Supply Chain Analysis for Rural Sanitation Products and Services in Lao pdr



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In Sekong province, everything comes from Thailand, except cement. Lamarm (Sekong) district works as an intermediary step between Pakse and remote districts such as Dakcheung and Kaleum. In Lamarm there is also a shop importing directly from Thailand, bypassing Pakse.

In Attapeu, steel comes from Vietnam through Saysettha. Cement comes from Salavan. All the rest from Thailand through Pakse and Sekong.

Sansay, Sanamsay and Phouvong districts have to purchase materials from Lamarm (Sekong) shops. Vietnamese products come into the country through Saysettha district.


  1. The Latrine

    1. The most common latrine


The focus of this Study is “on the commonly found or most preferred products and services for improved sanitation in rural Laos PDR (including below-ground and above-ground sanitation facilities).”15 As such, actors were asked about the types of latrines they most typically sold products for or built.

However, there is no “typical” or common latrine. A wide variety of options, sizes and materials were suggested by interviewees. Generally, most said it was a pour-flush squat latrine with ceramic pan. Few masons reported awareness of dry latrines (16%). Some (75%) mentioned septic tanks (Figure 11).



Figure 11: Do you know about these different latrine options? (n=71)

Latrine sizes (suggested by all types of actors) varied, considerably in some cases:



  • Pit sizes from 1m x 1m x 2m, to 2m x 4m x 1.5m.

  • Superstructure sizes: 2m x 2m and 1.5m tall, to 3m x 4m and 2m tall.

Materials also vary:

  • Bricks (clay or concrete) often preferred to concrete rings for pit lining;

  • Concrete or clay bricks for walls (sometimes with wood frame); sometimes wood or bamboo walls;

  • Typically zinc roof, sometimes wood;

  • Sometimes the latrine has tiles (not clear if floor only or also walls).

Consumers’ latrines


Most households (86.5%) in poor rural villages that have adopted a latrine have a flush or pour-flush squat latrine (Table 20). The superstructure is most likely to be wood or some form of bamboo or palm (Table 21).

Table 20: Type of latrines owned by the rural poor



Region – Province

Type of latrine the household has:

Dry pit latrine

Flush or pour flush (sit style)

Flush or pour flush (squat style)

No answer

Northern

22.7%

0.8%

72.7%

3.9%

Bokeo

44.6%

1.5%

50.8%

3.1%

Luangnamtha

0.0%

0.0%

95.2%

4.8%

Central

0.0%

1.1%

98.9%

0.0%

Borikhamxay

0.0%

0.8%

99.2%

0.0%

Savannakhet

0.0%

2.1%

97.9%

0.0%

Southern

12.9%

0.7%

83.5%

2.9%

Attapeu

2.6%

0.0%

94.9%

2.6%

Salavan

3.3%

0.0%

90.0%

6.7%

Sekong

22.9%

1.4%

74.3%

1.4%

Total sample

10.6%

0.9%

86.5%

2.0%

Note: only rural poor households interviewed for this data. Districts within these provinces are not the same as the supply chain study sample.

Source: WSP – Consumer Behavior Research.



Table 21: Latrine superstructures of the rural poor

Region – Province

What kind of material is the latrine superstructure made of?

Concrete / Brick

Cement

Galvanized steel

Wood

Palm / Bamboo

Plastic Sheet

Zinc Sheet

Northern

21.1%

14.8%

1.6%

11.7%

62.5%

5.5%

21.1%

Bokeo

1.5%

3.1%

0.0%

7.7%

83.1%

3.1%

6.2%

Luangnamtha

41.3%

27.0%

3.2%

15.9%

41.3%

7.9%

36.5%

Central

43.8%

17.6%

2.3%

34.1%

21.0%

1.1%

28.4%

Borikhamxay

34.4%

5.5%

0.8%

42.2%

25.0%

0.8%

28.9%

Savannakhet

68.8%

50.0%

6.3%

12.5%

10.4%

2.1%

27.1%

Southern

3.6%

1.4%

0.0%

35.3%

43.9%

2.9%

53.2%

Attapeu

2.6%

0.0%

0.0%

17.9%

56.4%

5.1%

46.2%

Salavan

3.3%

3.3%

0.0%

20.0%

53.3%

0.0%

60.0%

Sekong

4.3%

1.4%

0.0%

51.4%

32.9%

2.9%

54.3%

Total sample

24.6%

11.7%

1.4%

28.0%

40.2%

2.9%

34.1%

Note: only rural poor households interviewed for this data. Districts within these provinces are not the same as the supply chain study sample.

Source: WSP – Consumer Behavior Study.




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