The urban heat island effect can be explained in part by atmospheric change through heat release and pollution emission from city areas.
The heat storage capacity and dry surface character of city structures also contribute to the urban heat island effect.
Increased anthropogenic (man-made) accumulations of carbon dioxide have been implicated as a potential cause of global warming. Such warming may enhance aridity in the mid-latitudes and cause rising sea levels due to glacier melt.
Particulate emission, whether by natural or anthropogenic means, may contribute to a global cooling effect.
Human modification of the earth's surface albedo, in particular by desertification, may also be responsible for planetary cooling.
Table below shows the typical climatic changes caused by urbanization.