Quarterly Update on Technology 9 D12 9



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L3 Provision ATD – Active millimeter wave- full body scanner adapted to output a non individualized person image (‘cookie cutter’ image) and highlights areas of concern on it. Feature also available as an upgrade to the previous scanner. http://www.sds.l-3com.com/products/advancedimagingtech.htm

  • Qinetic SPO-20 – Passive millimeter wave scanner that claims to automate detection of threats in high traffic areas at a distance of up to 20 metres. Does not rely on image screening, instead raises the alert via a red light/green light. Detects a range of threats, including liquids. http://www.qinetiq.com/home/products/spo_20.html

  • Link Microtek’s Emili+1 - Identifies whether liquid held in plastic container is ‘aqueous’, ‘inflammable’ or ‘corrosive’. http://www.linkmicrotek.com/pdfs/Emili%20data%20sheet%20DS280909.pdf


  • Brijot Gen 2 – Passive Millimetre wave full body scanner. Claims to be only checkpoint system in industry not to emit radiation or energy at subject during the screening process.30 Image outputted of subject’s body is not very detailed (brochure claims you would not be able to tell if subject was male or female). Saves all information by time and date and takes snapshot of the subject. http://www.brijot.com/assets/pdf/products/SafeScreen.pdf

  • Millimetre Wave technology Body Scanners for catching people smuggling e.g. weapons. For use at airports. http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/threat_people_screening.php

  • Body Orifice Security Scanner (Boss). A chair which will search the subject’s body cavities while they are fully clothed. For use in prisons. http://www.bodyorificescanner.com/

  • Cargo container/Truck scanner http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/narcotics_x-ray.php

  • Narcotics/explosives trace detector. Will pick up traces of TNT, C4, RDX, PETN, Semtex, Detasheet, TATP and Urea Nitrate and Heroin, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, MDA, THC, LSD and Ecstasy with other substances available on request. http://www.scenttech.com/index.aspx?id=3334

  • Walk through narcotics/explosives detector http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/Sentinel.php

  • American Science and Engineering Z Backscatter X-ray scanners - http://www.as-e.com/products_solutions/z_backscatter.asp

  • Rapiscan Secure 1000: Back Scatter X Ray Body Scanner – http://rapiscansystems.com/rapiscan-secure-1000.html.31

  • Thermo Fischer Scientific Mobile Advanced Radioisotope Identification System: Radiation detecter – http://www.prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/Radiation_Detection/Washington_Police_successfully_test_dirty_bomb_detector.asp

  • Universal Detection Technology TS 10 5: Handheld device to test sample for presence of anthrax, ricin toxin, botulinum, Y. pestis and staphylococcal – http://www.udetection.com/productDetail.asp?ProdID=38

  • OD Security Soter RS Body Scanners – X Ray Full Body Scanner http://www.odsecurity.com.web06.intention.nl/downloads/soter%20rs%20brochure%202008July.pdf.32

  • L-3’s ProVision – Millimetre Wave Full Body Scanner http://www.dsxray.com/products/mmwave.htm

  • ASE’s Z-Backscatter Van Mobile Screening System now being used by the Bulgarian Customs agency http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X-Ray_Detection/Mobile_X-Ray_Inspection_System_For_Bulgarias_Border_Control.asp

  • Morpho Detection’s System of Systems – Luggage X Ray scanner and explosives detection http://www.morphodetection.com/products-services/xrd-explosives-detection/system-of-systems/.33

  • Smiths Detection’s Bio-Act – ‘Confirmation technology’ for detecting the presence of ‘chemicals, bacteria and bacterial spores, bio-toxins and viruses’ http://www.smithsdetection.com/media/SD_Bio-ACT_Flyer_web.pdf

  • Implant Sciences Quantum Sniffer QS H150 Portable Explosives Detector – detects explosive ‘vapors and particulates’ http://implantsciences.com/QS_H150.html

  • Iscon 1000D – Full body scanner based on infrared screening to detect objects of a different temperature. Image does not show the body underneath clothing but does highlight foreign objects. Stores images and makes use of facial recognition technology. http://www.isconimaging.com/iscon1000d.html

  • Iscon GamechangeIR – Handheld scanner based on infrared scanning. http://www.isconimaging.com/gamechanger.html

  • Thruvision TS4 – Passive body scanner revealing minimal body detail. Detects weapons, drugs and other contraband. http://www.thruvision.com/Our_Products/TS4_Sub_Pages/TS4%20Info%20Page.htm

    • Vision Pacific’s Colourscan UVSS (Under Vehicle Surveillance System) - automatically scans and digitally captures a clear image of the car undercarriage to locate explosives, guns, attached packages and other foreign objects. For use at airports, military installations and other secured areas. http://www.visionpacific.co.th/colourscan.htm

    • Vision Pacific’s Videoscan UVSS (Under Vehicle Surveillance System) – Provides high resolution video to help detect explosives and other materials hidden under vehicles. Can also be fitted with numberplate recognition technology. http://www.visionpacific.co.th/videoscan.htm

    • Perceptic’s UVIS (Under Vehicle Inspection System) – Produces high resolution image of the underside of vehicles. Can be fitted with numberplate recognition technology. http://www.perceptics.com/products/uvis

    • Unival’s HEDD1 – Scanner detecting ‘all types of commercial and military explosives’ at a range between 2 and 100 metres and through all types of barriers. http://www.unival-group.com/hedd1.htm

    • Thermal Matrix’s ACT – Thermal imaging scanner detecting objects that block the body’s natural body heat. http://www.thermalmatrixusa.net/act.html

    • Thermal Matrix’s TMI – Makes use of multiple different passive sensors to detect “anomalies, explosives, weapons, and…liquids” http://www.thermalmatrixusa.net/tm-1.html

    • Morpho Detection CTX 5800 – Cargo screener which carries out detailed 3D imaging of scanned items http://www.morpho.com/IMG/pdf/CTX_5800_en.pdf

    Trackers

    • Vehicle tracking equipment. http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/vehicle-tracking-c-48.html

    • Elsagna’s MPH-900 – Automatic licence plate recognition, works from a stationary location or while mobile and cross references against an onboard ‘hotlist’. Can record 100s of plates a minute and keeps record of image and GPS coordinates of every plate scanned for future reference. Soon to be incorporating i2 analytic capabilities, combining numberplate info with other sources of information.34 http://www.elsagna.com/mph_900_applications.htm

    • TruePosition’s Location Platform – Location tracking technology http://www.trueposition.com/web/guest/trueposition-location-platform35

    • Trueposition LMU-Universal - Software-defined receiver, installed at wireless cell towers and used to locate people who dial emergency numbers from their mobile phone. http://www.trueposition.com/web/guest/press-releases?p_p_id=62_INSTANCE_lSc3&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=maximized&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-2&p_p_col_count=1&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_struts_action=%2Fjournal_articles%2Fview&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_groupId=10124&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_articleId=28038&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_version=1.0

    • Ascom Wireless Solutions telePROTECT – Designed for use by warders in prisons: location based duress alarm system. http://www.ascom.co.uk/uk-en/index-uk/news/ascom_provides_high_security_prison_with_teleprotect_duress_system/news-country.htm

    • Portman Security’s CTS 100 – compact covert GPS vehicle tracker. GPS and GSM antenna. http://www.portmansecurity.com/tcomm.php



    • Portman Security Weapons Intelligent Tracking System - Weapon, dog and body armour tracking http://www.prosecurityzone.com/News/Surveillance/Tracking_and_eas/Weapon_tracking_added_to_portman_protection_range_15710.asp#axzz1DHh0iOJ1

    Phone Monitoring

    Landline


    Mobile

    • Software for mobile phones that, without any change to normal functioning, will notify a third party:




    • Whenever the phone is switched on

    • Whenever a text is sent/call is made

    • Will send information on what number has been called/texted

    • Will send a copy of the text

    • Enables you to ‘phone in’ and listen to the call

    • Enables you to phone in and listen in to whatever the microphone can pick up, effectively turning the phone into a bug http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/interceptor-software-with-nokia-phone-list-included-p-746.html



    • Range of Mobile Phone Tracking Services http://www.mobilelocate.co.uk/, http://www.google.co.uk/latitude/intro.html

    • Storacall Voistore Systems: Makes recording of all mobile phone calls made on device and can store them on a central server – http://www.storacall.co.uk/svs_voistore.htm

    • ASC InspirationPro 9.0 and EvoIP 9.0: Voice over Internet Protocol products. InspirationPro provides analysis of recorded call data and screen activities. EvoIP captures telephone calls from the network and enables storage, playback and archiving of the entire interaction. http://www.asctelecom.com/download/presse/ASC_Gitex_INSPIRATIONpro_EVOip_9_0.pdf

    Computer Monitoring

    • Key logging equipment: easily installed, keeps a record of the input into a computer http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/type-logger-p-585.html

    • Device for recovering deleted texts from mobile phones http://www.eyetek.co.uk/section/0/deleted-text-spy

    • Guidance Software’s Encase Portable Version 2 – USB device which enables searching of computers by keyword and hash value, and viewing of all images stored http://www.guidancesoftware.com/popup.aspx?B=Content&id=2908&terms=usb+encase+portable

    • Mykonos Security Appliance – counter hacking tool that claims to enable real time monitoring, profiling and countermeasures against computer hackers: “Information within the profile includes the location of the hacker, the environment of the attacking computer and details the activities the hacker is employing” http://www.mykonossoftware.com/appliance.php

    • Genetec’s Unified Security Platform – Integrates IP CCTV cameras, access control and automatic numberplate recognition systems http://www.genetec.com/English/Products/Pages/security-center-unified-security-platform.aspx

    • Spector 360 – Internet monitoring software package aimed at employers. Records email/webmail, online searches, file transfers, chat/instant messages, key strokes, document, websites visited and programme use. http://www.spector360.com/

    • PC Pandora 6.0 – Internet monitoring software package aimed primarily at parents. Records email, instant message and keystrokes and allows live remote monitoring. http://www.pcpandora.com/




    • Q1 Lab’s QRadar 7.0 – System for monitoring social networking services including Twitter, Facebook, Gmail, LinkedIn and Skype. Enables the user to monitor the usage of social media from within their own network, including identifying which users are accessing which social media services, the volume and pattern of usage, and inspect and alert on the content being transmitted to those services;  the ability to detect anomalous behavior of both network and application usage by specific users and the ability to identify a network's most vulnerable assets, and then detect and alert immediately when these systems engage in activity that potentially exposes those vulnerabilities – e.g. unpatched applications, devices and systems. http://q1labs.com/content/press-details/q1-labs-introduces-real-time-social-media-monitoring-and-correlation-in-latest-version-of-security-intelligence-platform/86.aspx

    Databases and Datamining



    • Vodafone Bespoke Service for South Yorkshire Police: Mobile access (via Blackberry) to Criminal Records Database: http://www.vodafone.com/start/media_relations/news/local_press_releases/uk_press_releases/2007/south_yorkshire_police.html

    • CEM Systems S3020f Portable Fingerprint Reader – handheld device for fingerprint and card reading. Carries up to 100,000 card and biometric records in its onboard database and can store around 8,000 offline card swipe transactions for on-line transmission to the AC2000 system via built-in 802.11g WiFi connection. http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id=47

    • i2 iBase – Database application enabling the capture, management of data and the dissemination of actionable intelligence http://www.i2group.com/products/analysis-suite/ibase

    • http://www.backgroundchecks.com online resource for general identification information (such as address, occupation etc.) and also checking criminal records, driving records and whether someone is a registered sex offender. It alternatively offers the ability to keep your own records clean.

    Biometrics

    • CEM Systems S3020f Portable Fingerprint Reader – handheld device for fingerprint and card reading. Carries up to 100,000 card and biometric records in its onboard database and can store around 8,000 offline card swipe transactions for on-line transmission to the AC2000 system via built-in 802.11g WiFi connection. http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id=47

    • Cem Systems AC2000 Lite System Controller – Intelligent Network device for access control. http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id=37

    • Validity Fingerprint Sensors – For controlling access to laptops http://www.validityinc.com/product.aspx?id=136

    • Neurotechnology’s Megamatch 3.1 SDK - Face, fingerprint and palm37 recognition. http://www.neurotechnology.com/mm_sdk.html

    • Neurotechology’s Verieye – iris recognition technology. http://www.neurotechnology.com/verieye_sdk.html

    • Neurotechnology’s Verilook – Face recognition technology. http://www.neurotechnology.com/vl_sdk.html

    • 10 finger and palm print Livescan systems - digitises finger/palm print for cross referencing with central (FBI) databases http://www.crossmatch.com/10print_live_scanners.html 

    • Single/dual fingerprint scanner http://www.crossmatch.com/single_finger_scanners.html 

    • Mobile Finger Scanners http://www.crossmatch.com/mobile_finger_scanners.html 

    • Enrolls, identify and verify detainees, suspects and perpetrators. Matches fingerprints captured at terrorist crime scenes against terrorist and criminal watch databases http://www.crossmatch.com/jump_kits_Guardian_R.html

    • Document Reader http://www.crossmatch.com/D_SCAN_Authenticator_CF.html

    • Document Scanner http://www.crossmatch.com/D_SCAN_Authenticator_100.html 

    • Access Control http://www.crossmatch.com/id_management.html

    • Facial recognition software http://www.crossmatch.com/facial_recognition_solutions.html

    • Iris recognition software http://www.crossmatch.com/I_SCAN_2.html

    • Fingerprint Matching Applications http://www.crossmatch.com/matching_server.html

    • Software for fingerprints from multiple systems. Centralises Electronic Fingerprint Transmission records for transmission to a receiving agency (for example law enforcement) http://www.crossmatch.com/store_forward_solution.html

    • Cognitec FaceVACS-DBScan matches photographs to images from trusted databases of images - http://www.cognitec-systems.de/FaceVACS-DBScan.21.0.html?&L=0

    • Cognitec FaceVACS-VideoScan compares faces in video streams to “possible ‘watch-list’ matches” - http://www.cognitec-systems.de/FaceVACS-VideoScan.20.0.html?&L=0

    • Cognitec FaceVACS-Sentry compares face on video feed with prior photographs - http://www.cognitec-systems.de/FaceVACS-Sentry.14.0.html?&L=0

    • Crossmatch Lookout Matcher: Facial recognition software that compares inputted images to a database or “watchlist” for potential matches - http://www.crossmatch.com/LookoutMatcher.html

    • Crossmatch Lookout Collecter: A combined digital video recorder and facial collection software locate and extract facial images from video footage for automated identification and verification. Available as a standalone unit or can be networked to Lookout Matcher – http://www.crossmatch.com/LookoutCollector.html

    • Cogent Systems Mobile Ident III: Multi-biometric handheld fingerprint identification device for “remote subject identification, disaster scene management, ID document authentication, traffic citation, etc” – http://www.cogentsystems.com/MobileIdentIII.asp

    • Crossmatch Be.U Mobile: Range of handheld fingerprint and smartcard readers. The Be.U SMC-800MC3 ePassport reads RFID chips http://crossmatch.com/BeU_Mobile.html

    • L1 Identity Solution’s 4G FingerVein Reader – Biometric identity recognition on the basis of veins in the fingers http://www.l1id.com/pages/735-4g-finger-vein-reader

    • AOptix Insight – Iris scanner that works at a distance of 2 metres http://www.aoptix.com/biometrics.html

    • Megamatcher Accelerator 2.0 – Fingerprint matching system http://www.neurotechnology.com/download/MegaMatcher_Accelerator_Brochure_2010-04-07.pdf

    • Security Systems Technology’s Time and Attendence Solutions – Record time and attendance, enabling people to ‘clock in’ by scanning a palm print http://www.sstgroup.co.uk/go/products/time-and-attendance/time-and-attendance-solutions

    • Cogent’s Automatic Fingerprint Identification System – range of fingerprint and palm print identification systems including CAPFIS explicitly designed for police forces http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAFIS_60_EN_sm.pdf; http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAFIS_EN_sm.pdf; http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAPFIS_Prime.pdf.38

    • Cross Match’s Mobile Rapid ID – mobile fingerprint identification system http://www.crossmatch.com/mobile-rapid-id.php39

    • Telos’s Mobileassure Access Control – Biometric access control system. Optional add-ons include vehicle tracking http://images.telos.com/files/external//MobileAssure_Access_Control.pdf

    • AuthenTec Biometric Fingerprint Authentification Device – Range of fingerprint scanners enabling access control for mobile device http://www.authentec.com/products-wireless.cfm40

    • Persay’s Vocal Password – Voice biometric identification system. Claims to be language and accent independent http://www.persay.com/vocal-password.asp?round=1 Security services provider G4S are planning to use it for “electronic monitoring projects around the world”41

    • Validity VSF5111 – Biometric Fingerprint Sensors http://www.validityinc.com/post.aspx?id=228

    • Human Recognition System’s Msite – Biometric access control aimed at construction companies http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=32

    • Human Recognition System’s Msecure – Biometric Access control system designed for airports http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=28

    • Authenware 2.0 – Identifies individuals through the development of a user specific ‘signature’ based on the way a person types, for example, username and password information. http://www.authenware.com/whatis.php

    • Persay’s VocalPassword App – Voice recognition biometric application for iPod, iPad and iPhone. http://www.persay.com/news-content.asp?pageId=news&newsId=08_03_2010

    • Timeneto Plus – Fingerprint based biometric system for recording ‘clock in’ time of employees. http://timeneto.com/en-us/products/timeneto_fingerprint/

    • Fulcrum FbF Timeclock – System for remote web based ‘clocking in’ with fingerprint readers. http://www.fulcrumbiometrics.com/en/solutions/time-and-attendance

    • Persay’s VocalPassword App – Voice recognition biometric application for iPod, iPad and iPhone. http://www.persay.com/news-content.asp?pageId=news&newsId=08_03_2010

    • Neurotechnology Mega Matcher 3.0 – Fingerprint and iris and face matching system http://www.neurotechnology.com/download/MegaMatcher_Accelerator_Brochure_2011-02-22.pdf



    • Persay FreeSpeech – Voice biometric system designed for use on conversation between callers and agents in contact centres http://www.persay.com/freespeech.asp

    • iEvo Reader - Fingerprint reader for access control http://www.ievoreader.com/

    • Neurotechnology Mega Matcher 4.0 – Fingerprint, iris, face and palm matching system http://www.neurotechnology.com/megamatcher.html

    Tables of Relative Moral Risks

    Intrusion




    Intrusion into ‘Home Spaces’

    Intrusion into Bodily Privacy

    Intrusion into Private Life

    Is information accessible to further people?

    CCTV in public places

    Only problematic if cameras overlook windows into people’s homes, or other ‘home spaces’.

    Otherwise the use of CCTV in public is only mildly intrusive.

    Only problematic if cameras overlook windows into people’s homes or other ‘home spaces’. Otherwise does not invade bodily privacy.

    Smart cameras with video analytics create the possibility of revealing intimate details of private life.

    Otherwise information is too disparate to constitute a threat.



    An additional source of intrusion only if, through the use of video analytics, revealing details of private life are made available to others, or if information from a ‘home space’ is acquired and transmitted.42

    Full Body Scanners

    Since these are used in explicitly ‘public’ places such as airports there is no intrusion of a ‘home space’.

    Very intrusive into bodily privacy if an image of the naked body is produced.
    Much less intrusive if the process is automated, with no need for a viewer to look at an image of the subject’s actual body.

    If detailed image is produced this may reveal some intimate details of private life – embarrassing medical conditions or surgery for example.

    This is avoided if the process is automated, revealing only strictly relevant information.



    Would be very intrusive for an intimate visual image to be available to others.

    Much less intrusive if no image is recorded, as is the case with many scanners.



    Substance Detectors

    Since these are used in explicitly ‘public’ places such as airports there is no intrusion of a ‘home space’.

    If these involve scanning of the human body this constitutes an intrusion, but, as the information acquired is not personal in any way the intrusion is mild.

    Does not penetrate sphere of private life

    Even if information is available more widely, as the information is not personal, this is not intrusive.

    Covert Cameras

    Very intrusive when used in homes and ‘home spaces’.


    When used in home spaces this is likely to result in great bodily intrusion.

    Less revealing of the details of private life than bugging, but still very intrusive.

    More intrusive still if information is accessible to a wider audience.

    Less intrusive the more restricted this further audience is.


    Bugging

    Though less intrusive into bodily privacy than covert cameras, but the intrusiveness of others hearing sounds of bodily function mean this is still an issue.

    Very intrusive into the most intimate details of private life.

    Phone Monitoring

    Listening in to some calls made in private may be considered to invade the sphere of the home.


    Not intrusive into bodily privacy

    Very intrusive into private life.

    Databases and Datamining

    Does not penetrate privacy of the home

    Does not intrude upon bodily privacy

    May intrude into private life is enough information is aggregated.

    More intrusive the more people who have access.

    Location tracking

    Does not reveal details of activity in home.

    Does not intrude into bodily privacy.

    May reveal details of private life – how one chooses to spend one’s leisure time or who one chooses to associate with. Unproblematic in the case of emergency calls.

    If details of private life become accessible to a wider audience this worsens the intrusion.

    Internet Monitoring

    For a person who spends much of their home life interacting on the internet, detailed monitoring can be seen to penetrate home life

    Does not penetrate sphere of bodily privacy.

    Very intrusive into private life, potentially revealing matters of conscience, association and sexuality.

    More intrusive still if information is accessible to a wider audience.

    Less intrusive the more restricted this further audience is.



    Error and Discrimination




    Is the information acquired prone to false positives/ambiguity?

    Is sanction possible on the basis of these errors?

    Are errors possible as a result of storing information?

    Can a lack of training by users result in error?

    Are certain social or cultural groups more likely to be subject to error?

    CCTV in public places

    Potential for unclear outputs.
    Video Analytics that makes use of a category of ‘abnormal behaviour’ derived from majority activity may disproportionately target social/cultural minorities.


    Errors, including those that discriminate against particular groups, can result in sanction if the judgement of individual officers
    Some have claimed that CCTV disproportionately results in harassment of minorities, seeming to confirm that this does occur.43

    Little risk from errors resulting from storage.

    Discrimination of users can be reinforced by Analytics which disproportionately target minorities.

    Full Body Scanners

    Some risk of ambiguity from unclear outputs.

    As the technology is being used to indicate areas for further investigation, errors are likely to be corrected before significant sanction is suffered.


    In most cases information is not stored.


    Viewers may be unfamiliar with certain objects that have been implanted as a result of surgery.

    Substance Detectors

    Some risk of false positives.

    Lack of training may lead to errors, but unlikely to do so in a way that disadvantages any particular group.


    Covert Cameras

    Potential for unclear outputs.

    If intelligence is recorded, widely shared, and acted upon the various sources of errors may result in significant sanction. A particularly significant example is no fly lists.

    If intelligence collected is recorded incompletely, suspicion may be registered without adequate opportunity for correction.


    Bugging

    Conversations may be ambiguous out of context.44


    Lack of understanding of political or religious writings may result in the significance of exchanges being misjudged.45


    Phone Monitoring

    Location tracking

    Information can be misleading, seeming to provide evidence of certain associations or engagement in certain activities.


    Lack of training may lead to errors, but unlikely to do so in a way that disadvantages any particular group.

    Internet Monitoring

    Lack of understanding of political or religious writings may result in the significance of exchanges being misjudged.

    Databases and Datamining

    Datamining techniques may cast suspicion on large numbers of innocent people, often disproportionately targeting members of particular social and cultural groups.

    Discrimination of users can be reinforced by datamining programmes which disproportionately target certain groups.



    Trust and Chill




    Perceived Intrusion

    Perceived Risk of Error

    Perceived Discrimination

    Perception of Function Creep

    CCTV in public places

    Widely known about and regarded as moderately intrusive.

    The gathering of footage on legitimate (and non-violent) public protests is likely to have a chilling effect on public protest.

    Perception of discrimination and the targeting of particular groups may undermine trust in the police.

    Widely circulated reports of function creep. Lack of clarity surrounding who has access to footage.

    Full Body Scanners

    Intrusive scanners widely known about: if made mandatory likely to be regarded as illegitimate. Less so if alternatives, like the pat down search are permitted, or automated scanners are used.

    Not significant source of damage to trust or chill.

    Perception of discrimination if groups for whom the use of intrusive scanners is particularly offensive are given no alternative.

    If a pat down is permitted this eliminates the source of damage to trust or chill.



    Not significant source of damage to trust or chill.

    Substance Detectors

    Mildly intrusive, but as it is narrowly focussed on information of strictly related to criminal activity likely to be perceived as legitimate.

    Not significant source of damage to trust or chill.

    Not significant source of damage to trust or chill.

    Not significant source of damage to trust or chill.

    Covert Cameras

    Very intrusive, but less widely known about.


    Worry about the possibility of erroneously becoming a target of suspicion adds to ‘the chilling effect’.

    Perception of discrimination, the targeting of particular groups and the misunderstanding of evidence may undermine trust in the police.

    Purposes for which techniques may be used is not transparent enough, adding to chill.

    Bugging

    Phone Monitoring

    Internet Monitoring Location tracking

    Location tracking

    Perceived as intrusive where known about.

    Databases and datamining

    Fairly unintrusive except where private information is gathered

    The haphazard manner in which suspicion may be cast on innocents by profiling techniques provides a motivation to avoid behaviour associated with crude profiles.


    Perception that discriminatory profiles are in operation likely to undermine trust in police.



    Overview




    Intrusion

    Error and discrimination

    Trust and Chill

    CCTV in public places

    Mostly only mildly intrusive.

    Use of smart cameras may be more so.

    Possibility for errors.

    Because use is widespread, widely known about and there is perception of function creep, the use of CCTV may have significant impacts on trust in the police and political participation.

    Covert Bugging

    Very intrusive.


    Potential for ambiguity and misunderstanding due to context dependence of understanding by third parties.


    Although where discovered the intrusiveness of such measures are likely to weaken trust, they are more likely to remain secret and unknown to the public.


    Phone Monitoring

    Covert Cameras

    Potential for ambiguity.

    Full Body Scanners

    Very intrusive if outputting intimate visual image. If less detailed image outputted, or process is automated, intrusion greatly reduced.

    Possibility of false positives, but unlikely to result in lasting errors.

    Where intrusive scanners are made mandatory as a condition of flight, this is likely to weaken trust in authorities and have a ‘chilling effect’. This is greatly reduced by offering alternatives or using less intrusive scanners.

    Substance Detectors

    Although scans of the body can be considered an invasion of bodily privacy, where this detects only the presence of substances this is a mild intrusion.

    Possibility of false positives, but unlikely to result in lasting errors.

    Use likely to be seen as legitimate intrusion by authorities.

    Databases and Datamining

    Only intrusive if information collected is intimate or sensitive in a way that penetrates the sphere of privacy, or reveals such information as a result of aggregation. Otherwise unintrusive.

    False information can endure for long periods of time without adequate opportunity for correction. Datamining is at great risk of casting suspicion on large numbers of innocent people, often disproportionately affecting social and cultural groups.

    Damaging to trust in the authorities if it is understood to result in sanction for innocent people, especially so if members of ‘suspect communities’ are disproportionately likely to be victims.

    Location Tracking

    Potential for intrusion into private life with the exception of emergency calls.

    Potential for misjudging the significance of visiting certain places.

    To the extent that its use is known about, likely to weaken trust in authorities and chill political participation.

    Internet Monitoring

    Very intrusive into private life.

    Great potential for misjudging the significance of visiting certain websites.

    Awareness of internet monitoring is likely to have a severe impact on people’s willingness to seek out information on certain topics.



    1 “This is a person’s default environment of choice, that is, the place he willingly occupies when he has nowhere else to go, and the place from which he typically sets out when he enters public space. Home is also the place to which others have to be invited if they are legitimately to join an individual who is willingly on his own. It is in this sphere that intimate relationships with family and friends are developed over time, and where the liberty to do things as one likes – irrespective of public conventions of cleanliness, tidiness, profanity and so on – is at its greatest.” (Guelke and Sorell, 2010, 8)

    2 “...the naked body, and especially the parts of the body associated with activities that are conventionally shielded from public view: sex and excretion, dressing and undressing.” (ibid)

    3 “The principle that certain matters are beyond the legitimate interest of the state is an important feature of liberal societies. Matters of individual conscience, such as religion, or political beliefs are considered to not be legitimate matters of concern, and for the state to require such information would be seen as overreaching – as upsetting the balance of power between the state and the individual.” (ibid, 20)

    4 See http://euobserver.com/9/31880

    5 See the full speech at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/11/183&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en and a news report covering the event – http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/mar/16/eu-social-network-sites-privacy

    6 For press release summarising the opinion see http://www.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/webdav/site/mySite/shared/Documents/EDPS/PressNews/Press/2011/EDPS-2011-03_EU_PNR_EN.pdf

    7 Recommendations available at http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/rfid/documents/recommendationonrfid2009.pdf

    8 See the report at http://www.eesc.europa.eu/?i=portal.en.ten-opinions.15051

    9 See http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/83324eac-53ec-11e0-8bd7-00144feab49a.html#axzz1NSzejQs3

    10 See http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,678508,00.html and http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number9.6/loppsi-2-adopted

    11 See for example http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/447c0d7c-8625-11e0-9e2c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1NNYhdmVC and http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/may/24/sarkozy-opens-e-g8-summit?INTCMP=SRCH

    12 See for example http://www.pcworld.com/article/222589/dutch_court_rules_wifi_hacking_is_now_legal.html and http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/03/21/wi_fi_hacking_holland/. For the original ruling (in Dutch) see http://zoeken.rechtspraak.nl/resultpage.aspx?snelzoeken=true&searchtype=ljn&ljn=BP7080&u_ljn=BP7080

    13 See for example http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/05/12/kpn-admits-to-using-deep-packet-inspection/

    14 See https://publicaffairs.linx.net/news/?p=3768 and http://falkvinge.net/2011/03/31/czech-supreme-court-kills-data-retention/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:%20Falkvinge-on-Infopolicy%20(Falkvinge%20on%20Infopolicy)&utm_content=Google%20Reader.

    15 See http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/telecoms/8464471/TalkTalk-and-BTs-challenge-to-anti-piracy-laws-thrown-out-by-High-Court.html

    16 See http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/may/11/police-software-maps-digital-movements

    17 See http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13541250

    18 See for example http://www.zdnet.co.uk/news/regulation/2011/04/05/google-loses-autocomplete-defamation-case-in-italy-40092392/?tag=mncol;txt and http://blog.dlapiper.com/IPTitaly/entry/google_liable_for_suggest_search

    19 See http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,15039454,00.html

    20 See this press release announcing the contracting of the service by the New York City Health and Human Services Connect http://www.prosecurityzone.com/News/It_security/Data_protection/Real_time_activity_logging_at_new_york_agency_17082.asp#axzz1MibwwrwA

    21 Automatic Fingerprint Identification System – National American system for law enforcement maintained by FBI.

    22 Personal Identity Verification see http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/piv/index.html

    23 Common Access Card see http://www.cac.mil/CardInfoIdentification.html

    24 Transportation Worker Identification Credential see http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/layers/twic/index.shtm

    25 See http://www.genetec.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PR/EN/Genetec%20Develops%20Innovative%20Video%20Trickling%20Feature.pdf

    26 http://www.onssi.com/component/option,com_news/task,detail/nid,203/id,7/

    27 “One of the most impressive features of the SCB-3001 is that it brings straight out of the box Intelligent Video Analytic (IVA) functionality to analogue installations, making it possible to enhance security applications with features such as optical tripwire, enter/exit direction detection and an appear/disappear function to detect changes within a pre-defined area. IVA also has a scene change tampering function which creates an alert if, for example, paint is sprayed on a camera lens or there is unauthorised movement of a camera away from its usual field of view” http://www.securitypark.co.uk/security_article264878.html

    28 SUI Goodrich is producing other small infrared cameras for use with unmanned aerial vehicles http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Thermal_Imaging_and_Infrared_Cameras/Short_Wave_IR_Camera_For_Unmanned_Vehicles.asp

    29 http://www2.intamac.com/media-relations/intamac-systems-ltd-launches-next-generation-of-3genabled-connected-home-services.html

    30 http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/Bomb_and_explosives_detection/Safe_millimetre_wave_imaging_systems_ready_for_airport_deployment.asp

    31 Rapiscan 1000 machines now being used in UK and USA, and OSI have just won a contract to supply them to the Nigerian government http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X-Ray_Detection/Single_Pose_Advanced_Imaging_Scanners_for_Nigeria.asp

    32 Machines donated by the US government to Ghana http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X-Ray_Detection/US_Government_Donates_Through-Body_X-Ray_Scanner_to_Ghana.asp and have previously been donated to Nigeria to combat drugs http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X-Ray_Detection/Low_Dosage_Body_Scanners_Improve_Security_At_Nigerian_Airports.asp

    33 Contracted by the Israel Airports Authority for up to $50 mil. http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/Bomb_and_explosives_detection/Explosive_detection_system_for_checked-in_baggage_to_be_used_at_Israels_Airports.asp

    34 http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Intelligence_Software_and_Knowledge_Management/ANPR_data_integration_with_intelligence_software_from_i2.asp

    35 Contracted by Murcia region of Spain to provide location tracking service for emergency services calls http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Tracking_and_EAS/Location_Positioning_System_In_Use_By_Wireless_Emergency_Callers_in_the_Murcia_Region_of_Spain.asp

    36 Now being bundled with HP notebooks http://www.validityinc.com/post.aspx?id=200

    37 http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerprint_recognition/Palm_print_recognition_added_to_MegaMatcher.asp

    38 Cogent win a contract from the UK National Police Improvement Agency to provide a mobile system for real time identification in the field. http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerprint_recognition/UK_National_MobileID_Service_Chooses_Cogent_Systems_for_Automatic_Fingerprint_Identification.asp

    39 Report on use by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement http://www.crossmatch.com/news/Mobile-Rapid-ID-Certified-by-FDLE.php “When coupled with FALCON [the FDLE’s system for crossreferencing biometric information with state and national crime databases], the system provides instantaneous submission of biometric data and access to vital information for use at traffic stops and crime scenes.”

    40 For example being used to provide security for Fujitsu Smart Phones http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerprint_recognition/Fingerprint_Sensors_for_Waterproof_Fujitsu_Smartphones.asp

    41 http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Voice_Recognition/VocalPassword_Voice_Biometrics_Package_Chosen_by_G4S.asp

    42 See claims of the insecurity of the increasingly widespread practice of transmitting CCTV pictures using Internet Protocol http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/IT_Security/Network_Security_Routers_and_Data_Centres/ISF_Comments_On_Converged_IP_Security_Networks_Threat_Profile_Increase.asp

    43 “Surveillance therefore seems to be capable of abuse, in terms of unjustified harassment – especially to those from minority communities” Liberty citing the Information Commissioner’s Office http://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/issues/3-privacy/pdfs/liberty-privacy-report.pdf

    44 See Detecter Deliverable D05.2 p 29 and 29n.

    45 See Detecter Deliverable D05.2 p 32 and 32n



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