Republic of Kenya Integrated Pest Management Framework (ipmf) For Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project (kapap) and Kenya Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (kaccal) February 2009



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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The two projects namely; (i) Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project (KAPAP); (ii) Kenya Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-arid Lands (KACCAL) will contribute to the revitalization of agriculture by:

  1. Making resources available and strengthen the capacity of agricultural producers and other resource users to: (1) adopt good practices and technologies to mitigate land degradation and achieve greater productivity of crops, trees and livestock; (2) enhance understanding of climate change and its impacts nationally and in local regions; (3) recommend vulnerability assessment, impact monitoring and capacity building framework needs as a response to climate change; and (4) adopt sustainable alternative livelihood options to diversify and increase income, and reduce the pressure on the natural resources

  2. Enhancing the institutional capacity of all relevant stakeholders to promote sustainable land management practices and alternative livelihood strategies based on participatory and demand-driven approaches

  3. Evaluating the impact of existing policies affecting the management of natural resources and contribute to the removal of barriers hindering the widespread adoption of SLM practices and ‘smart agriculture’

  4. Facilitating the exchange of information on best practices in sustainable land management among farmers, communities, extension agents, researchers, development partners, and policy makers

KAPAP and KACCAL are implemented under KAPAP Project Coordination Unit including the secretariat and key experts:

  1. National Coordinator, Environmental Expert, M&E’s experts, IT- expert,

  2. Regional service units, which are to include and a KAPAP Coordinator and KACCAL Climate Change Coordinator; and general field officers implementing any of the 3 project

  3. Local community level forming different groups to undertake KAPAP or KACCAL sub-projects, depending on particular activities being implemented.

The projects address fundamental features of the Governments strategies for development and poverty alleviation as specified in the Kenya Vision 2030 and in the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) which has specifically identified five critical areas requiring public action in the modernization process of the sector. The projects are designed to fund agricultural policy processes and activities including small-scale, community-based sub-projects that were identified and planned by the communities, with the support of projects’-financed extension teams.

KAPAP covers a period of five years (2010-2014) and focuses on the following:



  1. Improving linkages of agricultural research and extension systems to national, local and regional sector priorities through the implementation of ASDS, NASEP and NARS policies, including improved planning, coordination, funding and implementation;

  2. Empowerment of producer and other public and private stakeholders and their organizations to plan, design and deliver extension and agribusiness services, aimed at sector transformation/growth, including production and value-addition and linking farmers to input and output markets

  3. Setting-up of appropriate funding and risk mitigation systems which would lead to the development of on- and off- farm diversification and promote private investment in the sector.

KACCAL, project financed by GEF, will:

  1. Contribute to climate change adaptation particularly through sustainable land management.

  2. KACCAL will strengthen capacities among national institutions to better assess and respond to current and future climate risks. The project will generate and disseminate climate-related knowledge and strengthen institutional coordination among currently fragmented agencies managing disaster and climate risk.

  3. The project will help communities adopt climate change adaptation strategies and investments. Such investments will help arrest vulnerability among the ASAL population by directly strengthening their resilience to climate risk.

The purpose of this document on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is to provide a strategic framework for the integration of climate change mitigation measures, smart agriculture, SLM practices and technologies, environmental and pest management considerations in the planning and implementation of the activities to be implemented within the Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Project (KAPAP) and Kenya Adaptation to Climate Change in Arid and Semi-arid Lands (KACCAL). This IPMF has been prepared and revised as a guide for initial screening of the sub-projects for negative impacts which would require attention and mitigation prior to their implementation.

The plan incorporates



  1. Guidelines on assessment of the potential impacts of pest management measures within KAPAP and KACCAL projects taking into account the World Banks Operational Policy OP 4.09, as well as Kenyas environmental policies, laws and regulations

  2. Development of screening procedures (including checklists) that will be used as a mechanism in the IPMP for screening potential environmental and social impacts due to sub-project interventions

  3. Provides a guideline for development of appropriate methods to promote an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach that will minimize the need for chemical pesticides during each project intervention.

  4. Reviews national environmental policies, legislation, regulatory and administrative frameworks and formulation of recommendations in the context of each of the projects as appropriate is provided

  5. Review of the relevant conventions and protocols to which Kenya is a signatory

  6. Management capacity as well as capacity to implement mitigation measures, and formulation of appropriate recommendations, including the institutional structure and the responsible agencies for implementing the framework, a grievance mechanism

  7. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of potential impacts;

  8. Evaluation of capacity building and training needs and their costs;

  9. Presentation of an outline on institutional arrangements for IPM

  10. IPM assessment procedures, monitoring indicators and mitigation strategies, as appropriate under each of the projects.

It is expected that with the implementation of this framework in the KAPAP pilot sites, and KACCAL districts; small scale farmers will have better access to, and use of IPM knowledge and technologies, which through sustained partnership with service provides, contribute to higher productivity and profitability. It will also contribute to enhancing human, animal and environmental health in the country.

It will also improve beneficiaries’ attention towards smart agriculture, SLM practices and technologies and climate change mitigation measures.


Table of Contents


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 14

1.0INTRODUCTION 17

1.1Background 17

1.2Objectives of IPMF 18

1.3Description of KAPAP project 18

1.3Description of KACCAL project 19

1.4Institutional and Implementation Arrangements 20

2.0ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PESTS 23

2.1Crop Pests 23

2.1.1 Impact on Production 23

2.1.2 Impacts on food security 23

2.2 Livestock Pests 24

2.2.1 Impacts on production 24

2.2.2 Impacts on human health and the environment 25

2.3Economic impact of forest pests 25

2.3.1 Impact on Production 25

3.0INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 25

4.0POLICY, INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORKS FOR IMPLEMENTING IPM 27

4.1Introduction 27

4.2Policies for IPM International policies 27

4.2.1. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) 27

4.2.2. World Bank Operational Policy on Pest Management, OP 4.09 (1998) 27

4.2.3 International plant Protection Convention of FAO (1952) 27

4.2.4 United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change (1992) 28

4.2.5 World Food Security and the Plan of Action of November 1996 28

4.2.6 National policies 28

4.3 Institutional framework 28

4.3.1 Agricultural sector ministries 28

4.4 Legal Framework 29

4.4.1 Chapter 324 – Plant Protection Act 29

4.4.2 Chapter 326 – Seeds and Plants Variety Act 29

4.4.3 Chapter 347 on irrigation 30

4.4.4 Chapter 346: Pest Control Products 30

4.4.5 Chapter 343 - Tea 30

4.4.6 Chapter 335 – Cotton 30

4.4.7 Chapter 338 - National Cereals and Produce Board 30

4.4.8 Chapter 364 - Animal Diseases 30

4.4.9 Chapter 128 – Chiefs’ Authority 31

4.4.10 Chapter 325 - Suppression of Noxious Weeds 31

4.4.11 Chapter 265 Local Government 31

5.0PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR IPM PLANNING, DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SUB-PROJECTS TO BE FINANCED UNDER KAPAP AND KACCAL 32

5.1Planning for subprojects 33

5.2Subproject Design 60

5.2.1 Set up of an IPM Program 60

5.2.2 Identifying Problems 60

5.2.3 Select Tactics 60

5.2.4 Consider Economic Factors: Know When It Pays to Use a Pesticide 61

5.2.5 Evaluating IPM Program 61

5.2.6 Pesticide reduction and judicious use 61

5.2.7 Investigate the cause 62

5.2.8 Choosing controls 62

5.3Implementation 63

5.3.1 Step One: Understand IPM and its advantages over other pest control methodologies 63

5.3.2 Step Two: Identify the implementation team 64

5.3.3 Step Three: Decide on scale of implementation 64

5.3.4 Step Four: Set goals and measurable objectives for your IPM program 65

5.3.5 Step Five: Analyse current housekeeping, maintenance and pest control practices 66

5.3.6 Step Six: Establish a system of regular IPM inspections 66

5.3.7 Step Seven: Define policy treatment selection 67

5.3.8 Step Eight: Establish communication protocols for environmental services, facility maintenance, facility management and service provider 67

5.3.9 Step Nine: Develop worker training plans and policies 67

5.3.10 Step Ten: Track progress and reward success 67

6.0MONITORING AND EVALUATION SYSTEMS FOR THE VARIOUS PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF THE PMP 69

6.1Proposed Pests Monitoring and Evaluation Regime 70

6.2Participatory Impact Monitoring (PIM) 70

6.3Integrated Pest Management Monitoring Framework 72

7.0POTENTIAL ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF THE PEST MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE SUB-PROJECTS 74

7.1Major agricultural and animal husbandry enterprises 74

7.2 Food Crops 75

7.2.1 Maize 75

7.2.2 Rice 77

7.2.3 Sorghum 78

7.2.4 Pearl millet 79

7.2 5 Bananas 80

7.2.6 Cassava 81

7.2.7 Common Beans (Phaseolus) 83

7.2.8 Sweet Potatoes 85

7.2.9 Coffee 86

7.2.10 Cotton 88

7.2.11Coconuts 90

7.2.12 Cashew-nuts 91

7.2.13 Mangoes 91

7.2.14 Citrus 91

7.2.15 Pineapples 92

7.2.16 Tomatoes 93

7.2.17 Onions 96

7.2.18 Brassicas (cabbages and kale) 80

7.3 Management of Pests 80

7.3.1Rodents 80

7.3.2Birds (Quelea quelea spp) 81

7.3.3Locust 82

7.3.4Armyworm 82

7.3.5 Water hyacinth 83

7.3.6 Striga 83

7.4 Key livestock pests and diseases 83

7.3 Key Forestry pests and diseases 81

8.0MANAGEMENT OF NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF CROP PROTECTION MEASURES 81

8.1Introduction 81

8.2Implication of control measures 82

8.2.1 Control of plant pests and diseases 82

8.2.2 Control of Livestock pests and diseases 82

8.2.3 Associated Risks 83

8.3Impacts of empirical plant and animal pests and disease control methods 83

8.3.1 Use of Pesticides 83

8.3.2 Impact on Environment 83

8.3.3 Impact on Health and safety 86

8.3.4 Use of Biological method 86

8.3.5 Use of Mechanical method 87

8.3.6 Use of manual method 87

8.3.7 Use of Quarantine 88

9.0CAPACITY NEEDS AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IPMF 89

10.0IPM RESEARCH AREAS IN KAPAP AND KACCAL 91

10.1 Economic Threshold for the pests and diseases 91

10.2 Risk analysis 91

10.3 Economic Impact of the pests and diseases 91

10.4 Development of IPM strategies for the control of pests and diseases 92

11.0IPMF IMPLEMENTATION AND BUDGET 93

11.1 Implementation 93

11.2 Budget 93

12.0REFERENCES 95

Appendix 1: Production of Crops in Kenya 97

Appendix 1a: Production of food crops in Kenya (2002 -2006) 97

Appendix 1b: Production of industrial crops in Kenya (2002-2006) 98

Appendix 1c: Production of horticultural crops in Kenya (2002-2006) 98

Appendix 2: Step 1, 2 and 3 of Stakeholder Analysis 101

Appendix 3: Questionnaire on Pest Management 104


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Agro-ecological zones of the tropics and their associated enterprise... 18

Table 2: Certified seeds production and importation (2002 -2006).................... 19

Table 3. Annual fertilizer off- take (2000 – 2007).............................................. 21

Table 4. Quantities and values of imported pesticides 2003/04 – 2005/06........ 22

Table 5. Major livestock pests and diseases in Kenya......................................... 67

Table 6. Social and economic activities associated with the presence of pests and vectors.................................................................................................................. 72

Table 7. List of banned or restricted pesticides in Kenya.................................. 75

Table 8. Budget element for implementation of IPMF........................................ 84

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Agroecological zones of Kenya ........................................................... 17

Figure 2: Participatory Impact Monitoring (PIM) approach to IPM ................... 38

Figure 3: Monitoring framework for Integrated Pest Management based on previous practices and proposed approaches ........................................................40




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