10 | P age Moses Wain a in a - 0 7 0 7 6 9 1 4 3 0 CIT TOPIC 5: PROFESSIONAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES & RESPONSIBILITIES What are Ethics • The principles of conduct governing an individual or groupie professional ethics • The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation Professional ethics are principles that govern the behavior of a person or group in ab bbusiness environment. Like values, professional ethics provide rules on how a person should act towards other people and institutions in such environment e.g. honesty, trustworthiness, transparency, accountability, confidentiality, objectivity, respect, obedience to the law, and loyalty. What is moral • Concerned with the principles of right and wrong in conduct and character Modes of conduct Objectives of Codes of ethics they include Disciplinary by instilling discipline, the group ensures professionalism and integrity of its members. •Advisory: codes are usually a good source of tips to members and offers advice and guidance in areas where there are fuzzy moral issues •Educational:codes are good educational tools to members in the domain. •Inspirational: ethical codes should carry subliminal messages to those using them to inspire them to be good. Publicity Strong code of ethics creates good clientele in the public. Ethical theories Human actions have been judges good or bad, right or wrong, based on theories or systems of justice developed. Tested, revised and debated. These include
11 | P age Moses Wain a in a - 0 7 0 7 6 9 1 4 3 0 CIT Consequentialism: Human actions are judged good or bad, right or wrong, depending on the results of such actions. A desirable result denotes a good action and vice versa. There three types of Consequentialism: –Egoism: this puts an individual’s interests and happiness above everything else. Here any action is good as long as it maximizes an individual’s happiness –Utilitarianism: this theory puts a group’s interest and happiness above those of an individual for the good of the many. –Altruism: an action here is judge right if the consequences of that action are favorable to all except the actor Deontology -Here an action is good or bad depending on the will inherent in it. The act is considered good if the individual committing it had a good reason to do so. This theory has a duty attached to it. E.g. killing is bad but if you killed an armed robber that has entered your home then your action is good because it’s your duty to protect your family and property Emotivism - This theory maintains that ethical statements are neither true nor false and cannot be proven. They are actually only statements about how someone feels. Hedonism- It claims that pleasure are the only good thing inhuman life and the end of life as the highest good. Hedonists maximize pleasure or minimize pain in whatever he or she does.