Supply Chain Analysis for Rural Sanitation Products and Services in Lao pdr



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Appendix 4: Masons Questionnaire


Interview Number: Data Entry Completed

SSCA – Field Work Interviews

Questionnaire – Mason

Date:



Time:




Province:



District:




Village:




Location/Venue:




Distance (km) from center of district




Interviewer:



Interviewee:



Contact info:



Organization:



Title/rank:



Directions:

Explain the project (see background sheet).

Highlight the target districts within the province.

Clarify whether each answer applies only to the target districts, or more generally.

Supervisor sign:

Section 1 – Background information

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

1

What is your position in the business?

[SELECT ONLY 1]



(if “Hired” skip to Q.5)

Owner (with staff)




Self Employed




Hired




Other (specify)




2

How many years have you been in this business?







3

If you are the owner or self employed, where did you get the capital to start the business?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]

(% if possible)


Saved money

3.1

Loan from bank

3.2

Loan from family/friends

3.3

Loan from other source

3.4

Village development fund

3.5

Support from donor funded project

3.6

Other (specify)



3.7

4

If you are the owner, how large is the business? (# staff)




Male

Female




Permanent







4.1

Semi-permanent







4.2

Occasional







4.3

Total







4.4

5

Why did you decide to become a mason?






6

Were you trained to do this type of work?

If NO skip to Q.10

Yes

No





7

If “Yes”, who trained you?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]




College/training institute

7.1

NGO

7.2

Faith-based organization

7.3

Community-based organization

7.4

Government

7.5

Apprentice/on-the-job

7.6

A donor-funded project training programme

7.7

Other (specify)



7.8

8

Training in what?







9

How long were you trained for? (weeks)







10


If you are owner/self employed and have staff, are your staff trained?
If yes who trained them? In what subjects/areas?

College/training institute

10.1

NGO

10.2

Faith based organization

10.3

Community based organization

10.4

Government

10.5

Apprentice/on-the-job

10.6

A donor-funded project training programme

10.7

Other (specify)



10.8

11

Do you have other business activities?
(if NO skip to Q.12)


Yes

No


11.1

If yes, what are they?




11.2

12

What are your sources of income?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]

(% if possible)


Construction of houses

12.1

Construction of other structures

12.2

Construction of only latrines

12.3

Farmer

12.4

Other family member

12.5

Other (specify)



12.6

13

Is your business registered?

Yes

No


13.1

Why/Why not?




13.2

14

Who manages your finances?

(self, wife, manager, etc)









15


Do you have/have you ever done any of these types of plans? If yes, can you please give us the details?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Business plan

Yes


No

15.1.A

Details:


15.1.B

Marketing plan

Yes


No

15.2.A

Details

15.2.B

Financial plan:

Yes


No


15.3.A

Details:

15.3.B

16

Have you ever participated in any type of business training before?

(if NO skip to Q.17)


Yes

No


16.1

If yes, can you please give us details? (book keeping, marketing, etc)




16.2

17

In terms of latrines, which kind of service you can provide?

[SELECT ONLY 1]



(if “Build only superstructure” skip to Q.19)


Build full toilet (underground and superstructure)


17.1

Build only underground

17.2

Build only superstructure

17.3



18

Which kind of underground structure?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Pit with bricks

18.1

Pit with concrete rings

18.2

Pit with bamboo

18.3

Other (specify)


18.4

19


Which kind of superstructure?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Bamboo

19.1

Bricks

19.2

Concrete blocks

19.3

Floor without tiles

19.4

Floor with tiles

19.5

Roofing (zinc sheet? Other?)

19.6

Concrete water tank

19.7

Other (specify)


19.8






Section 2 – Product information/materials

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

20

Who purchases the materials you use for building a latrine?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Customers supplied all the products

20.1

Customers supplied some of the products

20.2

I supply all products

20.3

Other (specify)


20.4

21

Which materials were usually provided by the customer?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Sand

21.1

Gravel

21.2

Cement

21.3

Steel

21.4

PVC pipe

21.5

Cement ring

21.6

Cement slab

21.7

Concrete blocks

21.8

'Red earth' blocks

21.9

Zinc sheet for the roof

21.91

Grass for the roof

21.92

Doors (plastic sets, wooden sets, bamboo or other waste materials used...etc.)

21.92

Flooring of the toilet (earth, tiles, concrete...etc.)

21.93

22

What types of latrines can you construct?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Flush / Pour Flush:

- to piped sewerage systems


22.1

- to septic tank

22.2

- to pit latrine

22.3

Pit latrine with slab

22.4

Pit latrine without slab/open pit

22.5

Dry Latrine

22.6

Composting toilet

22.7

Other (specify)


22.8

23

What is the most common type of latrine you build?

(i.e


Size?

Dry/wet? Offset pit?



Type of superstructure?)







24

For the following materials please show the quantities used and current cost per item for a typical latrine




Quantity

Cost




Sand (metric ton)







24.1

Gravel (metric ton)







24.2

Cement (sack, kg, or metric ton)







24.3

Steel (different lengths)







24.4

PVC pipe (different sizes)







24.5

Cement ring (different sizes)







24.6

Cement slab (different sizes)







24.7

Concrete blocks







24.8

'Red earth' blocks







24.9

Zinc sheet for the roof (different sizes)







24.91

Grass for the roof (different sizes)







24.92

Doors







24.93

Flooring of the toilet







24.94

Others







24.95

25

Do you advise/suggest any type of latrine to your customer?







26

What are the main factors affecting households’ decisions in terms of the type of latrine they want to have?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Cost of materials

26.1

Quality of materials

26.2

Materials that match the house

26.3

Materials that will last the longest

26.4

Physical accessibility of materials

26.5

Other (specify)


26.6

27

What do you think is the main reason for households to build a latrine?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Emulate others

27.1

Regulations

27.2

Healthcare

27.3

Convenience/comfort

27.4

Education program

27.5

Other family members influence

27.6

Sales promotions

27.7

Other (specify)


27.8

28

What types of materials are not readily available?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]

For each, which is the furthest you have gone to buy materials for latrine construction?

For each, if there is a shortage how many days did you usually have to wait for?






Furthest km

Days wait




Sand







28.1

Gravel







28.2

Cement







28.3

Steel







28.4

PVC pipe







28.5

Cement ring







28.6

Cement slab







28.7

Concrete blocks







28.8

'Red earth' blocks







28.9

Zinc sheet for the roof







28.91

Grass for the roof







28.92

Doors (plastic sets, wooden sets, bamboo or other waste materials used...etc.)







28.93

Flooring of the toilet (earth, tiles, concrete...etc.)







28.94

29

Is there any seasonality to your work as mason?

[SELECT ONLY 1]



No seasonality




Dry season




Wet season




30

Are you building more latrines this year than last year?

Yes

No





31

Than 3 years ago?

Yes

No










Section 3 – Pricing information

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

32


Can you please specify how much do you charge, how many people and how much time is required to do the following


Item

Price for the customer

# Workers

# Days

Worker salary (total)




Pit digging













32.1

Pit lining (concrete rings)













32.2

Pit lining (bricks)













32.3

Pan and slab (specify which) and pipe installation














32.4

Superstructure (please specify which kind)














32.5

Total













32.6

33

What is the trend of construction material prices for the past year?

[SELECT ONLY 1]



No material price increased

33.1

Some material prices increased


All material prices increased


Which item?





33.2

By what %?




33.3

34

How have your service fee changed in the past year?

[SELECT ONLY 1]



Increased

34.1

Remained the same

Decreased

Which item?





34.2

By what %?





34.3

35

What is the reaction of customers to the fee you charge for building a latrine?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]




“Expensive”

35.1

“Unfair”

35.2

“Reasonable”

35.3

“Cheap”

35.4

Other…please specify


35.5

36

Do the customers negotiate the cost of your service (building a latrine)?

Yes

No





37

What do they negotiate about?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Offer to supply certain materials

37.1

Offer manual labour

37.2

Request cheapest materials

37.3

Cheaper price

37.4

Completion time

37.5

Other (specify)


37.6

38

What do you prefer in terms of payment?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Cash up front

38.1

Cash over time (step by step). How many payments, over how long?

38.2

Goods (barter) up front

38.3

Goods (barter) over time

38.4

39

What do your customers usually prefer?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]



Cash up front

39.1

Cash over time (step by step). How many payments, over how long?

39.2

Goods (barter) up front

39.3

Goods (barter) over time

39.4






Section 4 – Customer base

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

40

Who are the main customers of your services?
[SELECT ALL APPLY]

(% if possible)



Households

40.1

Government department/agencies

40.2

Donor funded projects

40.3

Local businesses

40.4

Local NGO

40.5

Other(specify)



40.6

41

Do your customers have quality preferences?
(please specify)
[SELECT ALL APPLY]


Brand



41.1

Durability/strength



41.2

Color



41.3

Size



41.4

Certain materials



41.5

Other (specify)



41.6

42

How many latrine customers did you have in the last year?







43

Approximately how much of your work in the last year was building latrines?
(% of total mason work)







44

What size, type and quality of latrines do most customers want?






45

Where are most of your customers located?
(Same village/district?)






45.1

What is the name of the furthest village? How far (km)?




45.2

46

How much are they usually willing to spend?

(only mason fee)









47

What is the furthest distance that you have travelled to construct a latrine?







48

When you go far away from your house, do you usually charge more because of the distance?

Yes

No





49

If yes, how much?







50

When you construct a latrine - who do you usually construct the latrine for?
[SELECT ALL APPLY]

(% if possible)



For people that are building a new house

50.1

For people that had no latrine at all

50.2

For people with collapsed latrine

50.3

For people with full latrine pits

50.4

Vulnerable groups and poor households (supported by government or NGOs)

50.5

Other (specify)



50.6

51

How do you market your service?






52

How do people know about your services?









Section 5 – Maintenance and Improvement

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

53

Can you please specify which kinds of intervention are you able to do and how many have you done in the last year?




Able/Not able

# in the last year




Repair/Fixing







53.1

Emptying







53.2

Upgrading







53.4

None







53.5

Other (specify)







53.6

54

What is the most common improvements made?
[SELECT ALL APPLY]


New Pit

54.1

Line Pit

54.2

New (not cement) slab

54.3

Cement slab

54.4

Permanent superstructure

54.5

Other (specify)



54.6

55

Do you know about different latrine options available?
[SELECT ALL APPLY]


Flush to septic tank?

55.1

Pour flush?

55.2

Offset pit?

55.3

Dry latrine?

55.4

Other?



55.5

56

If the mason knows different options:

Do you think your customers know about latrine options available? If yes, how they know?



They do not know

56.1

Verbal descriptions

56.2

Pictures

56.3

Physical

56.4

Other (specify)



56.5






Section 6 – Business Network

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

57

Do you regularly go to certain concrete producers over others to purchase the materials you need?

If NO skip to Q.58

Yes

No


57.1

If Yes, why?




57.2

58

Do you regularly go to certain retailers over others to purchase the materials or tools you need?
If NO skip to Q.59


Yes

No


58.1

If Yes, why?




58.2

59

Do materials retailers give you credit?

If NO skip to Q.61


Yes

No





60

If yes, please specify the credit conditions

Interest rate

60.1

Duration (days, weeks, months?)

60.2

Other requirements (collateral, guarantee)

60.3

61

Do shops give you incentives to purchase from them?

If NO skip to Q.62

Yes

No


61.1

If yes, can you please specify details?




61.2

62

Do you provide credit to customers?

(if NO skip to Q.64)

Yes

No





63

Please specify the credit conditions

Interest rate

63.1

Duration

63.2

Other requirements (collateral, guarantee)

63.3

64

Do you have many competitors in constructing latrines?

Yes

No


64.1

How many?




64.2

65

Are they working in the same areas?

Yes

No





66

Do you know the prices they charge?

(if NO skip to Q.67)

Yes

No


66.1

If Yes, how different is from yours?





66.2

67

Do you know their contact details? Please write them.







68

Do you have any agreement with your competitors (e.g. deciding together price etc)

(if YES skip to Q.69)

Yes

No


68.1

If No, why not?




68.2

69

If yes, what are the agreements?








70

Have you ever paid any commission to middleman in order to find new customers?

(if NO skip to Q.72)

Yes

No





71

If yes, how much?





71.1

What are the conditions?




71.2

72

Do you have sales agents?

(if NO skip to Q.74)

Yes

No





73

If yes, how do you pay them? (Salary? Commission?).




73.1

How much?



73.2

Can you please specify details?




73.3






Section 7- SWOT

Q.

Questions

Response

Code

Skip

74

Strength: What is your distinctive point/competitive advantage?

(or: why do you think customers would go to you rather than someone else?)

[SELECT ALL APPLY]


Price (I'm cheaper than my competitors)
Please specify why:



74.1

Quality (I'm better than my competitors)
Please specify why:



74.2

Speed (I'm faster than my competitors)
Please specify why:



74.3

Other (specify)
Please specify why:



74.4

75

Weakness: What are the main constraints to your business?

[SELECT ALL APPLY]




Access to finance
Please specify why:



75.1

Cost of inputs
Please specify why:



75.2

Availability of labour
Please specify why:



75.3

Availability of material
Please specify why:



75.4

Bad roads
Please specify why:



75.5

Corruption
Please specify why:



75.6

Government fees/regulations
Please specify why:



75.7

Insufficient demand
Please specify why:



75.8

Customer not paying
Please specify why:



75.9

Staff
Please specify why:



75.91

Training of staff
Please specify why:



75.92

Other (specify)



75.93

76

Opportunity: How can you stimulate demand?

(availability of target customers, government projects)

[SELECT ALL APPLY]


Educating customer on sanitation
Please specify why:



76.1

Educating customer on latrine options
Please specify why:



76.2

Improve the quality of products/services
Please specify why:



76.3

Lower cost of product/services
Please specify why:



76.4

Advertisements
Please specify why:



76.5

Other (specify)


76.6

77

Opportunity: what do you need to expand your business?







78

Threats: What can change in the future that will negatively affect your business?












Section 8 – Skills ability and capacity

79

How many days does it take for you to build a complete latrine? (what kind of latrine)

How many people?

How much faster can it be built if you have 1 more person?








80

How many latrines can you improve/upgrade in a month? (maximum)







81

If customer numbers increase, how will you cope with the extra demand?







82

In what ways does government help your business?








83

In what ways does government limit your business?








84

How could the government help your business grow?








85

What opportunity do you have to improve skills and knowledge?










86

Special observations














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