No. Registros Solicitud 1 5614 colombia



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UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5430 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Facies architecture and production optimization in the Upper Cretaceous-upper Eocene, operational unit K1, Apiay Field, Llanos Basin, Colombia.

AU - AUTHORS: Nieto-Jorge-E; Tyler-Noel

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Ecopetrol, Bogota, Colombia

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1946-1947. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English

AB - ABSTRACT: Apiay field is located in southwest Llanos Basin in Colombia is part of an Upper Cretaceous to Upper Eocene fluvial and transitional marine system. The Apiay structure contains reserves from the Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary strata, although since its discovery in 1981, production has come exclusively from the massive fluvial sandstones of the K2 operational unit. A high production decline and the necessity of finding additional reserves from poorly understood, untapped reservoirs provide the justification for undertaking a multidisciplinary study to understand and predict facies architecture in the K1 unit and evaluate its potential for additional oil. The K1 operational unit was divided in six genetic units from detailed stratigraphic correlation. A detailed interpretation of facies distribution was carried out through integration of well log, core, seismic amplitude, petrophycial and production behavior analysis. Facies distribution demonstrates that the lower K1 operational unit was deposited in a fluvial-dominated delta during the Cretaceous transgression. The middle K1 formed in a mesotidal shorezone system which evolved into a fluvial-dominated deltaic system in the middle part. Finally, the upper K1 was discordantly deposited above the upper Cretaceous and records braided fluvial stream sedimentation in the late Eocene. This integrated reservoir study in the Apiay field documents more than 57 MMSTB of unrecovered mobile oil in the K1 operational unit which originally contained 87.5 MMSTB of original oil in place. This study proposed new recompletions and five targeted infill wells that will be necessary to produce the remaining oil in this highly prospective interval.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: Apiay-Field; Cenozoic-; clastic-rocks; Colombia-; cores-; Cretaceous-; depositional-environment; Eocene-; fluvial-environment; geophysical-methods; geophysical-surveys; lithofacies-; Llanos-; marine-environment; Mesozoic-; oil-and-gas-fields; oil-wells; optimization-; Paleogene-; petroleum-; production-; reserves-; reservoir-rocks; sandstone-; sea-level-changes; sedimentary-rocks; sedimentation-; seismic-methods; seismic-stratigraphy; South-America; surveys-; Tertiary-; transgression-; Upper-Cretaceous; well-logs

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064742

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5431 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Diamondoid hydrocarbons as indicators of thermal maturity and oil cracking.

AU - AUTHORS: Dahl-Jeremy; Moldowan-J-Michael; Peters-Kenneth-E; Mello-Marcio-Rocha

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1906. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English



AB - ABSTRACT: We have developed a methodology based on both biomarkers and diamondoid hydrocarbons which allows for: (1) reliable determination of thermal maturity for any sample including highly-mature condensates, (2) estimation of the amount of oil cracking (conversion of liquids to gas and pyrobitumen) which a sample has undergone either in the source or reservoir, (3) recognition of oils derived from both a highly-mature and less-mature sources, (4) determination of the "oil-deadline" in a basin: i.e., the depth below which commercial amounts of liquids will not be found due to cracking, and (5) calibration of cracking and expulsion efficiency models. This methodology, combined with other information, allows for a better understanding of gas/oil ratios (GOR's), and can lead to the discovery of unrecognized generative petroleum systems operative in a basin. An understanding of GOR is crucial to economic evaluation of exploration and production projects and the recognition of new petroleum systems can lead to new play types in previously well-explored basins. Although there are a variety of biomarker ratios, e.g., 5a, 14a, 170a(H)-24-ethylcholestane 20S/(20S+20R), which are routinely used to determine the thermal maturity of an oil (which generally reflects the thermal maturity of the source rock at the time of expulsion), thermal maturity determinations made on highly mature oils and condensates are problematic. Several of the main factors resulting in equivocal results include: (1) Highly mature samples have very low biomarker concentrations which are often below GC-MS detection limits. (2) Due to the low biomarker concentration, contamination from small amounts of biomarkers present in carder beds and reservoir rocks picked up during migration, can lead to erroneous results. (3) At very high maturities there is evidence that many of the ratios used to determine thermal maturity undergo "reversals." (4) In oils derived from more than one source (which we believe is a much more common scenario than is generally recognized), 90% of the oil or condensate may be from a highly mature source containing almost no biomarkers, and 10% from a low maturity source containing abundant biomarkers, and the biomarker signature will reflect only the low maturity source. As a result, the geochemist may not recognize the most significant source contribution, and thus misunderstand the operative generative petroleum system in the basin. Such a misunderstanding can result in missed exploration opportunities. Our method allows for recognition of the high-maturity source. Oil cracking can occur in the reservoir, however, based on our work, it is more common in the source. The expulsion efficiency of many lean source rocks is too low to allow for liquid-phase migration out of the source. Consequently liquids are trapped until the source is buried sufficiently deeply that cracking can occur. The generated gas, can then migrate out of the source and carry with it dissolved and entrained liquids. Such a scenario is probably quite common in regions of marginal source rocks Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, the Burgos Basin of Mexico, the Northwest Shelf of Australia, the Tertiary of the U.S. Gulf Coast, and much of the Tertiary of Venezuela and Colombia. Mapping our diamondoid cracking parameter in these basins provides a regional understanding of expulsion efficiency thus GOR. Plotting samples on a Biomarker-Diamondoid Curve reveals the thermal maturity of any oil, the relative amount of cracking which has taken place for a particular sample, and whether or not the oil is derived from both a relatively low- and high-maturity source.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: biomarkers-; bitumens-; Brazil-; condensates-; genesis-; Gulf-Coastal-Plain; migration-; natural-gas; petroleum-; source-rocks; South-America; thermal-maturity; United-States

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064729

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5432 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Porosity prediction for deeply-buried quartz arenites in the Llanos Foothills, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia.

AU - AUTHORS: Warren-Ed; O-Leary-John; Herbert-Richard; Pulham-Andy; Graham-Rod; Bonnell-Linda-M

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: BP Exploration Colombia, Bogota, Colombia

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1980-1981. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English



AB - ABSTRACT: Sandstones of the Eocene Mirador formation are the major reservoir target in the Llanos Foothills of Colombia. They are quartz arenites heavily cemented by quartz. Despite low porosity (typically less than 10 p.u.) they retain high permeability (up to 5000 md) where coarse grained. Porosity is a critical exploration risk because the structures are deep, in excess of 12,000 feet and structural restoration indicates that the sandstones may have been buried over 3000 feet deeper prior to thrusting and uplift. Minus-cement porosity, or intergranular volume, of the sandstones vary from 15-25%, which, when compared to the porosity evolution of a compaction curve, is consistent with quartz cementation occurring during deep burial. Textural examination of grain and cement contacts has revealed significant variation in the amount of stress compaction (or pressure solution) between different thrust sheets. Most of the stress compaction appears to post-date quartz cementation. Very little pressure solution is observed in the Cusiana thrust sheet, whereas in the Dele thrust sheet, stress compaction features are abundant. Fluid inclusion data from quartz cements indicate that quartz cementation occurred over a broad temperature range between 80 and 150 degrees C. Significant differences were found in the onset temperature of quartz cementation in different thrust sheets. Very low abundances of primary petroleum inclusions in general indicates that most quartz cementation pre-dated petroleum emplacement. The porosity evolution of the Mirador Fmn in the different thrust sheets was unraveled using the petrographic and fluid inclusion data referenced to a compaction curve for rigid-grained sands. The fluid inclusion data establish the depth of quartz cementation using the geothermal gradient of the region. The present porosity of all thrust sheets is much less than that predicted from a compaction curve at this depth, indicating that significant porosity loss has occurred subsequent to compaction. The amount of quartz cement quantified by petrography was used to predict the porosity resulting from compaction and quartz cementation. For the Cusiana thrust sheet, this porosity is the same as the present porosity--indicating that compaction and quartz cementation together account for the porosity loss in this thrust sheet. This was consistent with the porosity predicted using a kinetic model of quartz cementation and the Cusiana burial history. In contrast, the predicted porosity for other thrust sheets was much higher than their present porosity, consistent with additional components of porosity-loss due to stress compaction (up to 10 p.u.) and late kaolinite (2-4 p.u.). Two models may cause of the stress compaction: deep burial, or thrust-related shortening. Estimates of maximum burial depth for the various thrust sheets in the Llanos Foothills were made based on structural restorations and estimates of lost overburden. These were used to obtain a plot of porosity versus maximum burial depth. This indicates that any quartz arenite buried in excess of 22000 feet is unlikely to retain porosity higher than 4 p.u. Alternatively, the porosity loss attributed to stress compaction is the result of shortening. However, current estimates of shortening in the Llanos Foothills do not reveal an obvious relation between present porosity and the amount of shortening.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: Andes-; arenite-; cementation-; Cenozoic-; chemical-reactions; clastic-rocks; Colombia-; diagenesis-; Eastern-Cordillera; Eocene-; fluid-inclusions; geochemistry-; inclusions-; kinetics-; Llanos-; Mirador-Formation; Paleogene-; permeability-; petrography-; petroleum-; petroleum-exploration; porosity-; prediction-; quartz-arenite; reconstruction-; reservoir-rocks; sandstone-; sedimentary-rocks; South-America; Tertiary-

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources; 06A-Sedimentary-petrology

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064697

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5433 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Constraining maximum paleotemperature using quartz cement abundances; applications to the hydrocarbon systems of South American fold and thrust belts.

AU - AUTHORS: Awwiller-David-N; Summa-Lori-L

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX, United States

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1888. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English

AB - ABSTRACT: Accurate predictions of oil vs. gas in fold and thrust belts are strongly linked to a good understanding of the relative timing between maturation and thrust emplacement. Unfortunately the information obtained from conventional paleothermometry techniques (e.g., fluid inclusion, vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track) is often not sufficient to fully constrain thermal histories. To address this problem, Exxon is currently applying technology that uses quartz cement volumes, predicted from simple precipitation kinetics, to help constrain the time spent near maximum temperature. This information is usually not obtainable from other paleothermometry techniques. To date we have used this technique in the Maracaibo basin of western Venezuela, the Llanos and Catatumbo basins of Colombia, and the Santiago basin of Peru. It is particularly appropriate for Late Cretaceous and Paleogene reservoirs of the region, because these reservoirs are typically quartzose, quartz cement is the main pore-filling cement, and they have appropriate thermal histories. In general, the quartz cement paleothermometer is most effective for quartzose sandstones that encompass a broad range of grain sizes and contain little detrital or authigenic clay. The optimum time-temperature window in fold-and-thrust settings ranges from approximately 5 million years at 160-170 degrees C to 80 million years at 100-110 degrees C. Outside these bounds, quartz cement paleothermometry may be useful, but some sandstones with typical grain size and sorting parameters tend to be either completely cemented or not cemented at all.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: apatite-; applications-; Catatumbo-Basin; cement-; Colombia-; fission-track-dating; fluid-inclusions; fold-and-thrust-belts; framework-silicates; geochronology-; geologic-thermometry; inclusions-; kinetics-; Llanos-; macerals-; Maracaibo-Basin; mineral-composition; natural-gas; paleotemperature-; Peru-; petroleum-; phosphates-; precipitation-; prediction-; quartz-; reflectance-; Santiago-Basin; silica-minerals; silicates-; sorting-; South-America; Venezuela-; vitrinite-; western-Venezuela

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064679

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5434 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Reservoir quality prediction through simulation of sandstone diagenesis; Cusiana Field, eastern Colombia.

AU - AUTHORS: Bonnell-Linda-M; Warren-Edward-A; Lander-Robert-H

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Geologica, Stavanger, Norway

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1894. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English

AB - ABSTRACT: The Mirador and Barco Formations are Eocene-age reservoir units in the Cusiana Field of eastern Colombia. These sandstones are compositionally simple, consisting primarily of quartz with little feldspar or authigenic clay. Grain sizes vary from very fine grained to very coarse grained. The units have undergone a complex burial history that has led to extensive porosity loss. Porosity varies significantly but is typically less than 10%. We used the Exemplar model to simulate compaction and quartz cementation in these sandstones using the burial history published by Cazier and others (1995). Preliminary results show a strong correlation between grain size, quartz cement abundance, and porosity. Very fine grained samples have predicted quartz cement abundances in excess of 16% and model porosities of near 0%. By contrast, very coarse grained samples have predicted quartz cement abundances of less than 4% and porosity values near 15%. The onset of significant quartz cementation is modeled to be approximately 15 Ma. The rate of quartz cementation has decreased over the last 5 m.y. as a result of uplift of the area associated with the deformation in the Easter Cordillera. Intergranular volumes are significantly lower than sandstones of similar composition and texture occurring in continental, rift, and passive margin basins which may reflect a tectonic overprint. Empirically calibrated values for the kinetics of quartz cementation for Mirador and Barco Formation sandstones, however, are comparable to sandstones from other basin types.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: Barco-Formation; calibration-; cement-; cementation-; Cenozoic-; clastic-rocks; Colombia-; compaction-; Cusiana-Field; deformation-; diagenesis-; eastern-Colombia; Eocene-; grain-size; mineral-composition; Mirador-Formation; oil-and-gas-fields; Paleogene-; passive-margins; petroleum-; petroleum-engineering; plate-tectonics; porosity-; prediction-; reservoir-properties; reservoir-rocks; sandstone-; sedimentary-rocks; simulation-; South-America; Tertiary-; textures-

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources; 06A-Sedimentary-petrology

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064678

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5435 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Geochemical evaluation of the petroleum source rock potential of the Villeta Formation, upper Magdalena Province, Colombia.

AU - AUTHORS: Cordoba-Fabio; Trindade-Luiz-A-F

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Ecopetrol, Bogota, Colombia

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1903. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English

AB - ABSTRACT: Based on geochemical evaluation it was possible to identify that the lower part of the Villeta formation contains the best potential intervals for hydrocarbon generation in the Upper Magdalena Province. The thickness of this formation varies from 1000 to 1800 feet, with a total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 1 to 4%, Hydrogen Index from 100 to 650 mgHC/g TOC composed mostly of Type II kerogen. The upper part of the Villeta formation does not contain potential for hydrocarbon generation. Oil source correlation performed using a large set of oils and source rocks from the Upper Magdalena Province indicates that the lower part of the Villeta Formation is indeed the most important interval for hydrocarbon generation in the province.

DE - DESCRIPTORS: carbon-; Colombia-; evaluation-; genesis-; geochemistry-; kerogen-; Magdalena-Colombia; organic-carbon; petroleum-; source-rocks; South-America; thickness-; variations-; Villeta-Formation

CC - CATEGORY CODES: 29A-Economic-geology,-geology-of-energy-sources; 02C-Geochemistry-of-rocks,-soils,-and-sediments

DT - DOCUMENT TYPE: Abstract; Serial; Conference-Document

BL - BIB LEVEL: Analytic

RF - REFERENCE SOURCE: GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

IS - ISSN: 0149-1423

CO - CODEN: AABUD2

AN - ACCESSION NUMBER: 1998-064669

UD - UPDATE CODE: 199824

Registro 5436 de 5614 - GeoRef 1997-2001

TI - TITLE: Geometric delineation of the Colombia Amazon basins.

AU - AUTHORS: Ceron-John

AF - AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Ecopetrol, Bogota, Colombia

BK - BOOK TITLE: In: AAPG international conference and exhibition; abstracts.

BA - BOOK AUTHORS: Anonymous

SO - SOURCE: AAPG Bulletin. 82; 10, Pages 1900. 1998.

PB - PUBLISHER: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa, OK, United States. 1998.

CP - COUNTRY OF PUBLICATION: United-States

PY - PUBLICATION YEAR: 1998

CN - CONFERENCE INFORMATION: AAPG international conference and exhibition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nov. 8-11, 1998.

LA - LANGUAGE: English

AB - ABSTRACT: The Amazon Basin in Colombia comprises the entire jungle covered region south of the Guaviare River with more than 100000 km (super 2) in extension. This geographic- driven definition has been used in most geologic texts, and just recently it has been recognized that gravity, magnetics and magnetotelluric data can provide a valuable interpretation of the basin geometry and main structural elements within the Amazon region. It is suggested on this work that interpreted basement highs delineate different geologic provinces characterized by individual structural styles: 1) The Florencia and Yari highs, separating the well known Putumayo basin from the Caguan sub basin, and this one from the Chiribiquete-Paleozoic filled sub basin, respectively, where dominantly South-North tectonics Prevails, 2) The Guyana platform with its south western extension south of the Apaporis river, denominated here Caqueta platform, where dominantly Southwest-Northeast structural lineaments can be interpreted; south of this platform several shallow sub basins can be delineated, probably representing the westernmost expression of the Solimoes, Brazilian basin, and 3) The central extension of the Guyana Platform, which roughly follows the direction of the Guaviare River at latitude 3N, which serves as the natural divide between the Llanos basins at the North from the Amazon basins. Encompassed between the named platforms it is interpreted an extensional basin, with notorious Northwest-Southeast structural lineaments, the Vaupes sub basin, which is postulated here as an interior Rift system predominantly filled with Paleozoic and Tertiary sediments, but with high probabilities for presence of Mesozoic deposits.


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