Read the given text. Match the sentences (A-H) to the passages (1-5). There are three sentences you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
( ) (1) Man has added extraneous substances to his food since prehistoric times. Salt and spices are the oldest food additives we know of, used by prehistoric man to preserve his meat and fish, and to make the taste more interesting. Today, the substances, natural and synthetic, added to food run into thousands. Most of the foods we buy contain one or more additives.
( ) (2) In most developing countries, two-thirds or more of the people live in rural areas, with few, if any, of the services the city-dweller takes for granted. Water taps in houses, for example, are almost unknown. At best, there may be a village well. Often the only source of water is a lake or a stream, perhaps several kilometres away. The drudgery of water-carrying can take up the better part of every day.
( ) (3) It is not necessary to emphasize the enormous restrictions that blindness imposes upon the ordinary procedures of earning a living: we’re only too well aware that we’re in general more dependent on sight than on smell, touch or hearing. But it’s worth pointing out that sight affects the knowledge of the world we receive through our other senses.
( ) (4) Mankind is always searching for a better life. One way of improving it is to plan work so that it corresponds to the capacities and needs of the worker. Ergonomics is concerned with fitting work to man. It doesn’t limit its goal to the elimination of physical hazards to health, but aims at making the work more satisfying to the worker.
( ) (5) People need to be made far more aware of safety in ordinary everyday situations — a classic example, of course, is the child reaching for the bottle of tablets Mum forgot to lock away — and it seems to me that the cinema would be the ideal place in which to get the message across. A film about safety tucked at the end of the forthcoming attractions and advertisements would then be seen by a large section of the population.
A Most food nowadays contains additives.
В Books are good.
C Showing short safety films in the cinema would be an excellent way of promoting awareness of the need for everyday safety consciousness.
D Work can be organized to suit the capabilities of humans.
E Juan enjoys playing games.
F We depend on sight.
G Most people in developing countries have to carry all their water.
H All cartoons are bad.
Read the text below. For questions (6-10) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
Beware of those who use the truth to deceive. When someone tells you something that is true, but leaves out important information that should be included, he can create a false impression.
For example, someone might say, ’I just won a hundred dollars on the lottery. It was great. I took that dollar ticket back to the store and turned it in for one hundred dollars!’
This guy’s a winner, right? Maybe, maybe not. We then discover that he bought two hundred tickets, and only one was a winner. He’s really a big loser!
He didn’t say anything that was false, but he deliberately omitted important information. That’s called a half-truth. Half-truths are not technically lies, but they are just as dishonest.
Untrustworthy candidates in political campaigns often use this tactic. Let’s say that during Governor Smith’s last term, her state lost one million jobs and gained three million jobs. Then she seeks another term. One of her opponents runs an ad saying, ’During Governor Smith’s term, the sate lost one million jobs!’ That’s true. However an honest statement would have been, ’During Governor Smith’s term, the state had a net gain of two million jobs’.
Advertisers will sometimes use half-truths. It’s against the law to make false claims so they try to mislead you with the truth. An ad might boast, ’Nine out of ten doctors recommend Yucky Pills to cure nose pimples’. It fails to mention that they only asked ten doctors and nine of them work for the Yucky Corporation.
This kind of deception happens too often. It’s a sad fact of life: Lies are lies, and sometimes the truth can lie as well.
6 When someone tells you something that is true, but leaves out important information.
A He give you ten dollars.
В He is a big loser.
C He can create a false impression.
D He is a good liar.
7 Which statement is true according to the article?
В wear mismatched socks during political campaigns
C never trust anyone
D vote for female candidates
Read the text. Match each passage (11-16) with the statements (A-H). There are two statements you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
11 David wants to buy a Christmas present for a very special person, his mother. David’s father gives him $5.00 a week pocket money and David puts $2.00 a week into his bank account. After three months David takes $20.00 out of his bank account and goes to the shopping mall. He looks and looks for a perfect gift. Suddenly he sees a beautiful brooch in the shape of his favourite pet. He says to himself, ’My mother loves jewelry, and the brooch costs only $17.00’. He buys the brooch and takes it home. He wraps the present in Christmas paper and places it under the tree. He is very excited and he is looking forward to Christmas morning to see the joy on his mother’s face. But when his mother opens the present she screams with fright because she sees a spider.
12 I want to tell you... I just gave birth to 5 babies last weekend. Isn’t that exciting? Oh, you don’t believe me? Okay then, I stole some money from a bank on Saturday night. Now do you believe me? (Actually, I hope you don’t.) This holiday started in the sixteenth century in Europe. Before that time, New Year’s Day was celebrated on April 1st. Then a new calendar was introduced called the Gregorian calendar. January 1st became the first day of the year, but many people did not know
about it. So those who continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on April 1st were teased. They were called fools. Nowadays we play jokes on people on this day.
13 A ground hog is a small animal that digs and lives under the ground. It is also called the woodchuck There is a legend that says that the ground hog wakes up from his hibernation on February 2. (February 2 is half way between winter and spring.) If he comes up from his hole and it is sunny, he will see his shadow and be frightened. If he sees his shadow, there will be 6 more weeks of winter weather. But if he comes up and the sky is cloudy, he will not see his shadow and will not be frightened. Then spring weather will come very soon. Some people believe this legend and they watch the sky on February 2.
14 This holiday falls on October 31st each year in North America and other parts of the world. The tradition of this holiday was carried to America by the immigrating Europeans. It is primarily a fun day for children. Children dress up in costumes like people did a thousand years ago. But instead of worrying about evil spirits, they go from house to house. They knock on doors and say ’trick or treat’. The owner of each house gives candy or something special to each trick or treater.
15 The United States has at least one holiday in every month except August. On the third Monday of February, Americans celebrate the birthday of two former presidents. They are George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. You may have heard of them. They were both famous U.S. presidents and they both have birthdays in February. Even though they are different days, we celebrate both of them on the same day.
16 This holiday is a very old holiday. It goes back to the times of Ancient Rome. One of the characters we often see on this day is Cupid. He was the son of Venus, the goddess of love. He shoots people with arrows of love. When a man and a woman are hit by his arrows, they will fall in love. Today people celebrate this holiday on February 14.
Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each space (17-22). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
THE MAN WHO LOVED WOMEN
Grady was rich, but he was 78 and on his deathbed. No amount of money—or love—could save him now.
In his youth, Grady had been a major skirt-chaser. No woman was safe from his charm. He used to juggle three or four girlfriends at a time.
He’d often accidentally call them by the wrong names. The first time that happened to (17) ___________________, she would get upset. Instead of lying, Grady would admit that he had another girlfriend—or two. ’But’, he would quickly add, ’you are my number one. You’ll always be my number one’.
Somehow, this little white lie often worked. Sometimes his various girlfriends would even end up meeting each other and become fast friends.
Any attractive woman was (18) ___________________. He would walk right up to her and say, ’You’re very attractive. Are you single and unattached?’ If she said yes, he’d invite her out for (19) ___________________ right then and there. If she said yes, but she didn’t have time just then for coffee, he’d get her phone number and ask for a rain check. If she said no, he’d ask her if she had a twin sister who was single and unattached. This often made the woman smile or laugh. Sometimes she would change her no to a yes.
Grady was (20) ___________________ . He was just average-looking, but he carried himself with confidence and had (21) ___________________ and a pleasant laugh. He was well-read, he knew a thousand jokes, and he had no bad habits. Perhaps most important, he made a woman feel like a woman, according to many of his girlfriends.
Even in his old age, Grady hadn’t slowed down. Tending to his dying needs were Didi and Mimi, (22) ___________________ that Grady had finally ’settled down’ with.
Read and complete the text below. For each of the empty space (23-32) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
HOW TELEVISION HAS CHANGED
You really have to get very old before you realize you’re old. I’m in my middle fifties and I don’t feel old yet. However, sometimes I look back at my childhood and (23) ___________________ things to the way life is for (24) ___________________ kids. Some things have certainly changed.
One area of change is television. Some changes have been improvements. Some changes, on the other hand, have been (25) ___________________.
When I started school, most people didn’t have a television; TV was just beginning to get (26) ___________________. My father decided to go all out and buy a 16 inch black and white Motorola set. I still remember watching the Lone Ranger save people from the (27) ___________________ guys on that awesome electronic machine. That was (28) ___________________!
Now, (29) ___________________ have larger pictures in full color. The pictures_______ are clearer and the sound is much more realistic. The new high definition sets are made to rival (30) ___________________ screens.
The variety and quantity of programming has (31) ___________________ greatly. There are hundreds of channels and more shows than one person could ever watch. There are many me entertainment and educational (32) ___________________. There’s also a lot of garbage, stuff that____________________ most parents don’t want their kids exposed to. Overall, we have more choices, and that is good.
I wonder what television will be like when today’s kids are my age.