The Project Gutenberg ebook of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended



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and the builders of the Pyramids Reigned at _Memphis_, and by consequence

after _Moeris_. Now from these things I gather that the Kings of _Egypt_

mentioned by _Herodotus_ ought to be placed in this order; _Sesostris_,

_Pheron_, _Proteus_, _Menes_, _Rhampsinitus_, _Moeris_, _Cheops_,

_Cephren_, _Mycerinus_, _Nitocris_, _Asychis_, _Anysis_, _Sabacon_,

_Anysis_ again, _Sethon_, twelve contemporary Kings, _Psammitichus_,

_Nechus_, _Psammis_, _Apries_, _Amasis_, _Psammenitus_.
_Pheron_ is by _Herodotus_ said to be the son and successor of _Sesostris_.

He was Deified by the name of _Orus_.


_Proteus_ Reigned in the lower _Egypt_ when _Paris_ sailed thither; that is

at the end of the _Trojan_ war, according to [332] _Herodotus_: and at that

time _Amenophis_ was King of _Egypt_ and _Ethiopia_: but in his absence

_Proteus_ might be governor of some part of the lower _Egypt_ under him;

for _Homer_ places _Proteus_ upon the sea-coasts, and makes him a sea God,

and calls him the servant of _Neptune_; and _Herodotus_ saith that he rose

up from among the common people, and that _Proteus_ was his name translated

into _Greek_, and this name in _Greek_ signifies only a Prince or

President. He succeeded _Pheron_, and was succeeded by _Rhampsinitus_

according to _Herodotus_; and so was contemporary to _Amenophis_.


_Amenophis_ Reigned next after _Orus_ and _Isis_ the last of the Gods; he

Reigned at first over all _Egypt_, and then over _Memphis_ and the upper

parts of _Egypt_; and by conquering _Osarsiphus_, who had revolted from

him, became King of all _Egypt_ again, about 51 years after the death of

_Solomon_. He built _Memphis_ and ordered the worship of the Gods of

_Egypt_, and built a Palace at _Abydus_, and the _Memnonia_ at _This_ and

_Susa_, and the magnificent Temple of _Vulcan_ in _Memphis_; the building

with square stones being found out before by _Tosorthrus_, the _Æsculapius_

of _Egypt_: he is by corruption of his name called _Menes_, _Mines_,

_Minæus_, _Mineus_, _Minies_, _Mnevis_, _Enephes_, _Venephes_,

_Phamenophis_, _Osymanthyas_, _Osimandes_, _Ismandes_, _Imandes_, _Memnon_,

_Arminon._


_Amenophis_ was succeeded by his son, called by _Herodotus_,

_Rhampsinitus_, and by others _Ramses_, _Ramises_, _Rameses_, _Ramesses_,

[333] _Ramestes_, _Rhampses_, _Remphis_. Upon an Obelisk erected by this

King in _Heliopolis_, and sent to _Rome_ by the Emperor _Constantius_, was

an inscription, interpreted by _Hermapion_ an _Egyptian_ Priest, expressing

that the King was long lived, and Reigned over a great part of the earth:

and _Strabo_, [334] an eye-witness, tells us, that in the monuments of the

Kings of _Egypt_, above the _Memnonium_ were inscriptions upon Obelisks,

expressing the riches of the Kings, and their Reigning as far as _Scythia_,

_Bactria_, _India_ and _Ionia_: and _Tacitus_ [335] tells us from an

inscription seen at _Thebes_ by _Cæsar Germanicus,_ and interpreted to him

by the _Egyptian_ Priests, that this King _Ramesses_ had an army of 700000

men, and Reigned over _Libya_, _Ethiopia_, _Media_, _Persia_, _Bactria_,

_Scythia_, _Armenia_, _Cappadocia_, _Bithynia_, and _Lycia_; whence the

Monarchy of _Assyria_ was not yet risen. This King was very covetous, and a

great collector of taxes, and one of the richest of all the Kings of

_Egypt_, and built the western portico of the Temple of _Vulcan_.
_Moeris_ inheriting the riches of _Ramesses_, built the northern portico of

that Temple more sumptuously, and made the Lake of _Moeris,_ with two great

Pyramids of brick in the midst of it: and for preserving the division of

_Egypt_ into equal shares amongst the soldiers, this King wrote a book of

surveying, which gave a beginning to Geometry. He is called also _Maris_,

_Myris_, _Meres_, _Marres_, _Smarres_; and more corruptly, by changing

[Greek: M] into [Greek: A, T, B, S, YCH, L], &c. _Ayres_, _Tyris_,

_Byires_, _Soris_, _Uchoreus_, _Lachares_, _Labaris_, &c.


_Diodorus_ [336] places _Uchoreus_ between _Osymanduas_ and _Myris_, that

is between _Amenophis_ and _Moeris_, and saith that he built _Memphis_, and

fortified it to admiration with a mighty rampart of earth, and a broad and

deep trench, which was filled with the water of the _Nile_, and made there

a vast and deep Lake for receiving the water of the _Nile_ in the time of

its overflowing, and built palaces in the city; and that this place was so

commodiously seated that most of the Kings who Reigned after him preferred

it before _Thebes_, and removed the Court from thence to this place, so

that the magnificence of _Thebes_ from that time began to decrease, and

that of _Memphis_ to increase, 'till _Alexander_ King of _Macedon_ built

_Alexandria_. These great works of _Uchoreus_ and those of _Moeris_ savour

of one and the same genius, and were certainly done by one and the same

King, distinguished into two by a corruption of the name as above; for this

Lake of _Uchoreus_ was certainly the same with that of _Moeris_.


After the example of the two brick Pyramids made by _Moeris_, the three

next Kings, _Cheops_, _Cephren_ and _Mycerinus_ built the three great

Pyramids at _Memphis_; and therefore Reigned in that city. _Cheops_ shut up

the Temples of the _Nomes_, and prohibited the worship of the Gods of

_Egypt_, designing no doubt to have been worshipped himself after death: he

is called also _Chembis_, _Chemmis_, _Chemnis_, _Phiops_, _Apathus_,

_Apappus_, _Suphis_, _Saophis_, _Syphoas_, _Syphaosis_, _Soiphis_,

_Syphuris_, _Anoiphis_, _Anoisis_: he built the biggest of the three great

Pyramids which stand together; and his brother _Cephren_ or _Cerpheres_

built the second, and his son _Mycerinus_ founded the third: this last King

was celebrated for clemency and justice; he shut up the dead body of his

daughter in a hollow ox, and caused her to be worshipped daily with odours:

he is called also _Cheres_, _Cherinus_, _Bicheres_, _Moscheres_,

_Mencheres_. He died before the third Pyramid was finished, and his sister

and successor _Nitocris_ finished it.
Then Reigned _Asychis_, who built the eastern portico of the Temple of

_Vulcan_ very splendidly, and among the small Pyramids a large Pyramid of

brick, made of mud dug out of the Lake of _Moeris_: and these are the Kings

who Reigned at _Memphis_, and spent their time in adorning that city, until

the _Ethiopians_ and the _Assyrians_ and others revolted, and _Egypt_ lost

all her dominion abroad, and became again divided into several small

Kingdoms.
One of those Kingdoms was I think at _Memphis_, under _Gnephactus_, and his

son and successor _Bocchoris_. _Africanus_ calls _Bocchoris_ a _Saite_; but

_Sais_ at this time had other Kings: _Gnephactus_, otherwise called

_Neochabis_ and _Technatis_, cursed _Menes_ for his luxury, and caused the

curse to be entered in the Temple of _Jupiter_ at _Thebes_; and therefore

Reigned over _Thebais_: and _Bocchoris_ sent in a wild bull upon the God

_Mnevis_ which was worshipped at _Heliopolis_. Another of those Kingdoms

was at _Anysis_, or _Hanes_, _Isa._ xxx. 4. under its King _Anysis_ or

_Amosis_; a third was at _Sais_, under _Stephanathis_, _Nechepsos_, and

_Nechus_; and a fourth was at _Tanis_ or _Zoan_, under _Petubastes_,

_Osorchon_ and _Psammis_: and _Egypt_ being weakened by this division, was

invaded and conquered by the _Ethiopians_ under _Sabacon_, who slew

_Bocchoris_ and _Nechus_, and made _Anysis_ fly. The Olympiads began in the

Reign of _Petubastes_, and the _Æra_ of _Nabonassar_ in the 22d year of the

Reign of _Bocchoris_, according to _Africanus_; and therefore the division,

of _Egypt_ into many Kingdoms began before the Olympiads, but not above the

length of two Kings Reigns before them.
After the study of Astronomy was set on foot for the use of navigation, and

the _Egyptians_ by the Heliacal Risings and Settings of the Stars had

determined the length of the Solar year of 365 days, and by other

observations had fixed the Solstices, and formed the fixt Stars into

Asterisms, all which was done in the Reign of _Ammon_, _Sesac_, _Orus_, and

_Memnon_; it may be presumed that they continued to observe the motions of

the Planets; for they called them after the names of their Gods; and

_Nechepsos_ or _Nicepsos_ King of _Sais_, by the assistance of _Petosiris_

a Priest of _Egypt_, invented Astrology, grounding it upon the aspects of

the Planets, and the qualities of the men and women to whom they were

dedicated: and in the beginning of the Reign of _Nabonassar_ King of

_Babylon_, about which time the _Ethiopians_ under _Sabacon_ invaded

_Egypt_, those _Egyptians_ who fled from him to _Babylon_, carried thither

the _Egyptian_ year of 365 days, and the study of Astronomy and Astrology,

and founded the _Æra_ of _Nabonassar_; dating it from the first year of

that King's Reign, which was the 22d year _of Bocchoris_ as above, and

beginning the year on the same day with the _Egyptians_ for the sake of

their calculations. So _Diodorus_ [337]: _they say that the _Chaldæans_ in

_Babylon_, being Colonies of the _Egyptians_, became famous for Astrology,

having learnt it from the Priests of _Egypt__: and _Hestiæus_, who wrote an

history of _Egypt_, speaking of a disaster of the invaded _Egyptians_,

saith [338] that _the Priests who survived this disaster, taking with them

the _Sacra_ of _Jupiter Enyalius_, came to _Sennaar_ in _Babylonia__. From

the 15th year of _Asa_, in which _Zerah_ was beaten, and _Menes_ or

_Amenophis_ began his Reign, to the beginning of the _Æra_ of _Nabonassar_,

were 200 years; and this interval of time allows room for about nine or ten

Reigns of Kings, at about twenty years to a Reign one with another; and so

many Reigns there were, according to the account set down above out of

_Herodotus_; and therefore that account, as it is the oldest, and was

received by _Herodotus_ from the Priests of _Thebes_, _Memphis_, and

_Heliopolis_, three principal cities of _Egypt_, agrees also with the

course of nature, and leaves no room for the Reigns of the many nameless

Kings which we have omitted. These omitted Kings Reigned before _Moeris_,

and by consequence at _Thebes_; for _Moeris_ translated the seat of the

Empire from _Thebes_ to _Memphis_: they Reigned after _Ramesses_; for

_Ramesses_ was the son and successor of _Menes_, who Reigned next after the

Gods. Now _Menes_ built the body of the Temple of _Vulcan_, _Ramesses_ the

first portico, and _Moeris_ the second portico thereof; but the

_Egyptians_, for making their Gods and Kingdom look ancient, have inserted

between the builders of the first and second portico of this Temple, three

hundred and thirty Kings of _Thebes_, and supposed that these Kings Reigned

eleven thousand years; as if any Temple could stand so long. This being a

manifest fiction, we have corrected it, by omitting those interposed Kings,

who did nothing, and placing _Moeris_ the builder of the second portico,

next after _Ramesses_ the builder of the first.
In the Dynasties of _Manetho_; _Sevechus_ is made the successor of

_Sabacon_, being his son; and perhaps he is the _Sethon_ of _Herodotus_,

who became Priest of _Vulcan_, and neglected military discipline: for

_Sabacon_ is that _So_ or _Sua_ with whom _Hoshea_ King of _Israel_

conspired against the _Assyrians_, in the fourth year of _Hezekiah_, _Anno

Nabonass._ 24. _Herodotus_ tells us twice or thrice, that _Sabacon_ after a

long Reign of fifty years relinquished _Egypt_ voluntarily, and that

_Anysis_ who fled from him, returned and Reigned again in the lower _Egypt_

after him, or rather with him: and that _Sethon_ Reigned after _Sabacon_,

and went to _Pelusium_ against the army of _Sennacherib_, and was relieved

with a great multitude of mice, which eat the bow-strings of the

_Assyrians_; in memory of which the statue of _Sethon_, seen by

_Herodotus_, [339] was made with a Mouse in its hand. A Mouse was the

_Egyptian_ symbol of destruction, and the Mouse in the hand of _Sethon_

signifies only that he overcame the _Assyrians_ with a great destruction.

The Scriptures inform us, that when _Sennacherib_ invaded _Judæa_ and

besieged _Lachish_ and _Libnah_, which was in the 14th year of _Hezekiah_,

_Anno Nabonass._ 34. the King of _Judah_ trusted upon _Pharaoh_ King of

_Egypt_, that is upon _Sethon_, and that _Tirhakah_ King of _Ethiopia_ came

out also to fight against _Sennacherib_, 2 _King._ xviii. 21. & xix. 9.

which makes it probable, that when _Sennacherib_ heard of the Kings of

_Egypt_ and _Ethiopia_ coming against him, he went from _Libnah_ towards

_Pelusium_ to oppose them, and was there surprized and set upon in the

night by them both, and routed with as great a slaughter as if the

bow-strings of the _Assyrians_ had been eaten by mice. Some think that the

_Assyrians_ were smitten by lightning, or by a fiery wind which sometimes

comes from the southern parts of _Chaldæa_. After this victory _Tirhakah_

succeeding _Sethon_, carried his arms westward through _Libya_ and _Afric_

to the mouth of the _Straits_: but _Herodotus_ tells us, that the Priests

of _Egypt_ reckoned _Sethon_ the last King of _Egypt_, who Reigned before

the division of _Egypt_ into twelve contemporary Kingdoms, and by

consequence before the invasion of _Egypt_ by the _Assyrians_.


For _Asserhadon_ King of _Assyria_, in the 68th year of _Nabonassar_, after

he had Reigned about thirty years over _Assyria_, invaded the Kingdom of

_Babylon_, and then carried into captivity many people from _Babylon_, and

_Cuthah_, and _Ava_, and _Hamath_, and _Sepharvaim_, placing them in the

Regions of _Samaria_ and _Damascus_: and from thence they carried into

_Babylonia_ and _Assyria_ the remainder of the people of _Israel_ and

_Syria_, which had been left there by _Tiglath-pileser_. This captivity was

65 years after the first year of _Ahaz_, _Isa_. vii. 1, 8. & 2. _King._ xv.

37. & xvi. 5. and by consequence in the twentieth year of _Manasseh_, _Anno

Nabonass._ 69. and then _Tartan_ was sent by _Asserhadon_ with an army

against _Ashdod_ or _Azoth_, a town at that time subject to _Judæa_, 2

_Chron._ xxvi. 6. and took it, _Isa._ xx. 1: and this post being secured,

the _Assyrians_ beat the _Jews_, and captivated _Manasseh_, and subdued

_Judæa_: and in these wars, _Isaiah_ was saw'd asunder by the command of

_Manasseh_, for prophesying against him. Then the _Assyrians_ invaded and

subdued _Egypt_ and _Ethiopia_, and carried the _Egyptians_ and

_Ethiopians_ into captivity, and thereby put an end to the Reign of the

_Ethiopians_ over _Egypt_, _Isa._ vii. 18. & viii. 7. & x. 11, 12, & xix.

23. & xx. 4. In this war the city _No-Ammon_ or _Thebes_, which had

hitherto continued in a flourishing condition, was miserably wasted and led

into captivity, as is described by _Nahum_, chap. iii. ver. 8, 9, 10; for

_Nahum_ wrote after the last invasion of _Judæa_ by the _Assyrians_, chap.

i. ver. 15; and therefore describes this captivity as fresh in memory: and

this and other following invasions of _Egypt_ under _Nebuchadnezzar_ and

_Cambyses_, put an end to the glory of that city. _Asserhadon_ Reigned over

the _Egyptians_ and _Ethiopians_ three years, _Isa._ xx. 3, 4. that is

until his death, which was in the year of _Nabonassar_ 81, and therefore

invaded _Egypt_, and put an end to the Reign of the _Ethiopians_ over the

_Egyptians_, in the year of _Nabonassar_ 78; so that the _Ethiopians_ under

_Sabacon_, and his successors _Sethon_ and _Tirhakah_, Reigned over _Egypt_

about 80 years: _Herodotus_ allots 50 years to _Sabacon_, and _Africanus_

fourteen years to _Sethon_, and eighteen to _Tirhakah_.


The division of _Egypt_ into more Kingdoms than one, both before and after

the Reign of the _Ethiopians_, and the conquest of the _Egyptians_ by

_Asserhadon_, the prophet _Isaiah_ [340] seems allude unto in these words:

_I will set_, saith he, _the _Egyptians_ against the _Egyptians_, and they

shall fight every one against his brother, and every one against his

neighbour, city against city, and Kingdom against Kingdom, and the Spirit

of _Egypt_ shall fail.--And the _Egyptians_ will I give over into the hand

of a cruel Lord _[viz. _Asserhadon_]_ and a fierce King shall Reign over

them.--Surely the Princes of _Zoan_ _[Tanis]_ are fools, the counsel of the

wise Councellors of _Pharaoh_ is become brutish: how long say ye unto

_Pharaoh_, I am the son of the ancient Kings.--The Princes of _Zoan_ are be

come fools: the Princes of _Noph_ _[Memphis]_ are deceived,--even they that

were the stay of the tribes thereof.--In that day there shall be a high-way

out of _Egypt_ into _Assyria_, and the _Egyptians_ shall serve the

_Assyrians__.
After the death of _Asserhadon_, _Egypt_ remained subject to twelve

contemporary Kings, who revolted from the _Assyrians_, and Reigned together

fifteen years; including I think the three years of _Asserhadon_, because

the _Egyptians_ do not reckon him among their Kings. They [341] built the

Labyrinth adjoining to the Lake of _Moeris_ which was a very magnificent

structure, with twelve Halls in it, for their Palaces: and then

_Psammitichus_, who was one of the twelve, conquered all the rest. He built

the last Portico of the Temple of _Vulcan_, founded by _Menes_ about 260

years before, and Reigned 54 years, including the fifteen years of his

Reign with the twelve Kings. Then Reigned _Nechaoh_ or _Nechus_, 17 years;

_Psammis_ six years; _Vaphres_, _Apries_, _Eraphius_, or _Hophra_, 25

years; _Amasis_ 44 years; and _Psammenitus_ six months, according to

_Herodotus_. _Egypt_ was subdued by _Nebuchadnezzar_ in the last year but

one of _Hophra_, _Anno Nabonass._ 178, and remained in subjection to

_Babylon_ forty years, _Jer._ xliv. 30. & _Ezek._ xxix. 12, 13, 14, 17, 19.

that is, almost all the Reign of _Amasis_, a plebeian set over _Egypt_ by

the conqueror: the forty years ended with the death of _Cyrus_; for he

Reigned over _Egypt_ and _Ethiopia_, according to _Xenophon_. At that time

therefore those nations recovered their liberty; but after four or five

years more they were invaded and conquered by _Cambyses_, _Anno Nabonass._

223 or 224, and have almost ever since remained in servitude, as was

predicted by the Prophets.


The Reigns of _Psammitichus_, _Nechus_, _Psammis_, _Apries_, _Amasis_, and

_Psammenitus_, set down by _Herodotus_, amount unto 146½ years: and so many

years there were from the 78th year of _Nabonassar_, in which the dominion

of the _Ethiopians_ over _Egypt_ came to an end, unto the 224th year of

_Nabonassar_, in which _Cambyses_ invaded _Egypt_, and put an end to that

Kingdom: which is an argument that _Herodotus_ was circumspect and faithful

in his narrations, and has given us a good account of the antiquities of

_Egypt_, so far as the Priests of _Egypt_ at _Thebes_, _Memphis_, and

_Heliopolis_, and the _Carians_ and _Ionians_ inhabiting _Egypt_, were then

able to inform him: for he consulted them all; and the _Cares_ and

_Ionians_ had been in _Egypt_ from the time of the Reign of the twelve

contemporary Kings.


_Pliny_ [342] tells us, that the _Egyptian_ Obelisks were of a sort of

stone dug near _Syene_ in _Thebais_, and that the first Obelisk was made by

_Mitres_, who Reigned in _Heliopolis_; that is, by _Mephres_ the

predecessor of _Misphragmuthosis_; and that afterwards other Kings made

others: _Sochis_, that is _Sesochis_, or _Sesac_, four, each of 48 cubits

in length; _Ramises_, that is _Ramesses_, two; _Smarres_, that is _Moeris_,

one of 48 cubits in length; _Eraphius_, or _Hophra_, one of 48; and

_Nectabis_, or _Nectenabis_, one of 80. _Mephres_ therefore extended his

dominion over all the upper _Egypt_, from _Syene_ to _Heliopolis_, and

after him, _Misphragmuthosis_ and _Amosis_, Reigned _Ammon_ and _Sesac_,

who erected the first great Empire in the world: and these four, _Amosis_,

_Ammon_, _Sesac_, and _Orus_, Reigned in the four ages of the great Gods of

_Egypt_; and _Amenophis_ was the _Menes_ who Reigned next after them: he

was Succeeded by _Ramesses_, and _Moeris_, and some time after by _Hophra_.


_Diodorus_ [343] recites the same Kings of _Egypt_ with _Herodotus_, but in

a more confused order, and repeats some of them twice, or oftener, under

various names, and omits others: his Kings are these; _Jupiter Ammon_ and

_Juno_, _Osiris_ and _Isis_, _Horus_, _Menes_, _Busiris_ I, _Busiris_ II,

_Osymanduas_, _Uchoreus_, _Myris_, _Sesoosis_ I, _Sesoosis_ II, _Amasis_,

_Actisanes_, _Mendes_ or _Marrus_, _Proteus_, _Remphis_, _Chembis_,

_Cephren_, _Mycerinus_ or _Cherinus_, _Gnephacthus_, _Bocchoris_,

_Sabacon_, twelve contemporary Kings, _Psammitichus_, * * _Apries_,

_Amasis_. Here I take _Sesoosis_ I, and _Sesoosis_ II, _Busiris_ I, and

_Busiris_ II, to be the same Kings with _Osiris_ and _Orus_: also

_Osymanduas_ to be the same with _Amenophis_ or _Menes_: also _Amasis_, and

_Actisanes_, an _Ethiopian_ who conquered him, to be the same with _Anysis_

and _Sabacon_ in _Herodotus_: and _Uchoreus_, _Mendes_, _Marrus_, and

_Myris_, to be only several names of one and the same King. Whence the

catalogue of _Diodorus_ will be reduced to this: _Jupiter Ammon_ and

_Juno_; _Osiris_, _Busiris_ or _Sesoosis_, and _Isis_; _Horus_, _Busiris_

II, or _Sesoosis_ II; _Menes_, or _Osymanduas_; _Proteus_; _Remphis_ or

_Ramesses_; _Uchoreus_, _Mendes_, _Marrus_, or _Myris_; _Chembis_ or

_Cheops_; _Cephren_; _Mycerinus_; * * _Gnephacthus_; _Bocchoris_; _Amasis_,

or _Anysis_; _Actisanes_, or _Sabacon_; * twelve contemporary Kings;

_Psammitichus_; * * _Apries_; _Amasis_: to which, if in their proper places

you add _Nitocris_, _Asychis_, _Sethon_, _Nechus_, and _Psammis,_ you will

have the catalogue of _Herodotus_.
The Dynasties of _Manetho_ and _Eratosthenes_ seem to be filled with many

such names of Kings as _Herodotus_ omitted: when it shall be made appear

that any of them Reigned in _Egypt_ after the expulsion of the Shepherds,

and were different from the Kings described above, they may be inserted in

their proper places.
_Egypt_ was conquered by the _Ethiopians_ under _Sabacon_, about the

beginning of the _Æra_ of _Nabonassar_, or perhaps three or four years

before, that is, about three hundred years before _Herodotus_ wrote his

history; and about eighty years after that conquest, it was conquered again



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