Mayor, F. (1992), Science and government. Technology in Society, 14 (1), 29-36.
Full Text: T\Tec Soc14, 29.pdf
Abstract: The Second World War marked a critical threshold in the relationship between Science and Government, leading to the elaboration of new science policy mechanisms. The postwar years saw a parallel strengthening of the links between science and industry. The consequent complication of the science-society relationship rendered outmoded prevailing policy-making models, already vitiated by sectoral division of responsibilities and ‘short-termism.’ The need today is for policy making that takes into account the views of many interest groups, with government arriving at decisions through a process of conciliation and synthesis. A parallel requirement is to create new instruments to aid decision making and to extend scientific literacy. The question cannot, however, be viewed in solely national terms: Many national problems have global ramifications, and the scientific and technological gap between the industrial and the developing world continues to widen. Unesco is endeavouring through the promotion of international cooperation to address these problems. Nationally and internationally, the aim should be to achieve a greater ‘scientification’ of the decision-making process and an expansion of the advisory framework consistent with a recognition of the complexity of science policy issues and of the need for holistic approaches to their solution.
? Hugunin, P.A., Thomas, S. and Wilemon, D. (1992), Science and Technology Information and Corporate Planning Processes: A synthesis. Technology in Society, 14 (2), 245-270.
Full Text: 1992\Tec Soc14, 245.pdf
Abstract: Corporate underutilization of science and technology information is disturbing, given both the enormous impact on long-term profitability which this information possesses and the strong conceptual foundations about specific individual technologies generally accessible to corporations. This paper creates a synthesis between instruments of science and technology information management, available from product, patent, and bibliometric analyses, and general approaches in corporate planning. Syntheses such as these, with the potential for better integration of R&D information into corporate, product, and market planning processes, can help managers “speed” commercialization processes, improve resource allocation, and effect “technology transfer” across product lines and business units.
de la Mothe, J. (1992), The revision of international science indicators: The frascati manual. Technology in Society, 14 (4), 427-440.
Full Text: T\Tec Soc14, 427.pdf
Abstract: Science indicators have become an important tool in the development of science, technology, and innovation policy in the industrialized world. Indeed, the advent of these indicators is closely tied to the rise of science and technology policy studies generally since the early 1960s. Although it is not a comprehensive guide to the full range of measurement techniques available –– such as bibliometrics or citation analysis, the OECD’s Frascati Manual has become the preeminent document for the internationally standardized definitions of scientific and technological activity for statistical purposes. It is through this Manual that policy makers, policy analysts, economists, and statisticians in the OECD countries are able to discuss the relative performance of countries in terms of R&D expenditures and personnel. This paper discusses, in very general terms, the genesis and development of The Frascati Manual, from pre-1963 to the most recent Frascati meetings in October, 1991, in Rome. It shows the creation and maintenance of the manual as a case of international diplomacy and negotiation. cooperation, and perseverance on the part of individuals. It places the manual within the dynamic context of the new world industrial and political order. Most specifically, it offers but a brief summary of the author’s observations of the major outcomes from that meeting.
Schreiber, V. (1993), The medical sciences in Czechoslovakia. Technology in Society, 15 (1), 131-136.
Full Text: T\Tec Soc15, 131.pdf
Abstract: According to Science Citation Index, the Czechoslovak medical sciences contributed about 1.2% of the world medical knowledge pool in the 1960s. This contribution decreased to about 0.6% in the 1980s. The reasons for this decline are many and varied, such as the suppression of certain fields of scientific research by the Communist government and the degradation of the position of scientists in society, four major waves of emigration since 1938, and the compartmentalization of science into three separate branches (universities, ministerial research institutes, and Academy of Science institutes). Contemporary efforts to ameliorate the situation include setting up grant-giving agencies to distribute research funds on a competitive basis and the coordination of agencies promoting medical research in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The future of Czech and Slovak Medical sciences requires international collaboration, slimming the number of ‘scientists’, increased sending of young scientists abroad while waiting for greater economic prosperity, privatization of medical care, and efforts to minimize ‘brain drain.’ Correcting the consequences of 40 years of a totalitarian communist regime will be painful and difficult.