Chapter 9: Force, Mass and Momentum
Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3→A4 and using back to back on the photocopier
Odd as it may seem, most people’s views about motion are part of a system of physics that was proposed more than 2,000 years ago and was experimentally shown to be inadequate at least 1,400 years ago.
I. Bernard Cohen
Questions to make you think
The following questions are liable to appear on your endofchapter test:

If only one force acts on an object, what happens the object (your answer needs to be as specific as possible)?

Consider a block which is dropped from a height of 1 m.
Now drop it from a height of 2 m.
Is the acceleration of the block the same, less, or greater than before?
What about the force?

Consider a block of mass 1 kg which is dropped from a height of 1 m.
Now drop a 2 kg block from the same height.
Is the acceleration the same, less, or greater than before?
What about the force?

There is a gravitational force of attraction between you and the planet you are standing on.
Which exerts the force greater gravitational force – the planet on you or you on the planet (or is there a third option)?
Refer to one of Newton’s laws in your answer.

You’re holding onto a helium balloon in a car when it brakes suddenly. What happens to you? Why?
What happens to the helium balloon? Why?
Check your answer by looking it up on YouTube.

There is book resting on a table. There is a gravitational force pulling the book down. Yet the book is not accelerating downwards; therefore there must be an equal force opposing this gravitational force. What is this force?
You can’t say ‘the table’; a table is not a force – a table is a table.

An apple is attracted to the Earth with a force of approximately one Newton.
Is the Earth attracted to the apple?
If so what is the size of this force? Is it likely to be less than, equal to or greater than the size of the force that the apple experiences?
It the Earth does experience a force, then why doesn’t it move (or accelerate) towards the apple?

Show how each of Newton’s three laws of motion play a part in explaining how a player can develop concussion when tackled.
Definition of a force
A force is anything which can cause an object to accelerate.
The unit of force is the Newton (N)*.
Definition of the Newton
A force of 1 N gives a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m s^{2}.
What is mass?*
The mass of an object is a measure of its inertia.
The inertia of an object in turn is a measure of the resistance which the object has to a change in its state of motion.
The unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).
Relationship between Force, Mass and Acceleration
Force = mass × acceleration
F = ma
Always remember: “AN UNBALANCED FORCE PRODUCES AN ACCELERATION”
Momentum
= mv
Momentum = mass × velocity
The symbol of momentum is ; pronounced “row”)
The unit of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg m s^{1}) OR newton second (N s)
Momentum is a makeyuppy term. The only reason we bother with it is because this quantity (the product of mass and velocity) turns out to be very important when analysing collisions. It turns out that whoever created the universe had a particular fondness for this quantity, and made it one of the chief ingredients in one of the most fundamental principles in all of physics: the principle of conservation of momentum.
The Principle of Conservation of Momentum
states that in any collision between two objects, the total momentum before impact equals total momentum after impact, provided no external forces act on the system.
(If you forget the bit in italics you lose half marks!)
m_{1}u_{1 }+ m_{2}u_{2} = m_{1}v_{1} + m_{2}v_{2}
In symbols _{}
Areas where the principle of conservation of momentum applies

Collisions of every description (including ball games)

Jet aircraft
Points to note

If one object collides with another and the two objects coalesce (stick together) then there is only one (common velocity) after collision, so the above equation becomes:
m_{1} u_{1 }+ m_{2} u_{2} = (m_{1} + m_{2})v_{3}

Momentum is a vector quantity. This means that the following (seemingly crazy) idea is allowed. You can have a situation where there’s no momentum to begin with, like a bullet sitting in a rifle. Now if we fire the gun, the bullet goes forward and the gun recoils in the opposite direction. In this case they both gained the same amount of momentum (where there was none before), but mathematically we describe one momentum as positive and the other as negative (because opposite directions) therefore the total is still zero.
Strange but true.
And this applies in many contexts (jet aircraft above, air escaping from a balloon, two skaters pushing against each other, man jumping off a boat, or astronauts doing highfives. The first equation can then be reduced to:
0 = (m_{1} v_{1}) + (m_{2} v_{2})
where one of the velocities will turn out to be negative.
Friction
Friction is a force which opposes the relative motion between two objects.
Examples of friction: brakes, walking, air resistance
Newton’s Laws of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every object will remain in a state of rest or travelling with a constant velocity unless an external force acts on it.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that the rate of change of an object’s momentum is directly proportional to the force which caused it, and takes place in the direction of the force.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion* states that if object A exerts a force on object B, B exerts a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction on A.
Exam tip:
For Newton’s Second Law don’t forget the phrase ‘rate of’ change – it’s easy to leave it out and end up with half marks.

Newton originally wrote these in his famous book Principia. The convention at the time was to write learned books in Latin. Because these are three of the most important laws in all of Science it is expected that you will learn both the English and the Latin versions. It’s not as difficult as it might first seem.
Begin by trying to translate from Latin to English

Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiscendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.

Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, & fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.

Actioni contrariam semper & aequalem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse aequales & in partes contrarias dirigi.
To Show that F = ma is a special case of Newton’s Second Law
From Newton II: Force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum
Force rate of change of momentum
F (mv – mu)/t
F m(vu)/t
F ma
F = k (ma)
F = ma
Note: k = 1 because of how we define the newton (a force of 1 N gives a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m s^{2})*
Impulse
Change in momentum is also known as ‘impulse’
Impulse = mv – mu
Let’s look again at the derivation above:
F (mv – mu)/t
F = k (mv – mu)/t but k = 1
F = (mv – mu)/t
Ft = (mv – mu)*
This relationship is important when trying to improve performance in ball games; when you want to change the momentum of a ball you need to either increase the force applied (not always easy to do) or else increase the time for which the force is applied (this can come with practice.
This formula was required to answer a question in 2008 and 2014.
The relationship between mass and weight
The weight of an object is a measure of the force of the Earth’s gravity acting on it.
W = mg
Weight = mass × gravitational field strength (a measure of the strength of the Earth’s gravitational field at that point). The units of gravitational field strength are N/kg (can you see why?).
Now it just so happens (nobody is quite sure why) that the value of this gravitational field strength is the same as the value for acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s^{2} on the surface of the Earth). So you will often see the relationship above written in textbooks where the authors claim that g is acceleration due to gravity and give therefore they will give it unit m s^{2}. The number may be the same, but g most definitely does not represent acceleration due to gravity in this context. The fact that the same number represents two different concepts
The textbooks also suggest that W = mg follows ‘naturally’ from the equation F = ma. It doesn’t do anything of the sort. It’s really just a coincidence that they both look so similar.
Why do we always gloss over mysteries?
Because weight is a force, it follows that the unit of weight is also the Newton.
wtf?

If I put a book on the table and it’s just sitting there why should I have to multiply its mass by acceleration due to gravity (g) to get its weight  it’s not even accelerating?

Anybody remember the story of about the apple that fell on Newton’s head?
What was so significant about an apple falling on him?

Last night I dreamed that I was weightless. I was like, 0mg !

Why diet? Visit the moon and lose weight!

FYI: An apple weighs approximately 1 Newton.
Mandatory Experiments

To show that the acceleration of a body is proportional to the force acting on it.

To Verify the Principle of Conservation of Momentum.
Leaving Cert Physics Syllabus
Content

Depth of Treatment

Activities

STS





1.Newton’s laws of motion

Statement of the three laws.

Demonstration of the three laws using air track or tickertape timer etc.

Applications:

seat belts

rocket travel.
Sports, all ball games.






Force and momentum: definitions and units. Vector nature of forces to be stressed.
F = ma as a special case of Newton’s second law.
Friction: a force opposing motion.

Appropriate calculations.

Important of friction in everyday experience, e.g. walking, use of lubricants etc.





2. Conservation of momentum

Principle of conservation of momentum.

Demonstration by any one suitable method.
Appropriate calculations.

Collisions (ball games), acceleration of spacecraft, jet aircraft.

TO SHOW THAT ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE FORCE WHICH CAUSED IT
APPARATUS
Set of weights, electronic balance, trolley, tickertape timer and tape.
DIAGRAM
PROCEDURE

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

Start by taking one weight from the trolley and adding it to the hanger at the other end.

Note the weight at this end (including the weight of the hanger) using an electronic balance.

Release the system which allows the trolley to accelerate down the track.

Use the tickertape timer to calculate the acceleration.

Repeat these steps about seven times, each time taking a weight from the trolley and adding it to the other end.

Record the results for force and acceleration in a table.

Draw a graph of Force (on the yaxis) against acceleration (on the xaxis). ^{ }The slope of the graph corresponds to the mass of the system (trolley plus hanger plus all the weights)
RESULLTS

Force
(N)

Acceleration (m s^{2})









CONCLUSION
Our graph resulted in a straight line through the origin, verifying that the acceleration is proportional to the force, as the theory predicted.
The slope of our forceacceleration graph was 0.32, which was in rough agreement with the mass of the system which we measured to be 0.35 kg.
PRECAUTIONS / SOURCES OF ERROR

When adding weights to the hanging masses, you must take them from on top of the trolley.

Ensure that the runway in smooth, free of dust, and does not sag in the middle.

Ensure that the runway is tilted just enough for the trolley to roll at constant speed when no force is applied.
Investigating the relationship between Force and Acceleration: F =ma
Displacement –Time


Velocity Time


Acceleration Time

One Fan


One Fan


One Fan






Two Fans


Two Fans


Two Fans






Three Fans


Three Fans


Three Fans

When must the hanging weights be taken from on top of the trolley?
Answer: so that the mass of the system can be kept constant
We’re looking to investigate the relationship between the acceleration of an object and the force which caused it.
The force which is causing the acceleration is the hanging weights. What mass is accelerating as a result of these weights dropping?
Well obviously the trolley plus the weights sitting on it are accelerating, but not just that; the hanging weights themselves are also accelerating, so the total mass accelerating as a result of the hanging weights is:
trolley + weights sitting on trolley + hanging weights
Now if we’re looking to investigate the relationship between the acceleration of an object and the force which caused it we need to keep all other variables constant. In this case one other variable is the mass which is _{)}being accelerated. The only way to increase the hanging weights while keeping the mass of the system constant, is to transfer weights from the trolley to the hanging weights.
Using the tickertape system
If using the tickertape you will need to calculate the velocity at the beginning (u = s_{1}/ t_{1}), the velocity at the end (v = s_{2}/ t_{2}) and then use the equation v^{2} = u^{2} + 2as, where s is the distance between the middle of first set of dots and the middle of the second set of dots.
s_{1} (m)

t_{1}(s)

u (m s ^{1})

s_{2} (m)

t_{2}(s)

v (m s ^{1})

s (m)

a (m s^{2})

Force
(N)



















We pretended that we were using the tickertape system, in which case we would need to fill in a table like the one above just to work out the acceleration each time. Because we used a datalogger we didn’t need to do this.
The computer told us what the acceleration was for each run, which made the experiment a lot cleaner and easier to follow.
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