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478. Rignot, E. and P. Kanagaratnam, 2006. Changes in the Velocity Structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 311:986-990.

479. Vinther, B.M., K.K. Andersen, P.D. Jones, K.R. Briffa, and J. Cappelen. 2006. Extending

Greenland temperature records into the late eighteenth century. JGR 111, 10.1029/2005JD006810

5.2.2 Hydrological

480. Evan,A.T., Heidinger,A.K. and Vimont,D.J. 2007. Arguments against a physical long-term trend in global ISCCP cloud. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L04701, doi:10.1029/2006GL028082, 2007.

481. Santer,B.D., Mears,C., Wentz,F.J. et al. 2007. Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content. PNAS 104:15248-15253.

482. Chang,E.K.M. and Guo,Y. 2008. Reply to comment by Lennart Bengtsson and Kevin I. Hodges on “Is the number of North Atlantic tropical cyclones significantly underestimated prior to the availability of satellite observations?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L16809, doi:10.1029/2007GL030491, 2007.

483. Chung,C.E. and Ramanathan,V. 2007. Relationship between trends in land precipitation and tropical SST gradient. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16809, doi:10.1029/2007GL030491.

484. Evans,M.N. 2006. The woods fill up with snow. Nature 440:1120-1121.

485. Narisma,G.T., Foley,J.A., Licker,R. and Ramankutty,N. 2007. Abrupt change in rainfall during the twentieth century. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L06710, doi:10.1029/2006GL028628, 2007.

486. Robock,A. and Li,H. 2006. Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L20708, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027585, 2006.

487. Sheffield,J. and Wood,E.F. 2008. Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations. Climate Dynamics 31: 79-105.

488. Groleau,A., Mailhot,A. and Talbot,G. 2007. Trend analysis of winter rainfall over southern Québec and New Brunswick (Canada). Atmosphere-Ocean 45:153-162.

489. Liu,Y., Key,J.R., Francis,J.A. and Wang,X. 2007. Possible causes of decreasing cloud cover in the Arctic winter, 1982-2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L14705, doi:10.1029/2007GL030042, 2007.

490. Plug,L.J., Walls,C. and Scott,B.M. 2008. Tundra lake changes from 1978 to 2001 on the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, western Canadian Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L03502, doi:10.1029/2007GL032303, 2008.

491. Groisman,P.Y. and Knight,R.W. 2008. Prolonged dry episodes over the conterminous United States: New tendencies emerging during the last 40 years. J. Climate 21:1850-1863.

492. Knight,D.B., Davis,R.E., Sheridan,S.C. et al. 2008. Increasing frequencies of warm and humid air masses over the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2005. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L10702, Doi:10.1029/2008GL033697, 2008.

493. Gedney,N., Cox,P.M., Betts,R.A. et al. 2006. Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records. Nature 439: 835-838.

494. Gerten,D., Rost,S., von Bloh,W. and Lucht,W. 2008. Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20405, doi:10.1029/2008GL035258, 2008.

495. McClelland,J.W., Déry,S.J., Petesron,B.J. et al. 2006. A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06715, doi:10.1029/2006GL025753, 2006.

496. Milliman,J.D., Farnsworth,K.L., Jones,P.D. et al. 2008. Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951-2000. Global and Planetary Change 62:187-194.

497. Min,S.-K., Zhang,X. and Zwiers,F. 2008. Human-induced Arctic moistening. Science 320: 518 – 520.

498. Syed,T.H., Farmiglietti,J.S., Zlotnicki,V. and Rodell,M. 2007. Contemporary estimates pf pan-Arctic freshwater discharge from GRACE and reanalysis. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19404, doi:10.1029/2007GL031254, 2007.

499. Walvoord,M.A. and Strigel,R.G. 2007. Increased groundwater to stream discharge from permafrost thawing in the Yukon River basin: Potential impacts on lateral export of carbon and nitrogen. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L12402, doi:10.1029/2007GL030216, 2007.

5.2.3 Sea Ice

500. Comiso,J.C. and Nishio,F. 2008. Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR data. JGR 113, C02S07, doi:10.1029/2007JC004257, 2008.

501. Comiso,J.C., Parkinson,C.L., Gersten,R. and Stock,L. 2008. Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L01703, doi:10.1029/2007GL031972.

502. Comiso,J.C. 2006. Abrupt decline in the Arctic winter sea ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L18504, doi:10.1029/2006GL027341, 2006.

503. Drobot,S., Stroeve,J., Maslanik,J. et al. 2008. Evolution of the 2007-2008 Arctic sea ice cover and prospects for a new record in 2008. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L19504, doi:10.1029/2008GL035316, 2008.

504. Giles,K.A., Laxon,S.W. and Ridout,A.L. 2008. Circumpolar thinning of Arctic sea ice following the 2007 record ice extent minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L22502, doi:10.1029/2008GL035710, 2008.

505. Haas,C., Pfaffling,A., Hendricks,S. et al. 2008. Reduced ice thickness in Arctic Transpolar Drift favors rapid ice retreat. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L17501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034457, 2008.

506. Howell,S.E.L., Tivy,A., Yackel,J.J. and McCourt,S. 2007. Multi-year sea-ice conditions in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelao region of the Northwest Passage: 1968-2006. Atmosphere-Ocean 46:229-242.

507. Howell,S.E.L., Tivy,A., Yackel,J.J., Brent,G.T. et al. 2008. Changing sea ice melt parameters in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Implications for the future presence of multiyear ice. JGR 113: C09030, doi:10.1029/2008JC004730, 2008.

508. Kinnard,C., Zdanowicz,C.M., Koerner,R.M. and Fisher,D.A. 2008. A changing Arctic seasonal ice zone: Observations from 1870-2003 and possible oceanographic consequences. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02507, doi:10.1029/2007GL032507, 2008.

509. Maslanik,J.A., Fowler,C., Stroeve,J, et al. 2007. A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea-ice loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24501, doi:10.1029/2007GL032043.

510. Ngheim,S.V., Chao,Y., Neumann,G. et al. 2006. Depletion of perennial sea ice in the East Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17501, doi:10.1029/2006GL027198, 2006.

511. Nghiem,S.V., Rigor, I.G., Perovich,D.K. et al. 2007. Rapid reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031138, 2007.

512. Parkinson,C.L. and Cavalieri,D.J. 2008. Arctic sea ice variability and trend, 1979-2006. JGR 113: C07003, doi:10.1029/2007JC004588, 2008.

513. Rothrock,D.A., Percival,D.B. and Wensnahan,M. 2008. The decline in Arctic sea-ice thickness: Separating the spatial, annual and interannual variability in a quarter century of submarine data. JGR 113: C05003, doi:10.1029/2007JC004252, 2008.

514. Smedsrud,L.H., Sorteberg,A. and Kloster,K. 2008. Recent and future changes of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20503, doi:10.1029/2008GL034813, 2008.

515. Belchansky,G.I., Douglas,D.C. and Platonov,N.G. 2008. Fluctuating Arctic sea ice thickness changes estimated by an in situ learned and empirically forced neural network model. J. Climate 21:716-728.

516. Deser,C. and Teng,H. 2008. Evoultion of Arctic sea ice concentration trends and the role of atmospheric circulation forcing, 1979-2007. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35,L02504, doi:10.1029/2007GL032023, 2008.

517. Kay,J.E., L’Ecuyer,T., Gettelman,A. et al. 2008. The contribution of cloud and radiation anomalies to the 2007 Arctic sea ice extent minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08503, Doi:10.1029/2008GL033451, 2008.

518. Kwok, R. 2007. Near zero replenishment of the Arctic multiyear sea ice cover at the end of 2005 summer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L05501, doi:10.1029/2006GL028737, 2007.

519. Maslanik,J., Drobot,S., Fowler,C. et al. 2007. On the Arctic paradox and the continuing role of atmospheric circulation in affecting sea ice conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L03711, doi:10.1029/2006GL028269, 2007.

520. Ogi,M., Rigor,I.G., McPhee,M.G. and Wallace,J.M. 2008. Summer retreat of Arctic sea ice: Role of summer winds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24701, doi:10.1029/2008GL035672, 2008.

521. Ogi,M. and Wallace,J.M. 2007. Summer minimum Arctic sea ice extent and the associated summer atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L12705, doi:10.1029/2076GL029897, 2007.

522. Perovich,D.K., Light,B., Eicken,H. et al. 2007. Increasing solar heating of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, 1979-2005: Attribution and role in the ice-albedo feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19505, doi:10.1029/2007GL031480, 2007.

523. Perovich,D.K., Richter-Menge,J.A., Jones,K.F. and Light,B. 2008. Sunlight, water and ice: Extreme Arctic sea ice melt during the summer of 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034007, 2008.

524. Schweiger,A.J., Zhang,J., Lindsay,R.W. and Steele,M. 2008. Did unusually sunny skies help drive the record sea ice minimum? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L10503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033463, 2008.

525. Shimada,K., Kamoshida,T., Itoh,M. et al. 2006. Pacific Ocean inflow: Influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett 33, L08605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025624, 2006.

526a. Stroeve,J., Holland,M.M., Meier,W. et al. 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09501, doi: 10.1029/2007GL029703, 2007.

526b. Min, S.K., Zhang, X., Zwiers, F.W. and Agnew, T. 2008. Human influence on Arctic sea ice detectable from early 1990s onwards. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L21701, doi:10.1029/2008 GL035725, 2008.

527. Zhang,J., Lindsay,R., Steele,M. and Schweiger,A. 2008. What drove the dramatic retreat of arctic sea ice during summer 2007? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11505, doi:10.1029/2008GL034005, 2008.

528. Lawrence,D.M., Slater,A.G., Tomas,R.A. et al. 2008. Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11506, doi:10.1029/2008GL033985, 2008.

529. Cavalieri,D.J. and Parkinson,C.L. 2008. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979-2006. JGR 113, C07004, doi:10.1029/2007JC004564, 2008.

530. Zhang,J. 2007. Increasing Antarctic sea ice under warming atmospheric and oceanic conditions. J. Climate 20:2515-2529.

5.2.4 Land ice and Sea Level Rise

531. Bindschadler,R. 2006. Hitting the ice sheets where it hurts. Science 311:1720-1721.

532. Cazenave, A. 2006. How fast are the ice sheets melting? Science 314:1250-1252.

533. Chen,J.L., Wilson,C.R. and Tapley,B.D. 2006. Satellite gravity measurements confirm accelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet. Science 313:1958-1960.

534. Das,S.B., Joughin,I., Behn,M.D. et al. 2008. Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland ice sheet during supraglacial lake drainage. Science 320:778-781.

535. Fettweis,X., Gallée,H., Lefebre,F. and van Ypersele,J.-P. 2006. The 1988-2003 Greenland ice sheet melt extent using passive microwave satellite data and a regional climate model. Climate Dynamics 27:531-541.

536. Fettweis,X., van Ypersele,J.-P., Gallée,H. et al. 2007. The 1979-2005 Greenland ice sheet melt extent from passive microwave data using an improved version of the melt retrieval XPGR algorithm. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L05502, doi:10.1029/2006GL028787, 2007.

537. Hall,D.K., Williams,S.R. Jr, Luthcke,S.B. and Digirolamo,N.E. 2008. Greenland ice sheet surface temperature, melt and mass loss: 2000-06. J. Glaciology 54:81-93.

538. Hanna,E., Huybrechts,P., Steffen,K. et al. 2008. Increased runoff from melt from the Greenland ice sheet: A response to global warming. J. Climate 21:331-341.

539. Holland,D.M., Thomas,R.H., De Young,B. et al. 2008. Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbræ triggered by warm subsurface ocean waters. Nature Geoscience 1:659-664.

540. Howat, I.M., Joughin,I. and Scambos,T.A. 2007. Rapid changes in ice discharge from the Greenland outlet glaciers. Science 315:1559-1562.

541. Howat,I.M., Smith,B.E., Joughin,I. and Scambos,T.A. 2008. Rates of southeast Greenland ice volume loss from combined ICESat and Aster observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L17505, doi:10.1029/2008GL034496, 2008.

542. Joughin,I., Das, S.B., King,M.A. et al. 2008. Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 320:781-783.

543. Kerr,R. 2008. Winds, not just global warming, eating away at the ice sheets. Science 332:33.

544. Luthcke,S.B., Zwally,H.J., Abdalati,W. et al. 2006. Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations. Science 314:1286-1289.

545. Mote, T.L. 2007. Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L22507, doi:10.1029/2007GL031976, 2007.

546. Murray,T. 2006. Greenland’s ice on the scales. Nature 443:277-278.

547. Rignot,E. and Kanagaratnam P. 2006. Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 311: 986-990.

548. Rignot,E., Box,J.E., Burgess,E. and Hanna,E. 2008. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from 1958 to 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20502, doi:10.1029/2008GL035417, 2008.

549. Tedesco,M. 2007. Snowmelt detection over the Greenland ice sheet from SSM/I brightness temperature daily variations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02504, doi:10.1029/2006GL028466, 2007.

550. Veligogna,I. and Wahr,J. 2006. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004. Nature 443:329-333.

551. Wouters,B., Chambers,D. and Schrama,E.J.O. 2008. GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034816, 2008.

552. Alley,R.B., Anandakrishnan,S., Dupont,T.K. et al. 2007. Effect of sedimentation on ice-sheet grounding-line stability. Science 315:1838-1841.

553. Anandakrishnan,S., Cantania,G.A., Alley,R.B. et al. 2007. Effect of sedimentation on ice-sheet grounding-line stability. Science 315:1835-1838.

554. Anderson,J.B. 2007. Ice sheet stability and sea level rise. Science 315:1803-04.

555. Bye,J., May,J. and Simmonds,I. 2006. Control of the Antarctic ice sheet by ocean-ice interaction. Global and Planetary Science 54:99-111.

556. Rignot,E., Bamber,J.L., Van Den Broeke,M.R. 2008. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modeling. Nature Geoscience 1:106-110.

557. Velicogna,I. and Wahr,J. 2006. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science 311:1754-1757.

558. Tedesco,M., Abdalati,W. and Zwally,H.J. 2007. Persistent surface snowmelt over Antarctica (1987-2006) from 19.35 GHz brightness temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34,L18504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031199, 2007.

559. Wingham, D.J., A. Shepherd, A. Muir and G.J. Marshall. 2006. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A 364, 1627–1635.

560. Copland,L., Mueller,D.R. and Weir,L. 2007. Rapid loss of the Ayles Ice Shelf, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L21501, doi:10.1029/2007GL031809, 2007.

561. Anderson,K. and Bows,A. 2008. Reframing the climate change challenge in light of post-2000 emission trends. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A 366:3863-3882.

562. Bradley,R.S., Vuille,M., Diaz,H.F. and Vergara,W., 2006. Threats to water supplies in the Tropical Andes. Science 312, 5781, 1755-1756

563. Burgess,D.O. and Sharp,M. 2008. Recent changes in thickeness of the Devon Island ice cap, Canada. JGR 113, B07204, doi:10.1029/2007JB005238.

564. Colgan,W. and Sharp,M. 2008. Combined oceanics and atmospheric influences on net accumulation on Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada. J. Glaciology 54:28-40.

565. Cullen,N.J., Mölg,T., Kaser,G. et al. 2006. Kilimanjaro glaciers: Recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of the observed 20th century retreat rates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L16502, doi:10.1029/2006GL027084, 2006.

566. Hoelze,M., Chinn,T., Stumm,D. et al. 2007. The application of glacier inventory data for estimating past climate change effects on mountain glaciers: A comparison between the European Alps and the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Global and Planetary Change 56:69-82.

567. Kaab, A., Chiarle, M., Raup, B. and Schneider, C., 2007. Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost. Global and Planetary Change 56: vii-ix.

568. Molnia,B.F. 2007. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate. Global and Planetary Change 56:23-56.

569. Schiefer,E., Menounos,B. and Wheate,R. 2007. Recent volume loss of British Columbia glaciers, Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16503, doi:10.1029/2007GL030780, 2007.

570. Vergara,W., Deeb,A. M., Valencia,A.M. et al. 2007. Economic impacts of rapid glacier retreat in the Andes, EOS 88:261-268.

571. Zhao,H. and Moore,G.W.K. 2006. Reduction in Himalayan snow accumulation and weakening of the trade winds over the Pacific since the 1840s. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17709, doi:10.1029/2006GL027339, 2006.

572. Déry,S.J. and Brown,R.D. 2007. Recent Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent trends and implications for the snow-albedo feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L22504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031474, 2007.

573. Dyer,J.L. and Mote,T.L. 2007. Trends in snow ablation over North America. Int. J. Climatology 27:739-748.

574. Akerman,H.J., and Johansson,M. 2008. Thawing permafrost and thicker active layers in sub-arctic Sweden. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19: 279-292.

575. Atkinson,D.E., Brown,R., Alt,B.,et al. 2006. Canadian cryospheric response to an anomalous warm summer: a synthesis of the Climate Change Action Fund Project "The state of the Arctic Cryosphere during the extreme warm summer of 1998". Atmosphere-Ocean 44: 347-375.

576. Burn, C.R., and Nelson, F.E. 2006. Comment on "A projection of sever near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century" by David M. Lawrence and Andrew G. Slater. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L21503 doi:10.1029/2006GL027077.

577. Fortier,R. and Aubé-Maurice,B. 2008. Fast permafrost degradation near Umiujaq in Nunavik (Canada) since 1957 assessed from time-lapse aerial and satellite photographs. Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds),. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, pp. 457-462.

578. Groisman,P.Y., Knight,R.W., Razuvaev,V.N. et al. 2006: State of the ground: Climatology and changes during the past 69 years over northern Eurasia for a rarely used measure of snow cover and frozen land. J. Climate 19, 4933–4955.

579. Harris,C. and Isaksen,K. 2008. Recent warming of European permafrost: evidence from borehole monitoring. In Proc. Institute of Northern Engineering (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds),, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, pp. 655-661.

580. Isaksen,K., Sollid,J.L., Holmlund,P. and Harris,C. 2007. Recent warming of mountain permafrost in Svalbard and Scandinavia. JGR 112, F02S04, doi:10.1029/2006JF000522.

581. Isaksen,K., Benestad,R.E., Harris,C. and Sollid,J.L. 2007. Recent extreme near-surface permafrost temperatures on Svalbard in relation to future climate scenarios. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, LI17502, doi:10.1029/2007GL031002.

582. Kanigan,J.C.N., Burn,C.R. and Kokelj,S.V. 2008. Permafrost response to climate warming south of treeline, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds),. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, pp. 901-906.

583. Kokelj,S.V., Pisaric,M.F.J. and Burn,C.R. 2007. Cessation of ice-wedge development during the 20th century in spruce forests of eastern Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Earth Sciences 44:1503-1515.

584. Lantz,T.C. and Kokelj,S.V. 2008. Increasing rates of retrogressive thaw slump activity in the Mackenzie Delta region, N.W.T., Canada. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L06502, doi:10.1029/2007GL032433.

585. Malkova,G.V. 2008. The last twenty-five years of changes in permafrost temperature in the European Russian Arctic. Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds),. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, pp. 1119-1124.

586. Mazhitova,G., Malkov,G., Chestnykh,O. and Zamolodchikov,D. 2008. Recent decade thaw-depth dynamics in the European Russian Arctic, based on Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) data. Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds). Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska, pp. 1155-1160.

587. Osterkamp, T.E. 2007. Characteristics of recent warming of permafrost in Alaska. JGR 112, F02S02, doi:10.1029/2006JF000578, 10 p.

588. Osterkamp,T.E. 2008. Thermal state of permafrost in Alaska during the fourth quarter of the twentieth century. Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds). Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, pp. 1333-1338.

589. Osterkamp,T.E. and Jorgenson,J.C. 2006. Warming of permafrost in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 17: 65-69.

590. Romanovsky,V.E., Gruber,S., Instanes,A. et al. 2007. Frozen Ground, Chapter 7. In UNEP Global Outlook for Ice & Snow. United Nations Environment Program. pp. 181-200.

591. Romanovsky,V.E., Kholodov,A.L., Marchenko,S.S. et al. 2008. Thermal state and fate of permafrost in Russia: first results of IPY. In Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds). Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Vol.2, pp. 1511-1518.

592. Sharkhuu,N., Sharkhuu,A., Romanovsky,V.E. et al. 2008. Thermal state of permafrost in Mongolia. In Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, Eds). Fairbanks. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Vol.2, pp. 1633-1638.

593. Vallée,S. and Payette,S. 2007. Collapse of permafrost mounds along a subarctic river over the last 100 years (northern Québec). Geomorphology 90: 162-170.

594. Zhang,Y., Chen,W. and Riseborough,D.W. 2006.Temporal and spatial changes of permafrost in Canada since the end of the Little Ice Age. JGR 111, D22103, doi:10.1029/2006JD007284, 2006.

595. Zhang,Y., Chen,W. and Riseborough,D.W. 2008. Disequilibrium response of permafrost thaw to climate warming in Canada over 1850-2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02502, doi:10,1029/2007GL032117.

596. Zhao,L., Wu,T., Ding,Y. and Xie,C., 2008. Monitoring permafrost changes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In Proc. Ninth International Conference on Permafrost (D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, eds). Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska, pp. 2071-2076.

597. Frauenfeld,O.W., Zhang,T. and McCreight,J.L. 2007. Northern Hemisphere freezing/thawing index variations over the twentieth century. Int. J. Climatology 27:47-63.

598. Church,J.A. and White,N.J. 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L01602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024826, 2006.

599. Holgate,S.J. 2007. On the decadal rate of sea level change during the twentieth century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01602, doi:10.1029/2006GL028492, 2007.

600. Jevrejeva,S., Moore,J.C., Grinsted,A. and Woodworth,P.L. 2008. Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L08715, doi:10.1029/2008GL033611, 2008.

601. Kohl,A. and Stammer,D. 2008. Decadal sea level changes in the 50-year GECCO ocean synthesis. J. Climate 21:1876-1890.

602. Miller,L. and Douglas,B. 2006. On the rate and causes of twentieth century sea-level rise. Phil. Trans. Royal Society 364:805-820.

603. Plag,H.-P. 2006. Recent relative sea-level trends: An attempt to quantify the forcing factors. Phil. Trans. Royal Society 364:821-844.

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