Page Table of Contents 1 Letters of Welcome (not included in on-line version) 2 Sponsors/Organizing Committee/Adjudicators 5 Detailed Program 7 Abstracts … listed in alphabetical order



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Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
23. A MULTIPERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ORGANIC FOOD AVAILABILTY IN ANTIGONISH TOWN AND COUNTY

L.Coyle and Thesis Advisor L.Wadsworth

Department of Human Nutrition
PURPOSE: This research will look at the availability of organic foods to the Antigonish town and county population in Nova Scotia. Availability will be looked at from the perspective of the consumer, the retailer and the producer in this area. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide a better understanding of the issues surrounding the availability to organic foods in this area from data collected from all participants. The main objectives are to answer the following research questions: (1)Where does the organic food retailer find opportunities and difficulties in organic food sales? (2) Where does the organic food producer find opportunities and difficulties in the production of organic foods? (3)What affects the availability of organic foods for the organic food consumer? METHODS: Qualitative research methodologies were used. Data collection consisted of focus groups with organic food consumers and private interviews with organic food retailers and producers in the Antigonish Town and County area. Focus group participants consisted of 15 organic food consumers. Organic food retailers consisted of the 5 present in the Antigonish community. Two certified organic producers were identified in Antigonish Town and County and interviewed. Data was subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Atlas.ti, a qualitative analysis program was used for analysis. RESULTS: Availability of organic foods was seen as positive in the Antigonish area from the producer, retailer and consumers point of view. It was noted however that cost and the need for a supplier were factors negatively influencing the availability in this area. CONCLUSIONS: In order to enable consumers to make healthy food choices, we need to work to make them more available and accessible. In order to help consumers gain access to healthy food choices, understanding the barriers to making these food choices is a step in the right direction.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
24. THE PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF BLUEBERRY AND GRAPE EXTRACTS

S.M. Grant1, M. Naczk1 and E. Barre2



1Department of Human Nutrition, St. Francis Xavier University

2Department of Behavioral Life Sciences, University College of Cape Breton
PURPOSE: The data available on blueberry and grape phenolics is extensive but still incomplete. The antioxidant potential and composition of these berries are affected by a number of factors such as variety, harvesting time, agricultural, storage and processing conditions. This study examined the phenolic content of lowbush (wild) blueberries and Red Globe grapes purchased in Antigonish. METHODS: The phenolics were extracted from plant materials with 70% (v/v) acetone. The extracts were evaluated for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and total condensed tannins. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The protein precipitation capacity was analyzed by the protein precipitation assay and dye-labeled BSA method. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that blueberries and grape skins are a rich source of anthocyanins (37.20 absorbance units (AU)/g; 19.200 AU/g, respectively), while grape seeds are a rich source of proanthocyanidins (1170.03 ± 6.9343 mg/g of extract). Both blueberries and grapes exhibited strong antioxidant properties. CONCULSIONS: The berry fruit are high in phenolics that may produce health effects in humans.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
25. BREAKING DOWN BARRIERS TO HEALTHY EATING: THE FEMALE ADOELSCENT PERSPECTIVE

S.M. LeBlond and L.A. Wadsworth

Department of Human Nutrition
PURPOSE: This study examined barriers and solutions to healthy eating for female adolescents. METHODS: Four facilitated group discussions were conducted with twenty female adolescent participants aged thirteen through sixteen years living in the New Glasgow, Nova Scotia area. A pretested questionnaire was used to promote open discussion. Participants were asked to define healthy eating and identify barriers and potential solutions to these barriers. Data was collected using flip charts and an audiotape recorder. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted. RESULTS: Reported barriers included lack of meal preparation skills, lack of structure in the home, limited availability of healthy food in school cafeterias, the expense of healthier foods, peer pressure, conflicting nutrition information, and time limitations due to school and other activities. Participants perceived many of these barriers to be beyond the realm of their personal control. Proposed solutions included training in meal preparation, assisting parents with meal preparation in the home, consulting students regarding school cafeteria offerings, lowering the expense of healthier food choices, incorporating nutrition education into existing school curricula, and offering courses in time management. CONCLUSION: These findings are supported by published studies outlining similar research conducted with adolescents. Information provided by this study will describe questions that may be used to conduct further research to establish peer-based nutrition intervention programs for adolescents.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 1:30 - 3:00 p.m.
26. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN PROMOTING HEALTHY EATING

L. A. MacDonald

Department of Human Nutrition
There is limited research which shows a direct link between social support networks and healthy eating. The purpose of this study is to learn: How does social support influence eating habits? What is the role of social support networks in promoting healthy eating?

Social support networks are an important determinant of health. People with social support networks have a lower mortality rate than those without. Lonely or isolated people have a higher risk of health problems. Existing evidence supports the link between the lack of social relationships and poor health. Many authors suggest that the lack of social support may be just as detrimental to health as certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, and high blood pressure.

If social support networks have such an integral role in health, then it is important for nutrition professionals to learn the connection between social support networks and healthy eating. There are many eating situations today in which lack of social support is identified. Social support networks are studied in three groups: family, peer and community.

It is important for dietitians and nutrition educators to learn about this so if they are trying to promote healthy eating in an individual who does not have social support networks, they will know the implications of the connection and can deal with the problem accordingly.



Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
27. ISSUES RELATED TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND BODY IMAGE;

EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN LIMITED IN LITERACY

J.G. McLaren

Department of Human Nutrition

PURPOSE: This study identified issues surrounding body image for women who were limited in literacy and living in disadvantaged situations in Northeastern Nova Scotia. METHODS: The qualitative research software Atlas.ti was used to conduct a thematic analysis of data from the Health Literacy in Rural Nova Scotia Research Project. Common themes, views and concerns expressed by female participants about body image issues were analyzed and compared to the literature. RESULTS: Several themes emerged from the thematic analysis. Many of the women associated health with appearance and physical attributes, however, there were limited comments and opinions on how they felt about their own body shape or size. Childhood experiences with teasing and lack of proper clothing were expressed as barriers to fitting in with higher socioeconomic groups. The women were mainly concerned with income, stressing that it played an extensive role in food security problems. Self-esteem was another theme that emerged from the data, with many of the participants expressing strong willpower and independence. This research has identified that women living in disadvantaged situations are highly consumed by efforts to attain a substantial income to purchase necessities such as food and electricity. Abstract issues such as body image are considered a component of health but are not regarded as personal concerns.

*Supported by St. Francis Xavier University



Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
28. The Role of Dietary Fibre in Managing Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Female University Students

S.L. Murphy and D.Gillis

Department of Human Nutrition



PURPOSE: The purpose of this research project was to examine the lived experience of female university students living with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and their use of dietary fibre-rich foods to help manage their symptoms. METHODS: Participants recruited for this study consisted of five female university students ranging in age from 18-25 years. The method of data collection was in-depth, semi-structured interviews that took place in a pre-arranged, private setting. A food frequency questionnaire related to consumption of high-fibre foods was completed by each participant following the interview. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. A second meeting with each participant confirmed the transcribed data. Data were coded, sorted into categories, and subjected to thematic analysis using Atlas.ti software. RESULTS: Participants varied in their use of dietary fibre to manage symptoms of IBS. Three out of five participants reported that they did not consume dietary fibre-rich foods on a consistent basis. Some of the barriers reported regarding the use of dietary fibre included taste, type of fibre, individual tolerance, lack of time to incorporate high-fibre foods due to hectic schedules, and limited knowledge surrounding the use of dietary fibre to manage symptoms of IBS. Dietary fibre most frequently consumed was from whole wheat breads, pastas, beans, fruit, and vegetables. Only one out of five of the participants reported consuming a high source of bran fibre daily.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.
29. A STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PRESCHOOLER’S ABILITY TO SELF-REGULATE ENERGY INTAKE

K. Sheffield

Department of Human Nutrition
The purpose of this research is to explore the influence of family and social environment on preschoolers’ ability to regulate their energy intake, and to identify actions that can support the self-regulation of energy intake in promoting healthy body weights.

In the last two decades there has been a dramatic increase in childhood obesity and it is now considered a primary health concern in North America. The literature provides conflicting evidence linking childhood obesity and the inability of children to self-regulate energy intake. Although infants have the innate ability to adjust their intake according to energy needs, internal regulation cues of hunger and satiety may be overridden as they get older. There is growing evidence that childhood obesity is strongly influenced by the child’s environment. Satter (1990) argues that the relationship between parent and child plays a central role in parental feeding practices and the development of eating behaviours in their children.

This research is important for the development of effective nutrition interventions and education strategies aimed at preventing childhood obesity. Because childhood obesity results in significant immediate and long term health problems, it is important to understand factors influencing self-regulation of energy intake on early childhood.

Human Nutrition
Presentation Time: 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.
30. PERCEPTIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF DIET ON BONE HEALTH OF WOMEN LIMITED IN LITERACY

J.D. Yeung

Department of Human Nutrition
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to explore the perception of the influence of diet on bone health of 9 women who have limited literacy skills. METHODS: An interview guide was developed that examined the women’s views on bone health and their diet. The guide was presented during the 2 interviews with four women from Pictou, NS, and 1 focus group of five women in Antigonish, NS. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Transcribed interviews were formatted into Atlas.ti, a computer software program, for the purpose of thematic analysis intended for qualitative studies. A food frequency questionnaire was also performed to see what frequency do these women consume calcium-rich foods. RESULTS: Overall, the women did not frequently consume calcium-rich foods. Common themes that were discovered included: not being able to afford calcium-rich foods, having to support their children first, and having busy lifestyles that were not conducive to consuming a healthy diet. Most of the women were aware of the link between diet and good health. However, many did not know the connection between diet and bone health. All of the women did not know about the health condition of osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study clearly demonstrate a need for more research into the issues identified affecting women’s ability to improve their calcium intake, especially those women with limited education. As osteoporosis rates continue to increase, the implications of this research will have an impact in the direction of future strategies and interventions.
Nursing
Presentation Time: 3:00-4:30 p.m.
31. PRENATAL EDUCATION- HOW DOES IT PROMOTE A MOTHER'S COMFORT WITH INFANT CARE:  A GROUNDED THEORY ANALYSIS

P. Myette

Department of Nursing
Research Problem: The question of concern was what are the experiences of mother’s, who have received prenatal education, in providing care for their infants.

Theoretical Framework/Design: A grounded theory design from the feminist perspective provided a means for women to describe their experiences of providing care for their infants having received prenatal education.

Sample: The sample for the proposed research study was comprised of women who met the criteria of having experienced her first childbirth approximately three months ago, have received prenatal education, can speak, read and write English, reside within the district of the Guysborough-Antigonish-Strait Health Authority, have a healthy infant, and are currently providing care for that infant. Advertisements in the local newspaper were used to solicit participants. The sample was two participants. Interested mothers were fully informed about confidentiality, anonymity, benefits, and that no risks were associated with participating in this study.

Data Collection Method: To generate data the researcher used one or more interviews using open-ended questions. As interviews progressed the data served as a means of direction meaning it guided the researcher to explore topics or issues that were identified more in-depth. The use of audiotapes, field notes, observations, transcriptions, and journaling were used to capture the data for analysis.

Data Analysis: The procedure for analysis was based on a five-step process that included data generation, concept formation, concept development, concept modification and integration, and the production of the research report. The analysis of the data was circular and began at the same time as data collection. All data was analyzed and compared to all other data. The results were centered on a core variable that was identified through data analysis and was the most significant factor that reoccurred, and linked to various data.

Research Findings/Implementations: The findings revealed a core variable that has been named, mother’s ‘magic’ knowing, which represents the mother’s abilities to recognize their own strengths and knowledge, areas where they needed to seek knowledge, and their abilities to access that knowledge. Mother’s ‘magic’ knowing was mentioned most often throughout the data, therefore becoming the central process to which all other themes were connected. Recommendations were made by mothers about providing prenatal education to promote comfort with infant care. Implications for health care professionals with an emphasis on nursing are also examined within the research report.

Physics
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
32. THE COLLAPSE OF 4f ORBITALS AND INNER SHELL EXCITATIONS IN 3d-, 4d-, AND 5d SUBSHELL IONS

M. Campbell

Department of Physics
PURPOSE: This study examined the excitation energies of the ions in the 3d-, 4d-, and 5d- subshells. METHODS: For various ions in each subshell, the average configuration energies were calculated using Cowan Code relativistic Hartree Fock (RHF) procedures. RESULTS: Average configuration energies were calculated for configurations containing p-, d-, and f- electrons. It was found that configurations that included f- electrons, or were created by an inner shell excitation, collapsed as the ionization stage increased. CONCLUSIONS: The collapse of configurations that contained inner shell excitations or including f- electrons in the 3d-, 4d-, and 5d-, subshells causes problems in the normally smooth isoelectronic sequence. This affects the observed spectra from these ions.

Political Science
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
33. DEFINING JAPAN AS A GREEN STATE

K. Neufeld, M. MacDonald, S. Boyne, S. McCormick, L. Hillan, and C. Bennet

Department of Political Science
PURPOSE: This study was an investigation into Japan as an emerging green state. Authors John S. Dryzek and David Schlossberg developed a set of criteria to evaluate different states in terms of environmental responsibility and whether or not they would qualify as a "green" state, which is defined as “a state being actively involved in correcting and preserving the environment internally and externally of the state.” Our group was able to do this through the examination of Japans political history, current environmental policies, citizen involvement, and culture. We also address Japan’s role in the international call for conservation and the preservation of the world’s natural resources. METHODS: This study is based on bibliographic sources, and examines Japan’s environmental policies and politics against the criteria for a “green state.” RESULTS: It was found that Japan can be characterized as an actively exclusive environmental state. While Japan has a very wide range of factors affecting environmental policy, the current state of the global environment and the increasing responsibility of Japan for global environmental issues points to a state that is NOT green. CONCLUSIONS: The competing interests of tradition and business in Japanese society and politics have led to a culture of respect for the environment, but a deplorable level of pollution. While Japanese whaling practices have become the best known issue, attracting considerable international attention, there are many other issues that need to be addressed before Japan can be a “green state.”

** Research supervisor: Dr. Lars Hallstrom, St. FX University



Psychology_Presentation_Time:_3:00_–_4:30_p.m.'>Psychology
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
34. REPEATED EXPOSURE TO THE CANNABINOID AGONIST WIN 55, 212-2 IN A MODEL OF PERSISTENT PAIN: A BEHAVIOURAL TEST OF TOLERANCE

J. Chisholm

Department of Psychology
The discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid system has lead to a great deal of research on the usefulness of cannabis as a pain-killing agent. The therapeutic use of cannabinoids in the treatment of persistent pain is of particular interest, because many kinds of persistent pain are not well controlled by traditional methods. In the present study, the effects of repeated exposure to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55, 212-2 was investigated. The main focus of this study was to determine whether or not rat subjects would become tolerant to the analgesic properties of WIN 55, 212-2, following repeated exposure to the drug. Subjects were injected subcutaneously once daily with either saline, vehicle (DMSO), or 1mg/kg, 5mg/kg or 10mg/kg of WIN 55 for ten days. On days 1, 4, 7, and 10, subjects were exposed to a painful stimulus, which mimics a bee sting (50 uL plantar injection of 1% formalin). The effects of WIN 55 were analyzed during the acute and persistent phases of the formalin test across trials. Preliminary results indicate that the drug becomes less effective, following repeated exposure. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of the cannabinoid WIN 55 decreases following repeated exposure, similar to many other drugs used to alleviate pain.

* This research supported by NSERC



Psychology
Presentation Time: 3:00 – 4:30 p.m.
35. ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF CANNABINOID ADMINISTRATION INTO THE DORSAL AND VENTRAL AREAS OF THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IN THE FORMALIN TEST

M.G. Embrett

Psychology Department
Scientific exploration of the effects of cannabinoids has risen since the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system that appears to have analgesic effects on pain. Endogenous cannabinoid receptors are found throughout the mammalian central nervous system, where they modulate a wide range of neural systems, including sensory, motor and motivational processes. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a ‘limbic’ structure involved in processing the affective component of pain. The ACC also has a high density of CB1 receptors. These properties make it an appropriate site in the forebrain to test the effectiveness of centrally applied cannabinoid drugs. The current study was interested in the functional difference of cannabinoid administration to the ventral and dorsal areas of the ACC for pain relief in the formalin test. Preliminary results indicate that cannabinoid administration to the ventral area of the ACC, but not the dorsal system, significantly reduces pain in the formalin test. The present experiment indicates that the ventral system has a greater role for inhibiting behavioural pain responses in the formalin test than the dorsal system.

Psychology
Presentation Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.
36. EFFECTS OF A BRIEF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENT ON THE EXPERIENCE OF PAIN IN HIGH VERSUS LOW ANXIETY SENSITIVE PARTICIPANTS.

A. Johnson

Department of Psychology
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has been found to be a risk factor for various forms of anxiety disorders, as well as chronic pain. A brief cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) has been developed to target and reduced AS. The effects of this CBT were tested by examining participants’ levels of AS and pain anxiety, pre- and post-intervention; as well as participants’ performance on the cold pressor task (CPT, a pain induction task) post-intervention. Results showed that individuals high in AS (vs. low in AS) who took part in the CBT condition (vs. NST condition) reported more pain anxiety pre-intervention and showed a decrease in pain anxiety post-intervention. There was no significant difference found in performance on the CPT, however high AS/CBT participants did have a shorter recover time following the CPT when compared to high AS/NST participants. And finally, there was no difference between any of the four conditions (HAS/CBT, LAS/CBT. HAS/NST, LAS/NST) in terms of pain threshold (when the participant first started to feel pain) or pain tolerance (when the participant could no longer tolerate the pain).



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