equatorial: region spanning equator. abundance solar radiation. Major air movement upward.
-storms form here.
tropical: regions N/S to cancer, Capricorn. Strong trade winds. NE in N hemis, SE in S hemis. Rough seas.
-storms gain energy here.
subtropical: regions beyond tropics. High surface salinity. belts of high pressure. little precipitation, much evaporation. Winds weak, currents sluggish. strong boundary currents N-S, particularly along west margins.
temperate: regions [midlats] strong westerly winds; from SW in N hemis, NW in S hemis. severe storms, heavy precip. winter esp
subpolar: regions; extensive precip due to subpolar low. sea-iced-covered in winter, melts in summer. icebergs common, surface temp rarely greater than 41F in summer
polar: region; temps remain at or near freezing. covered with ice, most of year. No sun in winter, all sun in summer
sea ice: masses of frozen ice. low temp/high lat
icebergs: break off [calve] from glaciers that originate on land
pancake ice: forming slush into thin sheet broken by wind and waves
ice floes: layer of ice when further freezing occurs to pancakes
rate of ice form slows as it thickens, because top ice insulates water below
calm water and low temp aid ice formation
most of dissolved substances remain in water, notice. Salinity increases under ice.
-decreases the freezing point of water
-ice becomes ink below surface-> lower surface salinity water freezes in place
17% decrease in overall ice extent
accelerated melting at interior poles
-due to shifts in N hemis atmosphere circulation patterns