temperature-salinity diagram: identify deep water masses by temperature, salinity, and density.
isothermal water column makes for easier up and down welling.
Antarctic bottom water: formed under sea ice in s subpolar lats in Antarctic continental margins. Sink down Antarctica continental slope. Densest water in open ocean. spreads into all ocean basins. returns to surface in 1000yrs.
North Atlantic Deep Water: from: Irminger Sea, Labrador Sea, Med Sea, Norwegian sea. moves to all ocean basins. less dense; sits on top of Antarctic bottom water
no sinking at subtrop convergences
arctic convergences: mass sinking occurs
antartic intermeiate water: formed sinking at Antarctic convergence. ;east studied water mass.
no vertical mixing at low lat, much vertical much at high lat
ocean common waters: mix of antarctic bottom water and north atlantic deep water. lines basins of Indian and pacific oceans because no access to N hemis deep water.
surface water of pac to salin to sink, Indian too warm to sink
difficult to identify where verticle flow to surface occurs. every liter water that sinks much rise
supposedly greater in low lat areas
also, deep water moving along rugged topography produces upwelling
most intense deep water flow along western side due to coriolis and bathymetric features
conveyer belt circulation: model combing deep and surface currents
cold water dissolve more oxygen than warm water.
in past, warm water probably was more a part of deep water
conveyer belt circulation initiated in Atlantic.
Chapter 7 Online Wrong
ocean currents driven and energized by solar heat
transfer 30% heat from tropics to poles
West Wind Drift part of: North pac gyre, S Atl gyre, Indian gyre
Surface water does NOT move at angle to wind direction
Ekman transport results in water piling at center of gyre
areas with well-developed pycnocline have little downwelling
-rock thrown into pond: release of eng causes waves
wind generates most waves; radiate in all directions
waves created between fluids [water, air] and within them
ocean waves: air-water interface [movement air across ocean]
atmospheric waves: air-air interface. movement of different air masses. common at cold fronts. ripple-like clouds
internal waves: water-water. movement of different water densities, along boundaries. associated with pycnocline. larger than ocean waves. can be seen from space. dangerous for submarines. can’t “break” except in essence. created by tidal movement, turbidity currents, wind stress, passing ships.
sea floor movement->large waves
waves are energy in motion. the energy moves within them but does not affect their movement.
progressive waves: oscillate uniformly, travel without breaking: longitudinal, traverse, orbital
longitudinal waves: [push-pull waves] particles push and pull in same direction the the energy travel
sound is longitudinal waves
longitudinal can be in all forms of matter
traverse waves: [side to side] eng travel at right angles to direction of vibrating particles
rope to doorknob, wave rope up and down to produce waves
traverse only through solids
longitudinal and traverse waves called body waves
ocean waves are body waves, and since they involve aspects of longitudinal waves and traverse waves, they are orbital waves
sine waves: idealized waveforms that do not exist in nature
crests: high parts of waves
trophs: low parts of waves
still water lvl: halfway b/w crest and troph. zero energy lvl. lvl of water if not waves
wave height [H]: verticle distance b/w crest and troph
wavelength [L]: crest to crest. troph to troph.
wave steepness: ratio of height to wavelength-> H/L