Teachers, their unions and the Education for All Campaign

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48 Keith M. Lewin and Janet S. Stuart (2003), Researching Teacher Education: New Perspectives on Practice, Performance and Policy, Synthesis Report, Multi-Site Teacher Education Research Project (MUSTER), DFID Educational Papers, Sussex.

49 Fry, et. al. (2002), op. cit. ; the global weakness in funding and provision of continual professional development has been pointed out before in a number of reviews, for instance, ILO (2000b), Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-first Century: The Changing Roles of Educational Personnel, Report for discussion at the Joint Meeting, Geneva

50 Cathy Gaynor (1998), Decentralization of Education: Teacher Management, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.; UNESCO (2003), op.cit.

51 Mark Bray and M.V. Mukundan (2003), “Management and Governance for EFA: Is Decentralisation Really the Answer?” Commissioned paper for the Global Monitoring Report, 2003/4, Paris. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=25755&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

52 ILO (2000a), “Conclusions on lifelong learning in the twenty-first century: The changing roles of educational personnel”, Note on the proceedings, Joint Meeting on Lifelong Learning in the Twenty-first Century: The Changing Roles of Educational Personnel, Geneva.

53 ILO (2000b), op.cit., citing various sources.

54 Marcela Gajardo and Francisca Gómez (2003), op.cit.

55 A.I. Gershberg (1999), “Decentralization, citizen participation and the role of the State: The autonomous schools program in Nicaragua”, Latin American Perspectives, July, Vol. 26, No. 4, cited in ILO (2000b).

56 Gajardo and Gómez (2003), op.cit.

57 Maria Teresa Siniscalco (2002), A statistical profile of the teaching profession, ILO and UNESCO, Geneva; OECD and UNESCO (2001), Teachers for Tomorrow’s Schools: Analysis of the World Education Indicators 2001, Paris.

58 Patricia Razquin (2003), “Teacher Career Incentives and Sanctions”, Literacy Enhancement Assistance Project (LEAP), Report prepared for USAID, December 2003.

59 Gajardo and Gómez (2003), op.cit.; X. Liang (1999), “Teacher Pay in 12 Latin American Countries: How does teacher pay compare to other professions, what determines teacher pay and who are the teachers?”, World Bank discussion paper, Washington, D.C., August 1999.

60 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries, Special Chapter on “Education for Global Participation”, Asian Development Bank, 2003, citing especially works from Latin America.

61 Tuisawau {2003), op. cit.

62 Albert Park and Emily Hannum (2001), “Do Teachers Affect Learning in Developing Countries?: Evidence from Matched Student-Teacher Data from China”, Paper for the conference on Rethinking Social Science Research in the Developing World in the 21st Century, Park City, Utah, USA, 7-11 June.

63 UNESCO (2003), op. cit., Tables 7 and 10; Julien Guingnido Gaye (2003), “Education for All: The Situation in Benin”, Commissioned paper for the Global Monitoring Report, 2003/4, Paris.

64 Harvey Goldstein (2004), “Education For All: the globalisation of learning targets”, Comparative Education, London (forthcoming)

65 Assessments of the Joint ILO/UNESCO Committee of Experts (CEART) continually emphasize this theme; see Reports in 1997, 2000 and 2003 for a generally pessimistic view of trends over the last decade. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/ceart/main.htm

66 Dakar Framework (2000), op.cit.

67 Eric Hanushek (1995), “Interpreting recent research on schooling in developing countries”, World Bank Research Observer, Washington, D.C., 10: 247-254; Marlene Lockheed and Adrien Verspoor (1991), Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries, New York, Oxford University Press; Colclough et.al (3003) repeat the assertions on class size.

68 Colclough et. al. (2003), op.cit.

69 Colclough et.al (2003), cites different case studies in African studies which demonstrate the negative effects on teacher morale and motivation of various policies designed to come to terms with financial constraints and enrolment pressures, but which ultimately opt for a logic of cost efficiency over policies to build a high quality, professional teaching force.

70 Colclough 2003), ibid.; see also analysis by the Joint ILO/UNESCO Committee of Experts in the case of Senegal, 1997, 2000 and 2003 Reports.

71 Fry (2002), op.cit.

72 M. Victoria Murillo, et al. (2002), The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America : Teachers’ unions and Education in Argentina, Inter-American Development Bank, Latin American Research Network Working Paper #R-463, September 2002.

73 UNESCO (2003), op.cit.

74 ILO (2000a), op.cit.

75 World Bank (2004), op.cit.

76 EI Declaration on Professional Ethics, Third World Congress of Education International, Jomtien, Thailand, 25-29 July, 2001.

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