National open university of nigeria school of arts and social sciences

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ENG223 Discourse Analysis

3.1. What is Discourse
DA has a very strong link with many other disciplines other than language and this affects the way scholars seethe discipline. In this section, we shall examine some views of DA. Before trying to define DA, it is important to define the term discourse. Originally the word 'discourse' comes from Latin 'discursus' which denoted 'conversation, speech. Discourse is generally seen as language in use Johnstone (2002: 2) defines discourse as actual instances of communication in the medium of language Discourse can also be seen as a continuous stretch of spoke or written language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit (Pustejovsky 2006). It is also commonly referred to as as connected speech or writing. The term discourse has several definitions. In the study of language, discourse often refers to the speech patterns and usage of language, dialects, and acceptable statements, within a community. It is a subject of study in peoples who live in secluded areas and share similar speech conventions. Johnson defines discourse as an institutionalized way of speaking that determines not only what we say and how we say it, but also what we do not say which can be inferred from what we say. Initially the term refers to speech, but later, its meaning extends beyond speech to include every instance of language use Sociologists and philosophers tend to use the term discourse to describe the conversations and the meaning behind them by a group of people who hold certain ideas in common. Such is the definitions by philosopher Michel Foucault, who holds discourse to be the acceptable statements made by a certain type of discourse community.

15 For linguists, discourse is an extended stretch of language, such as we find in conversations, narratives, polemical statements, political speeches, etc, is not just a string of sentences, one following the other, but rather it exhibits properties which reflect its organization, coherence, rhetorical force, thematic focus, etc.

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