Note 3:Squadron Strength: Each Fligerstaffel nominally contains 12 aircraft plus reserves, although given the actual number of available aircraft, there is likely some variation.
Note 3: Aircraft Inventory. According to an Aviation News piece on the Swiss Air Force from Oct/Nov 89, Inventory at that time consisted of:
30 Mirage IIIS
16 Mirage IIIRS
4 Mirage IIBS
2 Mirage IIIDS
1 Mirage IIICS
130 Hunter Mk. 58/Mk. 58A (40 configured to launch Maverick)
7 Hunter Mk. 68 (trainers)
70+ Vampire FB.6
36 Vampire T.55 (30 in training role, 6 in recon, testing or EW)
78 Alouette III
21 Alouette II
3 AS.332 Super Puma
20 Bae Hawks (deliveries beginning late 1989)
Yugoslavia Yugoslav Army The Yugoslav Army converted from a division to a brigade based army during the late 1980s. This conversion, which saw large numbers of relatively weak infantry divisions replaced by stronger brigades, was substantially complete by early 1990. This organization reflects that period. This section was mainly provided by TankNet’s Bojan. The letter following unit is its readiness category, where known.
1. Proleterska Gardijska Divizija (all mechanized brigades)
a) 1. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Belgrade - B qualification
b) 2. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Valjevo - B qualification
c) 3. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Pozarevac - B qualification
f) 329. Oklopna Brigada - Banja Luka - B
3. Mechanized Brigades:
a) 12. Proleterska Mehanizovana Brigada - Osijek - A
b) 15. Proleterska Mehanizovana Brigada - Pristina - A
c) 31. Mehanizovana Brigada - Dugo Selo - R
d) 32. Mehanizovana Brigada - Varazdin - A
e) 36. Mehanizovana Brigada - Subotica - A
f) 51. Mehanizovana Brigada - Pancevo - A
g) 265. Mehanizovana Brigada - Bjelovar - A
h) 453. Mehanizovana Brigada - Sremska Mitrovica - A
4. Motorized Brigades:
a) 8. Proleterska Motorizovana Brigada - Karlovac
b) 49. Motorizovana Brigada - Sarajevo
c) 125. Motorizovana Brigada - Sremska/Titova Mitrovica
d) 140. Motorizovana Brigada - Zagreb
e) 195. Motorizovana Brigada - Maribor
f) 228. Motorizovana Brigada - Postojna
g) 592. Motorizovana Brigada - Kumanovo
5. Mountain Brigades (two of them, number unknown):
6. Infantry Brigades (a number existed, primarily lower-grade reserve units)
7. Specialist Units
a) Airborne Brigade
b) Marine Brigade
8. Territorial Defense Force
Mobilization strength of 860,000 according to IISS
Organized for local defense, most units have static defense/area denial role
Main unit would be territorial infantry brigade, of which a large number existed. There also existed AA artillery units, field artillery units and others.
Not under army command, but in separate command structure formally reporting to communist party.
General Note: Yugoslavia maintained a large military organization for the size of its nation, focused on territorial defense. Equipment and manning levels likely varied widely in different units.
Note 1: Mechanized Brigade Organization (3838 men, 63 or 83 tanks, 82 APC/IFV)
(support units, such as signals, were much smaller than regular army counterparts)
Territorial Infantry Brigade Equipment Holdings
Territorial Infantry Battalion
(usually 3 infantry companies, but varied widely)
12 howitzers or guns – could be anything from US M101 or Yugo M65 105mm, German WWII 105mm guns rechambered for US 105mm ammo, USSR 76mm guns, etc
12 mortars – officially should be various 120mm models, but could have been US 81mm, UK 3”, etc
Air Defense Group
12 Light AA guns – could be virtually anything, including a variety of 20mm Oerlikons, 20mm Bredas (Italian WWII), USSR 14.5mm twin or quad, .50cal quads or various makes, German WWII 20mm single or quads, etc
Note 7: Readiness Levels
A qualification: at least 4 active Bns/groups and 60-100% of equipment and personal.
B qualification: 2-3 active Bns/groups and 15-60% of equipment and personal.
R qualification - no active Bns/groups and up the 15% of equipment and personal.
Note 8: Equipment Holdings – list is rather incomplete. Yugoslavia kept basically every piece of equipment from World War II on
Armor: 10 Soviet T-72M, 65 Czech T-72M, 750-980 T-55 (lower number may be those serviceable), 290 M-84, ~75 M-84A, 105 M-47 (reserves), 208 T-34/85M/M1 (reserves)
Yugoslav Air Force 1. 3 Air Corps, integrating air defence fighters, SAMs and artillery:
a. 12 Fighter-Ground Attack Squadrons with 25 J-20 Kraguj (assigned to TO), ~80 Jastreb, 60 Super Galeb, 55 Orao-2
b. 13 Fighter Squadrions with 112 Mig-21PF/M/bis, 18 Mig-21U, 14 Mig-29A, 2 Mig-29UB
c. 4 Recon Squadrons:
2. Strategic Recon: Mig-21R (L-14i), L-16i and L-17i (local designation for Hughes recce pod equipped Mig-21MF and Mig-21bis).
2. Armed Helicopters: 70 Mi-8, 120 Gazela (plus 10 Mi-8 in transport role), 12 Gazela, 8 Ka-25, 2 Ka-28 (in naval roles), 4 Mi-14
3. Training: 80 Galeb, 30 Jastreb, 70 UTVA-75. ~40 UTVA-60, 20 Gazela
4. Transports: 15 An-26, 4 CL-215, 2 Falcon 50, 2 Learjet, 9 PC-6 (army)
5. Others: 6 Yak-40 (radar calibration)
Note 1:Air Defense assets include: 8 SA-2 battalions, 6 SA-3 battalions, 6-7 SA-6 battalions, 15 regts of AD artillery (assigned to army)
Note 2: Does not include helicopters assigned to Milicija (some SA-341/-342)
Map of NATO Deployments on the Central Front Note 1: unit locations are approximate, and generally represent the location of the divisional headquarters. Frequently, brigades are deployed throughout the region surrounding the headquarters.
Note 2: The location of the 5th US Mech Division POMCUS site is provisional – it was in the Netherlands, but there were four sites there. It may have been split between them.
Note 3: The Dutch 4th Mech Division had one brigade in Germany, with the rest in Holland. The two deployments are shown separately.
Note 4: The map is from the CIA, and dates from 1994. I have added the inter-German border.
US POMCUS Sites: Circles with Green
West German: Gray
UK: Light Brown
Canadian: Dark Brown
Danish: White and Red
Appendix 2 NATO Organization NATO Military Organization
The top NATO military organization is the Defence Planning Committee. Representatives of each of the member nations participating in NATO’s integrated command structure. Meets permantly at the ambassadorial level and twice yearly at the ministerial level.
Under the Defence Planning Committee is the Miltary Committee, which is composed of the chiefs of staffs of all member nations (except France, Spain and Iceland). The Military Committee is the highest military command in the Alliance and is responsible for the three major military commands:
Allied Command Atlantic
Allied Command Europe
Allied Command Channel
Allied Command Europe (ACE) controls allied ground and air forces throughout Europe. Its command headquarters is Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). It has three major subsidiary commands:
Allied Forces Northern Europe
Allied Forces Central Europe
Allied Forces Southern Europe
SHAPE also has two minor subsidiary commands:
United Kingdom Air Forces
ACE Mobile Force
Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) is the primary NATO military command for West Germany. It consists the HQ Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) based in Monchen-Gladback in the FRG, the HQ Central Army Group (CENTAG) based a Heidelburg, FRG, and HQ Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) at Ramstein AFB in the FRG.
NORTHAG’s area of responsibility stretched from Hamburg in the north to Kassel in the south, and from the inter-German border in the east to the Dutch border in the west. It is co-located with the 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force (2ATAF). Allied units under NORTHAG command include BAOR, the I Netherlands, I Belgian, and I West German.
CENTAG’s area of responsibility is all of Germany south of Kassel, along with Luxembourg and part of Belgium. It is co-located with the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force (4ATAF). Allied units under its command include III and V US Corps, II and III West German Korps, and the Canadian Forces Europe.
Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) is the NATO military command covering Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea. AFSouth is headquartered in Naples, Italy. AFSOUTH subordinate headquarters include: AIRSOUTH, controlling 5th Allied Tactical Air Force (5ATAF) in Italy, and 6th Allied Tactical Air Force (6ATAF) in Turkey. LANDSOUTH controls forces in Italy, and while it consists of mainly Italian units, it also has contingents from the US and Portugal. LANDSOUTHEAST controls forces in Greece and Turkey. Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe (NAVSOUTH) controls allied naval forces in the Meditteranean, except for the US 6th Fleet, which comprises Naval Striking and Support Forces, Southern Europe (STRIKFORSOUTH).
Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) is the NATO military command covering Norway, Denmark, and West Germany north of the river Elbe along with adjacent air and sea space. It has three major subsidiary commands: Allied Forces North Norway (COMNON) is headquartered at Reitan, near Bodo in Norway. Allied Forces South Norway (COMSONOR) is headquartered in Oslo. Allied Forces Baltic Approaches (BALTAP) controls all Danish units and West German units of Schleswig-Holstein territorial command, and would control a large number of allied forces (mainly from the US and UK) in the event of mobilization.
Appendix 3 NATO War Material Production
M1xx Abrams: 516 per year
M2/M3 Bradley: 700+ per year
AH-64 Apache: ~70 per year
Warrior (and variants): ~150 per year
AMX-10P (and variants): ~160 per year
AMX-30 to AMX-30B2 conversion: 75+ per year
AIFV and M113 production wrapped up in late 1980s; had been running about 60 each per year. Beginning construction of 285 AIFV hulls for Turkey