Sra: Imagine It!, Themes, Risks and Consequences, Nature's Delicate Balance, a changing America, Science Fair, America on the Move, Dollars and Sense, Level 4 [Grade 4]


Chapter Two: Great reat Gasping asping Garbage!



Download 1.43 Mb.
Page14/24
Date19.10.2016
Size1.43 Mb.
#4735
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   24

Chapter Two: Great reat Gasping asping Garbage!

Drake and Nell slogged through mud puddles, lugging the garbage can between them. For a monster, it wasn't very heavy. Even so, Drake slipped and almost fell because his glasses had fogged. Nell helped him up and brushed him off. She was a great partner. (And besides, she was his best friend.)

Finally, they pushed the garbage can through Drake's back door, dragged it up two flights of stairs, and into the attic lab. They set the garbage can in a corner next to a heater. "We must simulate the same environment," said Drake.

"Eighty-seven degrees, to be precise," said Nell.


405

Drake cleaned his glasses and put on his white lab coat. Nell did, too, except she didn't have any glasses to clean. They stuck sharpened pencils behind their ears, sat on stools, and opened their lab notebooks. Drake pulled a book off the shelf and shuffled through it until he found the right page. It read: "Monster Analysis: What to do when your garbage is gasping."

Just then, Drake's mom poked her head in the lab. Kate Doyle was a fine cook and ran her own catering company from home. Blueberry muffins were her specialty. Now Mrs. Doyle asked if they wanted any hot chocolate with their muffins, seeing that it was such a damp, drizzly day.

"No thanks," Drake said politely. "Just muffins."

"Coffee. Decaf. Black," said Nell. And she shoved a pencil behind her ear. (Nell forgot she already had a pencil behind her other ear.)

"Affirmative," said Drake's mom, and closed the door.

(Real scientists don't drink hot chocolate. Ditto for real detectives. And they were both.)

"Let's go over the facts again," said Nell.

Drake nodded. "Just the facts, ma'am."

Together they pored over their observations.

406
407

After a while, Drake's dad stuck his head in the lab. Sam Doyle owned a science-equipment and supply company. He regularly brought home used equipment for the lab: computers, microscopes, telescopes, glassware, Bunsen burners--even an old sink that he plumbed with hot and cold water. If either Drake or Nell needed equipment, Mr. Doyle was the man.

Now Mr. Doyle glanced at the rumbling garbage can and told them to be careful.

"We will," said Drake and Nell.

Mr. Doyle rolled his eyes and closed the door.

"What's he think we're going to do?" asked Drake. "Blow up the lab?"

"You did last time," reminded Nell.

"That's beside the point. Now, where were we? Ah, yes. Based on our observations, Scientist Nell, I have formulated a hypothesis"

All through the evening they worked. Later Mrs. Doyle brought them tomato soup and grilled cheese sandwiches with a pickle on the side. (Mrs. Doyle always cooked from her vegetarian menu whenever Nell was around, because Nell was a vegetarian.) Drake and Nell washed their hands and sat at Drake's desk, knowing they should never eat or drink while conducting experiments. They were top-notch scientists.

408
After supper, Nell called her mother and asked if she could stay extra late, given that there was no school tomorrow and that they were swamped with experiments and under a deadline. Ann Fossey was a biology professor at Mossy Lake University. Her specialty was wildlife biology. "Goodness gracious sakes alive," exclaimed Professor Fossey. "Sounds like you're a busy scientist. Now, don't you worry about a thing, my dear. I'll be sure to feed your rats and lizards."

"And don't forget my snakes and bugs."

"Of course, dear," said Professor Fossey. "I'll leave the light on for you."

409

Finally, after midnight, just when Nell was on her fourth cup of decaf, they had their answer.



In the morning, Nell hurried back to Drake's house. They called Gabby first thing. "Meet us in the lab," said Nell. "We've discovered the identity of the monster."

After Gabby arrived, Drake paced the floor while Nell sat on a stool. "You see, Ms. Talberg," Drake was saying, "it's really quite simple. Nell?"

"Thank you, Detective Doyle. First of all," said Nell, "the garbage can sounded hollow when we tapped on it. Second, the garbage can wasn't too heavy."

"You see, Ms. Talberg," said Drake, "most monsters are quite heavy."

"In addition," added Nell, "the garbage can was stored in a very warm environment. We copied that environment in our lab by setting the can next to the heater and checking its temperature. But most important, the garbage can smelled like bread."

410


"Remember, your dad is a baker," said Drake. "The best baker around, to be exact. Therefore, based on the clues and our observations, I developed an educated guess-- what we scientists call a hypothesis. I believed that the monster lurking inside your garbage can was not really a monster at all, but"

"Yes?" asked Gabby, her eyes wide.

"Yeast," said Drake. "Pure and simple yeast."

"Yeast?"


"Yes, yeast. Allow Scientist Nell to explain."
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 410 and page 411 in the print version.

411


Nell pointed to a chalkboard with her long, wooden pointer. "As I said, the smell of fresh-baked bread was our biggest clue. You see, yeast is used in making bread. Yeasts are tiny plants that eat starches and sugars. They then turn the starches and sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas."

"The tiny bubbles in bread," said Drake, "are the result of carbon dioxide gas."

Nell tapped the chalkboard with her pointer. "You see, Gabby, your dad must have thrown away a combination of yeast and flour. Ingredients used in baking bread. Easily purchased at any grocery store."
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 410 and page 411 in the print version.

412


Drake pushed up his glasses. "With the right amount of moisture--"

"And a warm environment--" added Nell.

"The yeast was able to grow and multiply by feeding on the flour inside the can," finished Drake. "Quite harmless, really. But the yeast produced so much carbon dioxide gas that the garbage can simply had to 'burp' to release some of the gas."

"We tested our hypothesis," said Nell, "with a thorough set of experiments. We examined the yeast under the microscope and grew it in several different mediums. We've positively identified yeast as your culprit. You can be certain there is no monster inside your garbage can."


413

Naturally, Gabby was a little disappointed. After all, yeast was not as exciting as a bloodsucking monster. She shook their hands anyway for a job well done. "I knew you could do it," she said. "I can't wait to tell all my friends."

Nell handed Gabby their business card. "Call us. Anytime."

Later that day, Drake wrote in his lab notebook:


414

Meet the Author

Michele Torrey

Torrey first became a published writer when she was in fifth grade. After that she knew she wanted to be a writer, although she did not make a career out of it until she became an adult. Among Torrey's favorite books to read as a child were picture books by Dr. Seuss and the Chronicles of Narnia. She loves to travel and has been to more than thirty countries. Her writing assistant is her calico cat, Sheba.
Meet the Illustrator

Ken Gamage

Gamage's first job was being a paperboy. He describes it as one of his best experiences because he learned business skills that he uses as an illustrator. An artist also needs to have self-motivation, business knowledge, and the ability to work well with people. However, the most important key to success is believing in yourself. Gamage says that students should realize they "have the ability to accomplish anything you wish in life."
415

Science Fair: Theme Connections

Within the Selection

1. What is Drake's first rule of science?

2. Why does the garbage can make a burping sound?

Across Selections

3. Yeast is an example of a decomposer. What other selection have you read that discusses decomposers?

4. You learned in "The Scientific Method" that good scientists are thorough. How do Drake and Nell prove that they are good scientists?

Beyond the Selection

5. How are scientists like detectives?

6. Would you rather be a scientist or a detective, and why?

Write about It!

Describe a time when you or someone you know solved a mystery.

Remember to look for newspaper and magazine articles about the theme Science Fair to add to the Concept/Question Board.
416

Social Studies Inquiry: Economic Freedom

Genre


Expository Text tells people something. It contains facts about real people, things, or events.

Feature


Headings tell people what a paragraph is going to be about.

We live in a country with many freedoms. In many countries, the government runs the economy. People cannot buy and sell goods the way they want to.



Free Enterprise

In the United States, people can organize and operate private businesses. This is called a free enterprise system. There are some rules. These rules are made to protect buyers and sellers.



Owners

In this system, a business owner tries to do things better than his or her competitor. Owners decide which goods to sell. They decide fair prices and which production techniques are best.



Buyers

Most people cannot buy all the things they want. They must choose the things they want most. Some people choose to do jobs themselves. Your mom may give you a haircut at home. Then she does not have to pay a barber.



Help

The government stops people from selling bad products. Higher taxes are often placed on certain items it does not want people to buy. The government also helps people who cannot afford food and supplies.

417

Think Link

Look at the headings in the article. They are very simple--just one or two words each. Rewrite each heading using three to five words for each one.

What is a free enterprise system?

What kinds of rules do you think the U.S. government has made to protect buyers and sellers?

Try It!

As you work on your investigation, think about how headings can help explain your ideas.


418

Vocabulary: Warm-Up
Read the article to find the meanings of these words, which are also in "How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning":

genuine

forecasts

eclipse

mast

charted

inventions

charge

shocked

Vocabulary Strategy



Context Clues are hints in the text that help you find the meanings of words. Look at the words mast and charge. Use context clues to find each word's meaning.

Clem Judd was an interesting man. He was smart but a little on the strange side. Everyone in the small town of New Bend loved funny, friendly Clem.

"He is the genuine article," Stew, the barber, always said. "He may be a little confused, but you have never met a nicer fellow."

People were not sure if Clem was strange or just pulling everybody's leg. He was always telling stories that could not possibly be true. It seemed like he really believed them. Or did he?

Clem had worked in the town bakery for at least thirty years. He would greet customers each morning with weather forecasts . Then he would smile.

He was never right.


419

He told story after story. He only repeated his favorites. He told stories about the e clipse that lasted four days straight. He bragged about the time he climbed the twenty-foot mast of a ship. He said he hung on for three hours while he charted a map of the East China Sea. He loved to tell about his wonderful inventions . They had all been stolen from him by people who soon became rich and famous.

He had an all-time favorite story. According to Clem, he was once struck by lightning six times in one day. He had told the story about 600 times.

"That charge went through me like nobody's business," he always said. "Yeah, that lightnin' shocked me real good. It jerked me off the porch right quick. Didn't even know what hit me!"

He always ended the story with the same two lines: "Electricians got nothin' on me! I know electric currents like the back of my hand!"

Concept Vocabulary

Test Yourself

Write each of the eight selection vocabulary words in a notebook or on a sheet of paper, leaving room to write the definitions. Before you look up each definition, decide what you think it might be based on your prior knowledge or the word's context in the article. Then look up each definition and write it on your paper. How did you do?

Concept Vocabulary

This lesson's concept word is precaution. A precaution is something people do to ensure safety. Some jobs can be dangerous, and workers must take precautions. Choose one of those jobs, and think of at least five precautions you would take if that were your job.

420

How ben Franklin stole the Lightning

written and illustrated by Rosalyn Schanzer

Genre

A biography is the story of a real person's life that is told by another person.



Comprehension Skill: Main Idea and Details

As you read, look for the main idea the author is trying to get across. Then look for the details he or she uses to support the main idea.
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 420 and page 421 in the print version.

421
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 420 and page 421 in the print version.

Focus Questions

How does science benefit people? How can we make experiments safer to perform?

422

t's true!



The great Benjamin Franklin really did steal lightning right out of the sky! And then he set out to tame the beast. It goes to figure, though, because he was a man who could do just about anything.

Why, Ben Franklin could swim faster, argue better, and write funnier stories than practically anyone in colonial America. He was a musician, a printer, a cartoonist, and a world traveler! What's more, he was a newspaper owner, a shopkeeper, a soldier, and a politician. He even helped to write the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States!

Ben was always coming up with newfangled ways to help folks out, too. He was the guy who started the first lending library in America. His post office was the first to deliver mail straight to people's houses.

He also wrote almanacs that gave hilarious advice about life and told people when to plant crops, whether there might be an eclipse, and when the tides would be high or low.

And he helped to start a hospital!

A free academy!

A fire department!
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 422 and page 423 in the print version.

423
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 422 and page 423 in the print version.

424

In colonial days, fire could break out at any time. And it was lightning that caused some of the worst fires.



Of course, after Ben stole the lightning, there weren't nearly as many fires for firefighters to put out. "Now, why was that?"

I hear you ask. "And how did he steal any lightning in the first place?" Well, it's a long story, but before we get to the answer, here's a hint. One of the things Benjamin Franklin liked to do best was to make inventions.

Why, Ben was a born inventor. He loved to swim fast, but he wanted to go even faster.

So one day when he was a mere lad of eleven, he got some wood and invented swim paddles for his hands and swim fins for his feet. Ben could go faster, all right, but the wood was pretty heavy, and his wrists got plum worn out.

That's why his second invention was a better way to go fast. He lay on his back, held on to a kite string, and let his kite pull him lickety-split across a big pond. (You might want to remember later on that Ben always did like kites.)

Ben kept right on inventing better ways to do things for the rest of his life.


Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 424 and page 425 in the print version.

425
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 424 and page 425 in the print version.

Take books, for example. Ben read so many books that some of them sat on shelves way up high near the ceiling. So he invented the library chair. If he pulled up the seat, out popped some stairs to help him reach any books on high shelves. And in case climbing stairs made him dizzy, he invented a long wooden arm that could grab his books, too.
426

He also invented an odometer that told how far he had ridden to deliver the mail. And the first clock with a second hand. And he even thought up daylight saving time. Then he invented bifocals so older folks could see up close and far away without changing glasses.


Distant Vision

Close-up & Reading

Everybody and his brother and sister just had to find better ways to heat their houses in wintertime. So Ben came up with a Franklin stove that could warm up cold rooms faster and use a lot less wood than old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces.

People all over Europe and America loved Ben's glass armonica. This instrument could spin wet glass bowls to make music that sounded like it came straight from heaven. Mozart and Beethoven wrote music for it, and it was even played at a royal Italian wedding.

But as popular as warmer stoves and glass armonicas were, they aren't anywhere near as celebrated nowadays as the invention Ben made after he stole the lightning.

427

Another hint about Ben's famous invention is that it helped make life easier for everyone. His scientific ideas were helpful, too, and were often way ahead of their time. For example, he had a lot of ideas about health. He said that exercise and weight lifting help keep folks fit, but they have to work hard enough to sweat if they want to do any good.



He wrote that breathing fresh air and drinking lots of water are good for you. He was the guy who said "an apple a day keeps the doctor away."

And before anyone ever heard of vitamin C, he wrote that oranges, limes, and grapefruit give people healthy gums and skin. Sailors soon got wind of this idea. They began eating so many limes to stop getting sick from scurvy at sea that they became known as limeys.

Didn't the man ever stop to rest? Even when he was outside, Ben kept right on experimenting.
428

For instance, he often sailed to England and France to do business for America. As he crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he charted the Gulf Stream by taking its temperature. Once sailors knew the route of this fast, warm "river" in the cold ocean, they could travel between America and Europe in a shorter time than ever before.

He was probably the first person to write weather forecasts, too. Once he chased a roaring whirlwind by riding over the hills and forests of Maryland just to find out how it worked.

Ben had an old scientific trick that he liked to show people every chance he got. He used to store some oil inside a bamboo walking stick, and whenever he poured a few drops onto angry waves in a pond or lake, the water became smooth as glass!

Meanwhile, over in Europe, people called "electricians" had started doing some tricks of their own. One trick was to raise a boy up near the ceiling with a bunch of silk cords, rub his feet with a glass "electric tube," and make sparks shoot out of his hands and face.
429
Another mean trick made the king of France laugh so hard he could hardly stop. His court electrician had run an electric charge through 180 soldiers of the guard, and they jerked to attention faster than they ever had in their entire lives.

But although people were doing lots of tricks with electricity, nobody had a clue about why or how it worked. So Benjamin Franklin decided to find out. He asked a British friend to send him an electric tube so that he could do some experiments.

In one experiment, he made a cork "electric spider" with thread for legs. It kept leaping back and forth between a wire and an electric tube just like it was alive.

Another time, he asked a lady and gentleman to stand on some wax. One held an electric tube, the other held a wire, and when they tried to kiss, they got shocked by all the sparks shooting between their lips.

Ben even figured how to light up a picture of a king in a golden frame. Anyone trying to remove the king's gold paper crown was in for a shock!
430

Doing all these tricks gave Ben his idea for stealing lighting out of the sky. He believed that lightning was nothing more nor less than pure electricity. Now he set out to prove it.

First he made a silk kite with a wire on top to attract some lightning. Next he added a kite string, tied a key to the bottom, and knotted a silk ribbon below the key. Ben and his son William stood out of the rain inside the doorway of a shed on the side of a field. To keep from getting shocked, Ben held on to the dry silk ribbon. Then he flew his kite straight up toward a big rain cloud.

For the longest time, nothing happened.


431
Just as Ben and William were about to give up, the hair on that wet kite string began to rise up and stand at attention. Ben put his knuckle near the key and YIKES!!!! Out jumped a bright spark of genuine electricity!

Real lightning had traveled all the way down that kite string!

Ben had stolen electric fire out of the heavens and proven that he was right.

(Of course, now we know that if the storm had been any stronger, the great inventor would have been toast.)

432

Finally! Here's the part of the story where Ben's practice from thinking up all those inventions came in so handy. Way back then, you remember, lightning was always setting fire to ships, houses, and church spires. Even the best fire departments couldn't keep entire towns from going up in smoke. So Ben decided to make his most famous invention of all--the lightning rod!



The whole idea was to pull lightning safely out of the sky before it could do any mischief. Ben showed people how to put a pointed iron rod on the tip-top of a roof or ship's mast and connect it to a wire leading all the way down under the ground or into the water. Now the lightning could follow a safe path without burning up a thing.
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 432 and page 433 in the print version.

433


This simple but brilliant invention worked beautifully. It saved more lives than anyone can count and made Ben Franklin a great hero.

Scientists from around the world lined up to give Ben medals and awards. But during his long life, he became much more than the master of lightning. Why, when America fought against Great Britain for the right to become a free nation, Ben convinced France to come help win the war, and when it was over, he helped convince Great Britain to sign the peace. He had helped in so many ways that the people of France honored him with a beautiful medallion. It says "He snatched the lightning from heaven and the scepter from tyrants."

And he did.
Production note: this image crosses the gutter to appear both on page 432 and page 433 in the print version.

434


Meet the Author and Illustrator

Rosalyn Schanzer


Schanzer spent years illustrating books, magazines, articles, and other items for other people before taking a risk and writing her own books. Once she began writing, she loved it. One of her favorite parts of the writing process is researching the characters and places she writes about. She often travels to the sites of her stories. Schanzer is also a nationally ranked Master's swimmer. She actually swam with sharks and kayaked with whales. Schanzer lives in Fairfax Station, Virginia, with her husband and her dog, Jones.

435



Download 1.43 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   24




The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2022
send message

    Main page