RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2000, American Geological Institute.
IS - ISSN: 0009-2541
CO - CODEN: CHGEAD
AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1989-040231
UD - UPDATE CODE: 1989
Registro 4047 de 5614 - GeoRef Disc 3: 1985-1992
TI - TITLE: Reducing volcanic risk.
AU - AUTHORS: Decker-Robert-W
AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: U. S. Geol. Surv., Menlo Park, CA, United States
BK - BOOK TITLE: In: Geological Society of America 1988 centennial celebration.
BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous
SO - SOURCE: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America. 20; 7, Pages 81. 1988.
PB - PUBLISHER: Geological Society of America (GSA). Boulder, CO, United States. 1988.
RP - RESEARCH PROGRAM: USGSOP (Non-USGS publications with USGS authors)
CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States
PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1988
CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: Geological Society of America 1988 centennial celebration. Denver, CO, United States. Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 1988.
LA - LANGUAGE: English
AB - ABSTRACT: Two catastrophic eruptions have occurred in the past 100 years : Mont Pelee in the Caribbean in 1902, killing 28,000 people; and Ruiz in Colombia in 1985, killing 25,000. Thomas Jaggar, motivated by the tragic loss at Pelee and the possibility that it could have been reduced, founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 to understand better how volcanoes work. Research there and at many other institutions worldwide has established three ways to reduce volcanic risk: 1). Assessing volcano hazards (a hazard is a source of risk) by mapping and dating the previous eruption products at potentially active volcanoes. Ruiz and Mount St. Helens are examples. 2). Monitoring the vital signs of potentially active volcanoes -- especially their seismicity, ground-surface deformation, volcanic gas emissions, and eruptive phenomena. Magma moves underground before erupting and that movement is detectable. An accurate forecast of the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa was based on precursory seismicity and summit inflation. However, the problem of aborted alarms when magma moves underground but does not erupt, as for example at Kilauea and Rabaul, has not been resolved. 3). Informing the public and governing officials in areas of risk about what did happen, what is happening, and what might happen at their volcanoes. Volcanic risk during the next 100 years will depend on four major factors: population density, application of known ways to reduce volcanic risk, basic breakthroughs in concept or technology in eruption forecasting, and chance.
DE - DESCRIPTORS: eruptions-; geologic-hazards; prediction-; seismicity-; seismology-; volcanic-risk; volcanoes-