IL - ILLUSTRATION: Refs: 6; illus. incl. 2 tables.
RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2000, American Geological Institute.
IS - ISSN: 0009-2541
CO - CODEN: CHGEAD
AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1990-058130
UD - UPDATE CODE: 1990
Registro 3708 de 5614 - GeoRef Disc 3: 1985-1992
TI - TITLE: Teaching hazard-mitigation education in a liberal-arts college.
AU - AUTHORS: Bladh-Katherine-Laing
AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Wittenberg Univ., Dep. Geol., Springfield, OH, United States
SO - SOURCE: Journal of Geological Education. 38; 4, Pages 339-342. 1990.
PB - PUBLISHER: National Association of Geology Teachers. Lawrence, KS, United States. 1990.
CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States
PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1990
LA - LANGUAGE: English
AB - ABSTRACT: Hazard-mitigation education should begin in college. The interdisciplinary approach to problem solving which is used in liberal-arts colleges makes them especially appropriate settings for such education. In a volcanic- and earthquake-hazard-mitigation course, students were first exposed to the geologic foundations of each hazard by means of lecture, readings, movies, and laboratory exercises. Critical analysis of readings was followed by discussion and the writing of informal journal entries. Initially possible solutions ("mitigation techniques") were suggested and students were asked to evaluate them on the basis of criteria from the disciplines of geology, politics, journalism, law, business, psychology, and sociology. Case studies include the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens (1980) and Nevado del Ruiz (1985), the eruption warning at Long Valley Caldera, California (1982-85), the Armenian earthquake (1988), and earthquake preparedness in California in the 1980s. In-class writing exercises, a formal paper, and student oral presentations were also used. As the course progressed, the students were able to take a greater and greater role in suggesting possible mitigation techniques and in analyzing the effectiveness of these techniques from the perspectives of many disciplines.--Modified journal abstract.
AB - ABSTRACT: On the basis of three sets of gas samples, taken during the three months preceding the November 13, 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz from fumaroles on the crater floor, the composition of the vapors discharged, following minor eruptive activity in September, corresponded to that of an essentially magmatic gas. During the subsequent quiet period in October, the proportion of a hydrothermal component in the vapor discharge increased steadily up until the major eruption. The gases were found to be exceptionally high in total sulfur and are super-saturated with respect to elemental sulfur; their thermodynamic equilibration temperatures range from 200 to 600 degrees C. Gases and waters from fumaroles and thermal springs on the flanks of the volcano are likely to be derived from a two-phase vapor-brine envelope surrounding the magmatic system. The chemistry of the fumarole discharges is compatible with the assumption of an eruptive mechanism involving the build-up of pressure in an extensive vapor zone by gas released from an essentially stagnant, already extensively degassed body of magmatic material at depth. Production of such a residual gas over extended periods may account for the large amount of SO (sub 2) discharged from the volcano in relation to the small amount of ejected solids.