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Table 1. Demographic Information for Persons with T1D
Persons with T1D
M (SD)
Range
Age
46.82 (Gender (% Women)
52.3%
--
Race (%White)
92.5%
--
Ethnicity (% Hispanic)
6%
--
Daily Sleep Quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Length of Diagnosis (Pump Use (%)
68.7%
--
CGM Use (%)
43.4%
--
HbA1c
7.57 (1.06)
4.9–11.20
ann. behav. med. (2020) 54:249–257 251

a higher level of self-regulation failures. These items were developed by Berg et alto identify key components of regulation failures involving planning, initiation, memory, and emotional control (a) I kept putting off my BG testing, b) I had a lot going on and had a hard time figuring out the best time or place to do my BG tests, (c) I kept meaning to test my BG, but in the end it didn’t quite happen the way it was supposed to, (d) Each time I was about to test my BG, I got distracted by something else, (e) Testing my blood glucose kept slipping my mind, (f) I figured that if I skipped some of my BG testing, it wouldn’t be a big deal, g) I was so involved in doing something else I was enjoying that I didn’t stop to test my BG when I was supposed to, and (h) I was in a bad mood today and didn’t really care about testing my BG. An average score was used. Interitem consistency reliability of the eight items was calculated via Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) random intercept models, with both time and item treated as nested levels, and was excellent (
λ
00.
=.96).
Daily self-care behaviors. To measure diabetes self-care behaviors, at the end of each day, persons with TD rated their self-care behaviors using six items from the short modified Self Care Inventory (SCI) [
8
]. Persons with TD rated how well they followed recommendations in the past 24 hr on a 1 (did not do it) to 5 (did it exactly as recommended) scale checking blood glucose with meter, administering insulin dose as recommended, adjusting insulin based on blood glucose values, having quick-acting sugar to treat reactions, eating the proper foods or counting all carbohydrates, and using a pump
(e.g., programming the pump, making sure there is enough insulin) or continuous monitor (e.g., wearing the sensor) correctly for those using pumps or continuous glucose monitor (CGM). In the present study, an average score was used. Interitem consistency reliability of the six items was calculated via Hierarchical Linear Modeling
(HLM) random intercept models, with both time and item treated as nested levels, and was excellent (
λ
00
= .97)
Daily blood glucose. Persons with TD were given
OneTouch Verio IQ glucometers to use in place of their regular meter for the week duration of the daily diary portion of the assessment. In this study, we used both BG mean and average daily risk range (ADRR), which was calculated using McCall and Kovatchev’s [
32
] average risk for high and low BG Index. The reason we included both metrics is that although BG mean has been widely used, it has limitations. That is, the scaling of BG is neither linear nor equivalent at the low and high ends of the scale with a greater range of high BG values
(180–600+ mg/dl) than low (
∼20–70 mg/dl)). The ADRR is calculated using at least 14 days within a month of self- monitoring blood glucose (at least three readings/day) and is designed to be equally sensitive to hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic BG deviations to optimize to predict glycemic extremes.

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