In Sing district, the proximity with China has an important role in terms of materials supplied where retailers either go to China to supply themselves directly or receive the products from Chinese suppliers. Materials from Thailand come through big importers located in Houay Xai or sometimes through Vientiane Capital.
In Bokeo, the chain starts in Thailand. Houay Xai is the entry gate for supplying the whole province. In the city there are two-three big importers that sell through the region with an extensive distribution network, having customers from Houay Xai, Phaoudom, Oudomxay and Luangnamtha. Phaoudom and Meung either purchase directly from Thailand or through Houay Xai.
In some cases the local supply chain is bypassed entirely, with the end consumer travelling to Thailand to buy the necessary materials and constructing latrines themselves.
In Borikhamxay steel, cement and zinc comes from Vietnam. The remaining materials (pans, PVC pipe) either from Thailand through Vientiane Capital or from Vietnam.
Supplies from Thailand reach Vienthong and Khamkeut through Vientiane Capital. Khamkeut has a more extensive supply chain than Vientong, with several construction material shops. Vientong often purchase the products from suppliers in Khamkeut.
The supply chain has limited presence in Xaychampone where the research team was not able to find any construction material shop.