Page Table of Contents 1 Letters of Welcome (not included in on-line version) 2 Sponsors/Organizing Committee/Adjudicators 5 Detailed Program 7 Abstracts … listed in alphabetical order


Chemistry Presentation Time: 12:00 - 1:30 p.m



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Chemistry
Presentation Time: 12:00 - 1:30 p.m.
9. SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL HETERODINUCLEAR INORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEXES

L. Boudreau and M.A.S. Aquino

Department of Chemistry
A series of reactions of mixed-valent diruthenium(II,III) tetracarboxylate compounds [Ru2(µ-OCCH3)4(H2O)2](PF6) and [Ru2(µ-O2CFc)4(CH3OH)2](PF6), with various bidentate nitrogen donor ligands were prepared. The N-donor ligands behave as σ-bases and modest π-acids and it was found that certain ligands with the proper steric geometry reacted to form [Ru(η2-O2CCH3)L2](PF6) complexes. Several monoruthenium complexes were synthesized by disassembly reactions of the diruthenium tetracarboxylates with a variety of ligands, 2,2’-dipyridyl, 2,2’-biquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, 5,5’-dimethyl-2,2’-dipyridyl, 6,6’-dimethyl-2,2’-dipyridyl, and neocuproine. The complexes formed were [Ru(2,2’-dipyridyl)3](PF6)2, [Ru(5,5’-dimethyl-2,2’-dipyridyl)3](PF6)2, [Ru(1,10-phenanthroline)3](PF6)2, [Ru(6,6’-dimethyl-2,2’-dipyridyl)22-O2CCH3)](PF6), and [Ru(neocuproine)22-O2CCH3)](PF6). The compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), Osteryoung square wave voltammetry (OSWV), and X-ray crystallography. There are a few possible applications of these new dinuclear complexes such as catalysts and quantum-dot cellular automata cells. The QCA cells could potentially be used as surface bound memory storage devices.

Chemistry
Presentation Time: 12:00 - 1:30 p.m.
10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMPONENTS IN PSEUDOMONAS CULTURES

D. Chisholm

Department of Chemistry
PURPOSE: To examine batch bacterial cultures and identify components of the culture and their contribution to the appearance of infrared spectra of the cultures. METHODS: Bacterial cultures were grown in batch media and analyzed by IR spectroscopy using both ATR and KBr pellet. Different methods of growing cultures were also examined for their affects on components that are active in the IR region. Portions of cultures were extracted and purified and resulting spectra were compared to spectra of whole cultures. The IR spectra of relevant commercially available alginates and sugars were also examined in order to facilitate the assignment of IR absorption bands for the bacterial components. RESULTS: DNA was isolated and its IR spectra collected under a variety of conditions. Exopolysaccharides were isolated from the supernatant of bulk cultures and from biofilm grown on agar. Capsular polysaccharides were also isolated. DNA analysis showed that cell lysis was not responsible for the presence of extracellular polymeric material. The presence of protein in the various fractions was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS: Various cell components can be isolated and their IR spectra obtained. It was found that a spectrum of a bulk culture can be broken down and analyzed based on the components that are found to be present in the system.

Earth Sciences
Presentation Time: 1:30 - 3:00 p.m.
11. DEFORMATIONAL HISTORY OF THE PIAXTLA GROUP WITHIN THE ACATLÁN COMPLEX

M.C. Middletona, J.D. Keppieb, J.B. Murphya, R.D. Nancec



a Department of Earth Sciences

b Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico DF

04510, Mexico



c Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701-2979, USA
The Acatlan Complex of México lies on the western side of the ~1 Ga Oaxacan Complex and has been interpreted as early pieces of either the Rheic or Iapetus ocean. It comprises two major interleaved structural sequences: (i) the Petlalcingo Group, a thick metasedimentary sequence; and (ii) the Piaxtla Group, high-grade metasediments, migmatites, granite gneiss and eclogitic mafic boudins, both of which are unconformably overlain by the Late Devonian-Middle Permian (375-270 Ma) Tecomate Formation. The San Francisco de Asis (SFA) slice of the Piaxtla Group records a complex subduction exhumation structural history showing: (a) eclogite facies metamorphism preserved in lenses, which has yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age of ~346 Ma; (b) four phases of structures (foliation, folds and stretching lineations) with contemporaneous sediment melting, SHRIMP ages on zircon of ~340 Ma; (c) two sets of small scale folds overprinted by muscovite that has yielded a K-Ar age of 288  14 Ma; and (c) NNW-trending upright folds that produce the map pattern. This data suggest that the SFA slice was subducted followed by obduction dehydration melting, during the Mississippian (320-360 Ma) followed by a transpressional interleaving with the Petlalcingo Group and Tecomate Formation during Pennsylvanian-Early Permian (285-320 – 260-285 Ma) exhumation.

Earth Sciences
Presentation Time: 1:30 - 3:00 p.m.
12. GREENHOUSE GAS PRODUCTION PROCESSES IN FOREST SOILS OF NOVA SCOTIA:

SITE DESCRIPTION AND INSTRUMENTATION OF ANALYSES OF N2O AND CO2.

A. Myette and K. Kavanaugh Supervisor: Lisa Kellman

Environmental Earth Sciences Laboratory


Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are very important greenhouse gases whose concentrations have increased as a consequence of human activities. These greenhouse gases contribute to a variety of environmental issues including, global warming and ozone depletion. A major source of these two greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is from soils. In particular, changes in soil vegetation cover alter a suit of factors that control the balance of carbon and nitrogen stored in soil profiles including the heat balance, hydrological regime, the subsurface production, physical properties and input and turnover of organic matter in soils. Studies tend to focus upon surface emissions with little evaluation of controls by subsurface processes. Here we present the site description and general context relating to our studies of subsurface carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in a range of sites of contrasting forest management of Nova Scotia. Our poster will introduce the study sites and will illustrate the instrumentation of the sites in question as well as the methods we will be using to obtain our data.

Earth Sciences
Presentation Time: 1:30 - 3:00 p.m.
13. ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON THE SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURES: LAND-USE CHANGES

D. Niţoiu and H. Beltrami

Department of Earth Sciences
PURPOSE: In this study we examine the effects of deforestation on borehole temperature data and how the “contaminated” data can be corrected for the non-climatic energy perturbations, in order to be used in climatological studies. METHODS: Changes in land surface conditions such as deforestation or forest fires modify the energy balance at the ground surface and generate a transient thermal signal, which is propagated and recorded into the ground, superimposed on the climatic signal and the steady state geothermal field. We use a gamma-logistic function, describing the forest floor organic matter decay and recovery after a clear-cut, to simulate the ground surface temperature (GST) variation after deforestation. To assess qualitatively and quantitatively the effects of the correction on GST history, the subsurface temperatures are inverted using the singular value decomposition method. RESULTS: We find that the subsurface temperatures are affected by land-cover changes especially for events that took place in the recent past, but these effects can be removed if the time when they occurred is known. Also, the subsurface disturbances of older deforestation events penetrate deeper but their magnitudes decay because of the diffusive character of heat propagation into the ground. CONCLUSIONS: The application of this proposed correction to the 10,000+ temperature depth profiles in existence in the world, would allow many borehole temperature data to be used in GST and heat flux reconstructions, in order to infer past climatic changes.

Earth Sciences
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
14. AIR-GROUND TEMPERATURE COUPLING AND SEASONAL SNOW COVER VARIATIONS

L. Zhao and H. Beltrami

Environmental Earth Sciences Laboratory

Climatic reconstruction from geothermal data can provide complimentary information to the meteorological records of past temperature trends. In general, the inversion methods used to reconstruct past ground surface temperatures assume a direct coupling between air and ground temperatures. However, systematic and persistent variations in snow cover thickness (a transient insulator) could obscure the air-ground temperature coupling and bias the temperature reconstructions. In order to clarify the effect of long-term variations in snow cover on the ground temperature and eliminate the non-climatic noise from borehole temperatures, we employed a one-dimensional, finite differences heat transfer model with phase change, to execute a series of simulations over long time periods. Data from EESL Pomquet 1 air-ground observatory were used for model validation. Snow cover scenarios were simulated for systematic variations over 200 years, such as snow thickness by changing the snow cover at rates of 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm/year or reducing by 0.05cm/year. Synthetic tests to simulate long-term changes in snow cover duration (1day/decade over 200 years) were also carried out. The simulated results indicate that systematic changes in snow cover over long-time have a significant effect on ground temperatures. For seasonal frost cases, ground surface temperature (GST) can be changed by as much as +/- 1.5 o K if snow thickness varies, and by about +/- 0.5 o K if snow cover duration shifts. In areas of permafrost (permanently frozen ground), ground temperature can changed by as much as 9 o K if snow pack thickness increases. We only observe a change in ground temperature of a fraction of a degree when snow cover season duration is systematically varied. Critical depth of snow thickness is about 70 cm and 130 cm for the seasonal frost and permafrost cases respectively. Increases in snow thickness beyond these values have no significant effect on ground temperature. These results imply that in order to infer past climatic variations from borehole temperatures, the influence of long-term systematic snow cover variation on the ground temperature must be taken into account.


Human Kinetics
Presentation Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.
15. ABILITY OF ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES TO PERCEIVE EXERTION DURING TREADMILL EXERCISE

M. Aucoin and H. Stanish

Department of Human Kinetics
In order to develop effective physical activity interventions for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) it is important to determine if they are capable of perceiving exercise intensity. This study examined the ability of 19 adults with ID to perceive exercise intensity at various workloads while walking on a motorized treadmill. Heart rate monitors were used to measure physiological response. The Children’s OMNI scale, consisting of numbers from 0 to 10, and pictorial and verbal descriptors, was used to gather information on perceived exertion. Participants were asked during each interval to indicate a number on the scale that corresponded to their perception of physical exertion. Heart rate and workload were also continuously recorded at each interval. Data analysis is currently underway to examine the relationships among heart rate, workload, and perceived exertion between genders and participants with and without Down syndrome.

Human Kinetics
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
16. THE EFFECTS OF A TEN WEEK PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION ON THE PHYSICAL FITNESS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES 4 AND 5.

K.J. Faloon, A.M. Thompson, and B.A. Moylan

Department of Human Kinetics
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a ten-week physical activity program on the physical fitness of fourth and fifth grade children. METHODS: Seven boys and ten girls participated in a ten week low organizational games program at least three days per week for one and a half hours. Pre and post intervention testing included assessments of body composition, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. Body fat was assessed indirectly from the sum of eight skinfolds. Muscular strength and endurance was assessed using push-ups and curl-ups and a sit and reach test was performed to assess flexibility. Cardiovascular endurance was measured from a submaximal treadmill test in which aerobic power and heart rate were directly measured. RESULTS: The average sum of skinfolds decreased significantly (p<0.5) from157 ± 56.5 mm to 146 ± 56.2 mm. The number of curl-ups increased from 15.5 ± 10.2 to 22.5 ± 12.0 and push-ups from 3.9 ± 2.7 to 7.3 ± 2.6. Flexibility increased on average by 49 mm from a mean of 240.6 ± 54.4mm to 289.6 ± 52.5mm. Although submaximal exercising heart rate and recovery heart rate were lower during post-intervention testing, this difference was not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences in aerobic power. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that children participating in this low organizational games program showed significant improvement in four of the five components of health-related physical fitness.
Human Kinetics
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
17. THE EFFECT OF SODIUM BICARBONATE AND CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON INDICES OF ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

T.L. Matthews and D.G. Burke

Department of Human Kinetics

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 5-d NaHCO3 supplementation period as well as a 5-d NaHCO3 plus Cr supplementation period on anaerobic exercise performance, blood lactate ion concentration (Bla) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE-L and RPE-O). METHODS: Sixteen male volunteers (20.6 ± 1.15yrs) were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation groups: control (n=5), NaHCO3 (n=7), and NaHCO3 + Cr (n=4). Participants performed six 10-s supramaximal cycling bouts separated by 30-s of passive rest at a resistance of 7.5% body weight (BW) on Day 1 and Day 8. NaHCO3 was ingested at 0.3g/kg BW/day while Cr was ingested at 0.3g/kg lean body mass/day. RESULTS: No significant differences were noted for Control or NaHCO3 in total work (TW) or average work (AW) output following supplementation. However, NaHCO3 + Cr significantly increased TW and AW output following supplementation (53959.9 ± 3880.18 J vs. 56093.5 ± 4240.56 J and 8993.3 ± 646.70 J vs. 9348.9 ± 706.76 J, Day 1 vs. Day 8; p<0.05). No significant changes in BLa were present pre-exercise before or after supplementation. NaHCO3 + Cr had a significant increase in BLa post-exercise following supplementation (17.3 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 21.2 ± 3.4 mmol/L, Day 1 vs. Day 8; p<0.05). There was no significant attenuation of RPE-L or RPE-O for Control, NaHCO3, or NaHCO3 + Cr following supplementation. CONCLUSION: A combined 5-d supplementation period with NaHCO3 plus Cr enhances TW and AW output and increases BLa, therefore improving anaerobic exercise performance and delaying the onset of fatigue.

Human Kinetics
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
18. PLAY YOUR WAY TO FITNESS

B.A. Moylan and A.M. Thompson

Department of Human Kinetics
PURPOSE: To test the development, implementation, and efficacy of a ten week physical activity program for children at risk of obesity in grades 4 and 5. METHODS: Ten girls and seven boys were recruited via flyers, newspaper ads and posters. Pre and post intervention testing included (1) standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and skinfolds), (2) a physical activity questionnaire and (2) the Self Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C). The physical activity program ran 5 days a week for an hour after school. The children also walked 25 minutes to the program under supervision. The physical activity program consisted of 60 minutes of physical activity, including a 10 minute warm-up and cool-down. Activities in the program were modified games that emphasized inclusive participation and skill improvement rather than competition. Paired t-tests were used in the statistical analysis of the pre and post intervention testing. RESULTS: The mean attendance was 69% (SD=17%) which equates to at least 3days per week. The average loss of skinfold thickness in the boys was 19.3 mm while the girls lost 5.2mm. There was no significant change in the SMI-C questionnaire scores or the barriers noted for physical activity participation. However, there were numerous positive remarks from children and parents in the post intervention feedback forms. CONCLUSION: It is possible to develop a successful physical activity program for children using low organizational games instead of expensive cardiovascular machines.
Human Kinetics
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
19. THE INFLUENCE OF SODIUM BICARBONATE AND CREATINE CHRONIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON POST FATIGUE MUSCLE RECOVERY

L. Wilson, T. Matthews, and D.G. Burke

Department of Human Kinetics
PURPOSE: Seventeen male university students volunteered as participants to examine the effects of a sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and a combined creatine monohydrate (Cr) + NaHCO3 chronic supplementation on leg press performance at fatigue and recovery. METHODS: Participants underwent a repeated cycling protocol to induce fatigue, followed by 2 sets of leg press repetitions to exhaustion loaded at 50% 1RM. Borg’s Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale for whole body (W) and legs (L) and blood lactate levels were measured as markers for the onset and level of fatigue. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in ratings of RPE for participants at fatigue post supplementation. All groups reported lower values of RPE-W after recovery (P< 0.005). RPE-L after recovery was significantly decreased for Placebo and NaHCO3 groups (P< 0.05). The Cr + NaHCO3 Group significantly increased total work production during the fatiguing protocol and maintained RPE-L after recovery (P< 0.05). Leg press performance at fatigue showed all participants did not complete significantly more reps than participants ingesting placebo (P < 0.05). After recovery participants in both the NaHCO3 and the Cr + NaHCO3 Group completed significantly more reps than the Placebo Group in the second set of exercise post supplementation (P < 0.05), but did not complete more significantly more reps than each other. CONCLUSION: Results suggest an ergogenic effect of Cr + NaHCO3 increasing total work production at fatigue, while maintaining the same perception of fatigue and number of leg press repetitions post supplementation.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
20. AN ASPECT OF FOOD INSECURITY: NUTRITIONAL CONTRIBUTION OF BASIC BAGS FROM THE ANTIGONISH COMMUNITY FOOD BANK

K.M. Brennan; Advisor: Dr. K. Cavan

Department of Human Nutrition
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and describe the nutritional contribution of usual food baskets provided to clients of the Antigonish Community Food Bank. METHODS: A sample of 15 basic bags was evaluated against national nutrition recommendations set by Health Canada including Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating, and the corresponding directional statements. The contents of the basic bags were also entered into Food Wise (2002), nutritional analysis software, to determine the nutrient distribution, and to compare average amounts of nutrients per kilocalorie (kcal) against Health Canada’s National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). RESULTS: It was determined that for each food group, the number of servings provided by the basic bags were opposite to the national recommendations, and directional statements were not met for any food group. The basic bags provided significantly more protein, fat, sodium, and calcium per kcal than the NNFB (p<0.05). However, significantly less iron, fiber, folate, vitamin A and vitamin C per kcal were present in the basic bags compared to the NNFB (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research will provide important insight into the contribution basic bags provide to food bank clients. The implications of this research will be important in targeting messages to improve donations provided by the general public, and to provide information to the food bank managers upon which to base future food purchase decisions using monetary donations.

* Supported by St. Francis Xavier University



Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.
21. THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF SARCOPENIA AMONG FREE-LIVING AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY

L. Carroll Advisor: Donna Fagan

Department of Human Nutrition
As the percentage of the population over the age of sixty-five continues to increase globally, so does the incidence of disabilities associated with aging. Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and strength associated with the aging process, contributes to an increased risk of frailty and functional impairment in elderly population. The development of sarcopenia is multifactorial, and includes both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Sarcopenia is an important public health concern as a contributor to the loss of mobility and a reduction in the quality of life of affected seniors. Subsequently, the implications of sarcopenia may result in an increased utilization of health care resources. This thesis explores the development and progression of sarcopenia and its impact upon the elderly, and implications for health care professionals and resources.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.
22. THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF FLAXSEED IMPLEMENTATION IN LONG TERM CARE

A. Childs

Department of Human Nutrition
This literature review investigated the efficacy of using flax in long term care in terms of health benefits, cost, employee labour, and staff burden. Flaxseed is a small, flat, brownish oil seed, which contains a high concentration of lignans, dietary fiber, and omega-3 fatty acids. Due to this composition, flax may provide protection or treatment for heart disease, some forms of cancers, and bowel dysfunction; all frequently observed in long term care patients.

Some studies have found the consumption of flaxseed can lower total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total triglycerides significantly. In contrast, other studies found that flaxseed consumption had no affect of lipid parameters tested. Also, flax has been suggested to have a protective affect against some cancers due to the lignan concentration. Many studies have shown that flaxseed can reduce tumor growth and metastasis.

Flax use has been found to have positive health effects for bowel difficulties due to the high fiber content. The suggested benefits for bowel dysfunction include diarrhea control, reducing discomfort caused by constipation, reducing pressure of colon, increasing fecal bulk, and reducing stool hardness.

The safety of flax use was considered prior to recommending flax supplementation for client care. Few studies have shown allergic reactions, but hydrogen cyanide toxicity can occur when flaxseed is ingested at very high levels.

In conclusion, flax intake at levels of 3 Tbsp/day recommended for clients in long term care could aid in reducing risk to heart disease, cancer, and bowel difficulties. The risk of this level of intake is minimal.



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