’No offense, sir’, the lady said, ’but you do have (22) ___________________’.
A on both halves
В a listening comprehension problem
C a large pepper pepperoni pizza
D as pleasant as possible
E a growing debate
F a few years ago
G a distance of several miles
H deliver my pizza
Read and complete the text below. For each of the empty space (23-32) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
Adapted from The Lady or the Tiger by Frank Stockton When all the people had assembled, the king, surrounded by his court, gave a signal. Then a door beneath him opened, and the accused man (23) ___________________ out into the arena. Directly opposite him were two doors, exactly (24) ___________________ and side by side. It was the duty and the privilege of the person on trial to walk directly to these (25) ___________________ and open one of them. He (26) ___________________ open either door he pleased; he was subject to no guidance or influence but that of impartial and incorruptible chance. If he opened the one, there (27) ___________________ of it a hungry tiger, the fiercest and most cruel that could be found, which (28) ___________________ sprang upon him and tore him to pieces as a punishment for his guilt. But, if the accused person opened the other door, out of it came a (29) ___________________ lady, and to this lady he was immediately married, as a reward of his innocence. This was the (30) ___________________ method of administering justice. Its perfect fairness is obvious. The criminal could (31) ___________________ know out of which door would come the lady; he opened either he pleased, without having the slightest (32) ___________________ whether, in the next instant, he was to be devoured or married. So the accused person was instantly punished if guilty, and, if innocent, he was rewarded on the spot.
For each of the empty space (33-42) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
A LITTLE ADVICE
Allow me give you a little advice about (33) ___________________ fiction. First, make your characters believable. Make sure that they behave and talk as individuals. In real life, everyone (34) ___________________ unique. If all your characters (35) ___________________ the same way and (36) ___________________ to things in the same way, you will lose your readers from the start. Once your readers (37) ___________________ in your characters, you must get them to care. Each reader (38) ___________________ identify with at least one character, to almost become that character in his or her mind. You can do this by (39) ___________________ characters with genuine human traits, both good and bad. The individuals who populate your story (40) ___________________ human strengths and weaknesses. Now it’s time to weave your tale, to create a plot. Your readers (41) ___________________ the story now; they (42) ___________________.
One last thing. Your story must touch the readers’ emotions. If you can make them laugh and cry along with your characters, you will be a successful writer.
43. Write a newspaper advertisement about art exhibition in the gallery.
— the date;
— the time and the place of the event;
— the theme of the exhibition;
— people invited;
— activities planned.
You should write at least 100 words.
Read the given text. Match the sentences (A-H) to the passages (1-5). There are three sentences you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
WHEN A COMPUTER ERROR IS A FATAL MISTAKE
Our lives depend on computers. They control our money, transport, our exam results. Yet their programs are now so complex that no one can get rid of all the mistakes.
Life without computers has become unimaginable. They are designed to look after so many boring but essential tasks — from microwave cooking to flying across the Atlantic — that we have become dependent on them.
( ) (1) But as the demands placed on computers grow, so have the number of incidents involving computer errors. Now computer experts are warning that the traditional ways of building computer systems are just not good enough to deal with complex tasks like flying planes or maintaining nuclear power stations. It is only a matter of time before a computer-made catastrophe occurs.
( ) (2) As early as 1889, a word entered the language that was to become all too familiar to computer scientists: a ‘bug’, meaning a mistake. For decades bugs and ‘de-bugging’ were taken to be pan of every computer engineer’s job. Everyone accepted that there would always be some mistakes in any new system. But ‘safety critical’ systems that fly planes, drive trains or control nuclear power stations can have bugs that could kill. This is obviously unacceptable.
( ) (3) One way to stop bugs in computer systems is to get different teams of programmers to work in isolation from each other. That way, runs the theory, they won’t all make the same type of mistake when designing and writing computer codes. In fact research shows that programmers think alike, have the same type of training — and make similar mistakes. So even if they work separately, mistakes can still occur. Another technique is to produce back up systems that start to operate when the first system fails. This has been used on everything from the space shuttle to the A320 airbus, but unfortunately problems that cause one computer to fail can make all the others fail, too.
( ) (4) A growing number of computer safety experts believe the time has come to stop trying to ‘patch up’ computer systems. They say programmers have to learn to think clearly and to be able to demonstrate through mathematical symbols that the program cannot go seriously wrong. Until programmers learn to do this, we will probably just have to live with the results of computer bugs.
( ) (5) Of course, more often than not the errors are just annoying, but sometimes they can come close to causing tragedies. On the Picadilly line in London’s Underground a driver who was going south along a track got confused while moving his empty train through a cross-over point. He started to head north straight at a south-bound train full of people. The computerised signalling system failed to warn him of impeding disaster and it was only his quick human reactions that prevented a crash.
Read the text below. For questions (6-10) choose the correct answer (А, В, C or D). Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
WHEN YOU HAVE A SORE THROAT
What causes a sore throat?
Many things can cause a sore throat. These causes include infections with viruses or bacteria, or sinus drainage and allergies, among others. You should see your doctor right away if you have a sore throat with a high fever, if you have problems breathing or swallowing, or if you feel very faint. If you have a sore throat and a fever, but you just feel mildly ill, you should visit your doctor within the next day or two. If you have a cold with sinus drainage, you may use over-the-counter medicines, like Sudafed or Actifed. Visit your doctor if this cold lasts for more than two weeks, or if it gets worse.
How does the doctor decide if I need antibiotics?
The decision to prescribe antibiotics might be based only on your history and physical exam. Antibiotics usually are prescribed only for patients who might have ’strep throat’, an infection caused by a bacteria called Streptococcus. A patient with strep throat might have a sore throat with fever that starts suddenly, without a cough or cold symptoms. Strep throat is very common in children from 5 to 12 years of age. The exam might show a red throat, with pus on the tonsils and swollen neck glands. If you have these signs, the doctor may do other tests to see if you need an antibiotic.
Why not just give everyone antibiotics?
Antibiotics have a small risk of causing an allergic reaction every time they are given. Some of these reactions are serious. Antibiotics can also cause other side effects, such as an upset stomach or diarrhea. An even more serious problem is that bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics if these medicines are used frequently in a lot of people. Then antibiotics wouldn’t be able to cure people’s illnesses. To prevent this from happening, doctors try to prescribe antibiotics only when they will help. Antibiotics only help when sore throat is caused by bacteria. Antibiotics don’t help when sore throat is due to viruses, which are the cause of the common cold.
If my doctor doesn’t give me antibiotics, what can I do to feel better?
It will take several days for you to feel better, no matter what kind of sore throat you have. You can do several things to help your symptoms. If you have a fever or muscle aches, you can take a pain reliever like acetaminophin (Tylenol), aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil). Your doctor can tell you which pain reliever will work best for you. Cough drops or throat sprays may help your sore throat. Sometimes gargling with warm salt water helps. Soft cold foods, such as ice cream and popsicles, often are easier to eat. Be sure to rest and to drink lots of water or other clear liquids, such as Sprite or 7-Up. Don’t drink drinks that have caffeine in them (coffee, tea, colas or other sodas).
Should I be concerned about any other symptoms that occur after I visit my doctor?
Sometimes symptoms change during the course of an illness. Visit your doctor again if you have any of the following problems:
This information provides a general overview on sore throat and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.
6 If you have a high fever with a sore throat, you should see your doctor ...
A within a few days.
C only if you have trouble swallowing.
D after you are feeling better.
7 Strep throat ...
A is a bacterial infection.
В is a virus infection.
C always comes with a cough and cold.
D is rarely treated with antibiotics.
8 Which is not a common side effect of taking antibiotics?
A Upset stomach
D Allergic reaction
9 Which does this article not recommend to make a sore throat feel better?
A Cough drops
В Drinking plenty of water
C Drinking coffee and tea
D Gargling with salt water
10 Antibiotics will help ...
A sore throats caused by viruses.
В sore throats caused by bacteria.
C sore throats caused by allergies.
D all sore throats.
Read the text. Match each passage (11-16) with the statements (A-H). There are two statements you should not use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
11 Never more in need of leadership, the Football Association is finally close to appointing a successor to Adam Crozier.
12 The largest teaching union has pledged to boycott ’disgusting’ national tests for seven, 11 and 14-year-olds.
National Union of Teachers delegates voted unanimously in favour of the attack on a key Government education policy at the union’s annual conference in Harrogate.
13 Conservatives made strong gains in local elections across England yesterday, bolstering the party’s battered morale and shoring up Iain Duncan Smith’s position as leader.
14 British Airways yesterday admitted it was having to cut ticket prices heavily to fill its planes as it revealed a sharp fall in front-of-cabin traffic last month, hit by particularly tough trading conditions.
15 Hungry Eleri Nicholas was about to tuck into a bowl of Tesco salad — when a locust crawled out.
Housewife Eleri, 26, screamed as the four-inch insect crept out of the salad leaves and looked up at her.
Horrified Eleri said: ’It was grey and horrible — like something from a horror movie’. Consumer watchdogs were yesterday investigating the creepy-crawly which popped out from a ready-to-serve bag of Italian salad.
Eleri had eaten half of the salad the previous night — and was about to finish it off when the plant- eating insect suddenly appeared.
16 FEARS FOR the future of MyTravel heightened yesterday after it emerged that Alistair Darling, the Transport Secretary, has held a series of meetings with the Civil Aviation Authority about the troubled tour operator. The Department for ………………….
A Minister holds talks with CAA about troubles at MyTravel
В NUT pledges to boycott national tests
C SBS team’s tank ordeal
D FA sends for the man from Mars
E BA slashes seat prices as first-class cabin empties
F How Brits get their kinky kicks
G IDS reprieved at polls
H 4in locust in Tesco salad
Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each space (17-22). There are two choices you do not need to use. Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
CATCHING A COLD
Many people catch a cold in the springtime and/or fall. It makes us wonder... if scientists can send a man to the moon, why can’t they find a cure for the common cold. The answer is easy. There are literally hundreds of kinds cold viruses out there. You never know which one you will get, so there isn’t (17) ________________.
When (18) ____________________ , your body works hard to get rid of it. Blood rushes to your nose and brings congestion with it. You feel terrible because (19) ____________________, but your body is actually «eating» the virus. Your temperature rises and you get a fever, but the heat of your body is killing the virus. You also have a runny nose to stop the virus from getting to your cells. You may feel miserable, but actually your wonderful body is doing everything it can (20) ____________________.
Different people have different remedies for colds. In the United States and some other countries, (21) ____________________, people might eat chicken soup to feel better. Some people take hot baths and drink warm liquids. Other people take medicines to stop the fever, congestion, and runny nose.
There is one interesting thing to note- some scientists say taking medicines when you have a cold is actually bad for you. The virus stays in you longer because your body doesn’t have a way to fight it and kill it. Bodies can do (22) ____________________. There is a joke, however, on taking medicine when you have a cold. It goes like this:
If takes about 1 week to get over a cold if you don’t take medicine, but only 7 days to get over a cold if you take medicine.