Malvern, D. D., Richards, B. J., Chipere, N., & Duran, P. (2004). Lexical diversity and language development: Quantification and assessment. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230511804
Matsuda, P.K. (1997). Contrastive rhetoric in context: A dynamic model of L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 45-60.
Mayfield-Tomokiyo, L. & Jones, R. 2001. You’re not from ‘round here, are you? Naive Bayes detection of non-native utterance text. In Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL ‘01), unpaginated electronic document. Cambridge, MA: The Association for Computational Linguistics.
McCarthy, P.M. & Jarvis, S., (2010). MTLD, vocd-D, and HD-D: A validation study of
sophisticated approaches to lexical diversity assessment. Behavior Research Methods, 42,
McClure, E. (1991). A comparison of lexical strategies in L1 and L2 written English narratives. Pragmatics and Language Learning, 2, 141-154.
McCutchen, D. (1996). A capacity theory of writing: Working memory in composition. Educational Psychology Review, 8, 299-325.
McCutchen, D. (2000). Knowledge, processing, and working memory: Implications for a theory of writing. Educational Psychologist, 35, 13-23.
Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2006). Applied multivariate research. Design and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Miller, G. A, Beckwith, R., Fellbaum, C., Gross, D. & Miller, K. (1990). Five papers on WordNet. Cognitive Science Laboratory, Princeton University, No. 43.
Ninio, A. (1999). Pathbreaking verbs in syntactic development and the question of prototypical transitivity. Journal of Child Language, 26, 619–653.
Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Paivio, A. (1965). Abstractness, imagery, and meaningfulness in paired-associate learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 32−38.
Porte, G. (1996). When writing fails: How academic context and past learning experiences shape revision. System, 24, 107–116.
Porte, G. (1997). The etiology of poor second language writing: The influence of perceived teacher preferences on second language revision strategies. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6, 61–78.
Ransdell, S., & Levy, C. M. (1996). Working memory constraints on writing quality and fluency. In C. M. Levy & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (pp. 93-105). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reid, J. R. (1992). A computer text analysis of four cohesion device in English discourse by native and nonnative writers. Journal of Second Language Writing,1, 79¬107.
Rinnert, C., & Kobayashi, H. (2009). Situated writing practices in foreign language settings: The role of previous experience and instruction. In R. M. Manchon (Ed.), Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp. 23-48). Buffalo, New York: Multilingual Matters.
Scarcella, R. (1984). Cohesion in the writing development of native and non-native English speakers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California.
Scardamalia, M. (1981). How children cope with the cognitive demands of writing. In C. H. Frederiksen & J. F. Dominic (Eds.), Writing: The nature, development, and teaching of written communication, Vol. 2. Writing: Process, development, and communication (pp. 81-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Schoonen, R., Snellings, P., Stevenson, M., & van Gelderen, A. (2009). Towards a blueprint of the foreign language writer: The linguistic and cognitive demands of foreign language writing. In R. M. Manchón (Ed.) Writing in foreign language contexts: Learning, teaching, and research (pp. 77-101). Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.
Toglia, M. P., & Battig, W. R. (1978). Handbook of semantic word norms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ventola, E. & Mauranen, A. (1991). Non-native writing and native revising of scientific articles. In E. Ventola (Ed.) Functional and systemic linguistics: Approaches and uses (pp. 457-492). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Weigle, S. C. (2005). Second language writing expertise. In K. Johnson (Ed.), Expertise in second language learning and teaching (pp. 128-149). Basingstoke, Hampshire/ New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
White, R. (1981). Approaches to writing. Guidelines, 6, 1-11.
Most common essay topics in the ICLE
Some people say that in our modern world, dominated by science, technology, and industrialization, there is no longer a place for dreaming and imagination. What is your opinion?
Marx once said that religion was the opium of the masses. If he was alive at the end of the 20th century, he would replace religion with television.
In his novel 'Animal Farm', George Orwell wrote "All men are equal: but some are more equal than others". How true is this today?
Feminists have done more harm to the cause of women than good.
Descriptive statistics for the L1 corpus, the combined L2 corpus, and the grouped language corpora
Mean number of words
Texts in training set
Texts in test set
Means (standard deviations), F values, and effect sizes (hp2) for L1 and L2 essays in training set.