’re 16)welcome / fine .



B Goodbye.

  1. Join the two halves of these sentences so that they make good sense.




  1. I1 conector recto de flecha3 conector recto de flecha never sign a letter

  2. I6 conector recto de flecha often choose to write

  3. I7 conector recto de flecha usually telephone

  4. P4 conector recto de flechalease check my in-tray

  5. I5 conector recto de flecha9 conector recto de flecha shall be able to confirm this

  6. I8 conector recto de flecha shall be able to confirm this

  7. We cannot confirm the order

  8. P10 conector recto de flechalease reply at once

  9. Please reply as soon as possible




  1. although a phone call is quicker.

  2. after I have checked our stock position.

  3. before I have read it through.

  4. in order to save time.

  5. because we do not have sufficient stocks.

  6. until we have checked our stock position.

  7. while I am away at the conference.

  8. so that we can order the supplies we need.

  9. when I have consulted our works manager.

  1. Decide which of these phrases fit best in the following sentences.

be over / call back / cut off / get through / give up

hang up / hold on / look up /pick up / put through

  1. The phone's ringing. Why don't you 1) pick up the receiver?

  2. I'm afraid she isn't available at the moment. Can you 2) call back later?

  3. Can you 3) look up their number in the directory, please?

  4. I'm afraid she's with a client, shall I 4) put you through to her secretary?

  5. Hello? Are you still there? I think we were 5) cut off for a moment.

  6. Mr Green never seems to be in his office. I've been trying to 6) get through to him all morning.

  7. Could you 7) hold on for a moment? I'll just find out for you.

  8. If the telephonist says `Thank you so much for calling' and plays me that awful electronic music again, I'll 8) give up.

  9. If you get a wrong number, it's polite to say `I'm sorry, I've dialled the wrong number' before you 9) hang up.

  10. If an American telephonist asks `Are you through?', she wants to know if your call 10) is over.




  1. Complete the conversation using the phrases below.

try some Greek food eat anything on the plane

the restaurant or the hotel first sort of food do you like

have a good flight to meet you your first visit

A Mr Hathaway?

B Yes, that’s right. You must be Mr Strieber.

A Yes. Pleased 1) to meet you.

B And you.

A Is this 2) your first visit to Athens?

B Yes, I’ve always wanted to come but I never had the chance.

A Good, I can show you around. Did you 3) have a good flight?

B Yes, it was fine, thanks. No delays or problems.

A Good. Let me take your case. The car’s just outside. Did you 4) eat anything on the plane?

B No, I wasn’t hungry

A Well, what would you like to do? Shall we go to 5) the restaurant or the hotel first?

B The hotel, I think. I’d like a shower. We can eat later, if that’s OK.

A That’s fine by me. What 6) sort of food do you like? We’ve got a good choice of restaurants here — French, Italian, and Greek, of course.

B I’d like to 7) try some Greek food.

A Good, that’s settled. I’ll drop you off now and come and pick you up again at about eight.




  1. Complete the passage using the correct words from the box.


agenda proposal views agree should waste opinion meetings people

ONE MAN’S MEET IS ANOTHER MAN’S POISON

There are many different sorts of business meeting, and how the participants behave varies from country to country. In France meetings are generally used for briefing and co-ordination rather than discussing 1) views and making decisions. They follow a detailed 2) agenda and comments are well thought out rather than spontaneous. The same is true at formal meetings in Germany, where you 3) should be well prepared if you wish to express an opinion. In the UK, on the other hand, participants often arrive at meetings unprepared, and papers distributed beforehand will not be read. This does not prevent anyone from expressing an 4) opinion or putting forward a 5) proposal though. Everyone is expected to contribute their 6) meetings.



Meetings in Italy seem to be the most informal in Europe. They don’t usually follow an agenda and 7) people often come and go as they please. In fact, sometimes Italian meetings are more like a social gathering, used to reinforce a sense of togetherness.
It’s very different in Spain, where meetings do little to create a team spirit. The Spanish prefer to be independent and make decisions on their own. Meetings are often a 8) waste of time because it is impossible to get everyone to 9) agree.

ANSWER SHEET

  1. Decide whether these statements are true V) or false (X), according to the article.




1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

F

F

T

T

T

F

T

T

F

T




  1. Choose the correct words in italics to complete the telephone conversation.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

extension

engaged

put

who’s

hold on

get

afraid

back

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

take

of course

could

code

read

anything

all

welcome




  1. Join the two halves of these sentences so that they make good sense

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

c

a

d

g

i

b

f

e

H




  1. Decide which of these phrases fit best in the following sentences.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

pick up

call back

look up

put through

cut off

get through

hold on

give up

hang up

is over




  1. Complete the conversation using the phrases below.




1

to meet you

2

your first visit

3

have a good flight

4

eat anything on the plane

5

the restaurant or the hotel first?

6

sort of food do you like

7

try some greek food




  1. Complete the passage using the correct words from the box.




1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

views

agenda

should

opinion

proposal

meetings

people

waste

agree





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