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Read the given text. Match the sentences (A-H) to the passages (1-5). There are three sentences you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

Painters use a number of materials to produce the effects they desire. These include the materials of the surface, or ground; the pigments employed; the binder, or medium, in which the colour is mixed; and its diluting agent. Among the various media used by artists are fresco, watercolour, oil, distemper, gouache, tempera, and encaustic. In addition to these, painting properly embraces many other techniques ordinarily associated with drawing, a term that is often used to refer to the linear aspects of the same art.

( ) (1) If painting and drawing are not always clearly distinguishable from each other, both are to be distinguished from the print (or work of graphic art), in which the design is not produced directly but is transferred from another surface to that which it decorates. While the print may be one of many identical works, the painting or drawing is always unique. Painting has been freely combined with many other arts, including sculpture, architecture, and, in the modem era, photography.

( ) (2) In ancient Greece and medieval Europe most buildings and sculptures were painted; nearly all of the ancient decoration has been lost, but some works from Egypt have preserved their coloring and give us an insight into the importance such an art can assume. The art of painting in China was linked from the 1st century AD with the development of the Buddhist faith.

( ) (3) Highly spiritualized in concept, the medieval painting tradition gave way to a more worldly orientation with the development of Renaissance art. The murals of Giotto became a vehicle for the expression of new and living ideas and sentiments. At the height of the Renaissance a large proportion of the works were decorations of walls and altarpieces, which were necessarily conceived in terms of their part in a larger decorative whole and their appeal for a large public. The greatest masterpieces of Raphael and Michelangelo and of the Florentine masters are generally public works of this character.

( ) (4) Basing their art on the technical contributions of the Renaissance, e.g., the study of perspective and anatomy, the baroque masters added a virtuosity of execution and a style of unparalleled drama. From the age of the rococo, painting tended in the direction of greater intimacy. It is noteworthy, for example, that many of the masterpieces of the 19th cent., and particularly of impressionism, are small easel paintings suitable for the private home. The same period saw the rise of the large public gallery with both temporary and permanent exhibitions, an institution greatly expanded in the 20 th cent.

( ) (5) A reawakened interest in mural painting and the contributions of painting to such arts as the motion picture and video have led some to believe that a return to a greater emphasis on the public functions of the art is taking place. Such a view can find support in the notable influence of abstract painting in the fields of industrial and architectural design. This art also continues to enjoy undiminished popularity in the home and gallery. Painting has had a long and glorious world history as an independent art.

 

A Modern art and its development.

В  The era of impressionism.

C The ancient art.

D The marvelous art of Persia.

E The difference between painting, drawing and print.

F The period of the ancient art revival.

G The varieties of painting and techniques.

H The novelty of the Ukrainian painting.

 



TASK 2

 

Read the text below. For questions (6-10) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

THE CHRISTMAS ROSE

An Old Legend by Lizzie Deas

When the Magi laid their rich offerings of myrrh, frankincense, and gold, by the bed of the sleeping Christ Child, legend says that a shepherd maiden stood outside the door quietly weeping.

She, too, had sought the Christ Child. She, too, desired to bring him gifts. But she had nothing to offer, for she was very poor indeed. In vain she had searched the countryside over for one little flower to bring Him, but she could find neither bloom nor leaf, for the winter had been cold.

And as she stood there weeping, an angel passing saw her sorrow, and stooping he brushed aside the snow at her feet. And there sprang up on the spot a cluster of beautiful winter roses,—waxen white with pink.

’Nor myrrh, nor frankincense, nor gold’, said the angel, ’is offering more sweet for the Christ Child than these pure Christmas Roses’.

Joyfully the shepherd maiden gathered the flowers and made her offering to the Holy Child.

 

6 The legend is based on ...

A the old sagas

В the Bible

C the epics

D the Persian literature

7 What offerings did the magi lay?

A gold and flowers

В myrrh, gold and flowers

C frankincense, myrrh and flowers

D gold, myrrh and frankincense

8 Why did a shepherd maiden stand outside and weep?

A she was hurt

В her mother died

C she had no present for Christ

D to couldn’t come in

9 What a little girl was searching over the countryside?

A snow

В a flower

C a tree

D the Child

10 Why did she not find any flower around?

A it was winter

В it was too hot

C it was too dark

D it rained





TASK 3

 

Read the text. Match each passage (11-16) with the statements (A-H). There are two statements you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

WHERE COCOA IS GROWN

11 The cacao tree needs a constant high temperature, heavy rainfall and the right kind of rich soil to grow properly. These conditions are found only in the countries that lie between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

12 Cocoa originally grew only in the forests of Central and South America, but it is now cultivated in the wet lowland areas of many tropical countries. Most of the world’s cocoa is now produced in African countries, such as Ghana, Nigeria and the Ivory Coast, but large amounts are also grown in Brazil, Indonesia and the islands of the Caribbean.

13 Cocoa is often grown on large plantations, owned by large companies, and employing hundreds of local people. But some cocoa is still grown on small family farms, where friends, relatives and children lend a hand at harvest time, when the pods have to be cut, stacked and split by hand.

14  All today’s cacao trees are descended from seeds taken from the Amazon jungle, and cultivated on new plantations in other parts of the world, to feed the ever-growing demand for cocoa and chocolate.

15 Ghana, for example, is now a major cocoa-producing country, but cacao trees did not always grow there. Today’s huge modern industry is the result of a journey that was made by a West African blacksmith, called Tetteh Quarshie.

16 He travelled to an island called Fernando Po. When he returned to his home in Ghana, he took with him a single pod from a cacao tree, containing about thirty beans. He planted beans. One by one they sprouted, but then all died, save for one seedling. He carefully tended this single plant, and it grew into a healthy cacao tree. Quarshie’s single tree was the ancestor of the many thousands of trees that now grow in Ghana.

 

A The major cocoa-producing country.

В  How people grow cocoa.

C The areas where cocoa is cultivated.

D Where do we find seeds for cacao trees today?

E The conditions under which the cacao tree can grow.

F The single surviving plant.

G Cocoa trees were grown in plantations by the Aztecs.

H The story of cocoa begins with cocoa trees.

 



TASK 4

 

Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each space (17-22). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.



The Olympic Games have (17) ______________ . They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olimpia. They included many different kinds of sports: running, boxing, wrestling, etc. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olimpia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic Games became (18) ______________.

In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later.

In 1894, a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed all the sports governing bodies and pointed out the significance of sports and (19) ______________.

Two years later the first modem Olympic Games took place. Of course, the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of (20) ______________.

In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. It is (21) ______________ of the Olym­pic movement. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programme of the games, (22) ______________ and the city-host for the Games. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. Besides, each country has its National Olympic Committee.

Summer and Winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee.

After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, constructs new sports facili­ties, stadiums, hotels, press centres. Thousands of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.

 

A the materials of the surface

В  its educational value

C a very long history

D the number of the participants

E the symbol of peace and friendship

F the painting or drawing is always unique

G the central policy-making body

H the centuries-old tradition

 



TASK 5

 

Read and complete the text below. For each of the empty space (23-32) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

At six thirteen a.m. on Friday morning Lucy Angkatell’s big blue eyes opened upon another day and as always, she was at once (23) ______________ awake and began immediately to deal with the problems conjured (24) ______________ by her incredibly active mind. (25) ______________ urgently the need of consultation and conversation, and selecting for the purpose her young cousin, Midge Hardcastle, (26) ______________ arrived at The Hollow the night before, Lady Angkatell slipped quickly (27) ______________ of bed and went along the passage to Midge’s room. Since she was a woman of rapid thought processes, Lady Angkatell, as was her invariable custom, commenced the conversation in her own (28) ______________, supplying Midge’s answers out of her own fertile imagination. The conversation was in full (29) ______________ when Lady Angkatell flung open Midge’s door.

’And so, darling, you really must agree that the weekend is going to present difficulties!’

’Eh? Hwah!’ Midge grunted inarticulately, (30) ______________ thus abruptly from a satisfying and deep sleep.

Lady Angkatell crossed to the window, opening the shutters and jerking up the blind with a brisk movement, letting in the pale light of a September dawn.

’Birds!’ she observed, peering with kindly pleasure (31) ______________ the pane. ’So sweet’.

’What?’

’Well, at any (32) ______________, the weather isn’t going to present difficulties. It looks as though it had set in fine. That’s something. Because if a lot of discordant personalities are boxed up indoors, I’m sure you will agree with me that it makes it ten times worse’.

(Agatha Christie)

 

 

A

В

C

D

23

full

fast

hard

wide

24

in

up

out

through

25

To feel

As she felt

Feeling

Felt

26



who would have

that had

who had

27

out

in

from

off

28

head

mind

brain

fantasy

29

swing

stretch

time

length

30

rised

raised

aroused

rose

31

through

into

beyond

across

32

rate

way

case

pace

 

TASK 6

 

For each of the empty space (33-42) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

A new Congress session begins on the 3rd of January each odd number year and continues for two years. A Congressman must work long and hard. But most of their work (33) ______________ in com­mittee meetings. Here bills (34) ______________, experts are consulted, and recommendations (35) ______________ to the whole House of Senate. During a two year term of a Congress, as many as 20000 bills are introduced. There are 16 ‘standing’ or permanent committees in the Senate, and 22 in the House. They accept and improve some bills, but reject most of them. For a bill (36) ______________ a law it must be read, studied in committees, commented on and amended in the Senate or House chamber in which it was introduced. It is then (37) ______________ upon. If it passes, it (38) ______________ to the other house where a similar procedure (39) ______________. Members of both houses work together in ’conference committees’ if the chambers (40) ______________ different versions of the same bill. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen to vote for or against a bill (41) ______________ as ’lobbies’. When both houses of Congress pass a bill on which they agree, it is (42) ______________ to the president for his signature. If President disapproves, he vetoes and refusing to sign it, and sends it back to Congress. President’s objection are read and debated. To overcome the President’s veto, the bill must get a 2/3 majority in each chamber.

 

 

A

В

C

D

33

is done

do

does

done

34

be studied

studied

are studied

study

35

make

are made

made

was made

36

will become

became

become

becomes

37

voted

vote

be voted

votes

38

was sent

is sent

sent

send

39

occur

occurs

occured

be occured

40

passed

pass

have passed

has passed

41

knew

known

know

are known

42

is sent

sent

send

was sent

 

WRITING

 



TASK

 

43. Write down the business letter to your partners informing them about the conference. Use the plan below. Write a letter of at least 100 words. Do not write any dates and addresses.

Dear partners,

1. The title and the date of the conference.

2. The place where the conference will be held.

3. The information about the participants.

4. The aim and the topic of the conference.

5. The main ideas and points of the conference.

6. The time limits and breaks.

It will be nice to see you at our conference.

With regards,

Mr/Mrs ...

 



ВАРІАНТ 10

 

READING



 

TASK 1

 

Read the given text. Match the sentences (A-H) to the passages (1-5). There are three sentences you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.

( ) (1) You may think the Golden Gate Bridge was named for its orange color. But it is named for the body of water that it crosses — the Golden Gate Strait. The Golden Gate Strait is the entrance to the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. The Golden Gate Bridge links the city of San Francisco with Marin County, California.

() (2) Joseph Strauss designed the bridge. It opened in 1937. The Golden Gate Bridge extends 1,280 meters across the water. It was the longest suspension bridge in the world until 1964. That is when the Verrazano Narrows Bridge opened in New York City. Still, the Golden Gate Bridge has become famous around the world. And many people consider it to be the most beautiful bridge structure in the world.

( ) (3) The Brooklyn Bridge is much older than the Golden Gate. It was one of the first great suspension bridges. It was built between 1869 and 1883. John Augustus Roebling designed the bridge. But he died as a result of an accident at the start of its construction.

( ) (4) His son, Washington Roebling, replaced him as chief engineer. But he became sick while working underwater. Washington Roebling was not able to go to the construction area. Yet he continued to direct the operations through his wife, Emily.

( ) (5) The Brooklyn Bridge links Brooklyn with Manhattan Island. It extends 486 meters over the East River. It was the longest bridge in the world until the Firth of Forth cantilever bridge was built in Scotland in 1890. Today, thousands of cars, trucks, bicycles and people cross the Brooklyn Bridge every day.

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