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147 Wundt, op. cit, voL VII, p. 205.

148 Father Kosibowicz,op.cit,p.ll7.

149 Wundt, voL VII, pp. 103, 206, 421.

150 On Kubary, see "Polska w kulturze powszechnej".

151 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit, pp. 222-224.

152 "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse". V Session. Luxembourg, 11-22 Sept. 1929). Paris 1931. P. 337.

153 Meyer, op. cit, pp. 21, 23. In addition to this the law of family inheritance plays a part, of which below.

154 Meyer, op. cit, p. 31.

155 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit.

156 Bronisław Malinowski. "Mutterliche Familie und Oedipus-Komplex. Eine ethnologish-psychoanalitishe Studie". Vienna 1924. P. 46.

157 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 58, 76, 77, 78. In Krzywicki's old book this question was explained, not entirely correctly it is true, but incomparably better and more clearly than in "Anthropologie", op. cit. (1923) thirty years later. The "classes" were taken up with particular satisfaction by adherents of totemism, and they liked best the Australian Arunta people. What chaos reigns in the matter may be seen from the last account of it. G. Davy and A. Moret (also in 1923 "Des clans aux empires. L'organisation sociale chez les primitifs et dans l’orient ancien". Paris, 1923. "L'évolution de l’humanité" No. 6, pp. 22, 26 and 32) present the seclusions of the Arunta in a most involved manner amidst a labyrinth of classes, brotherhoods, tribes, clans, and totems too. Following (on this occasion) Krzywicki I simplified the division even more and halved the number of "classes", not seeing any reason for artificially differentiating what nature has very well distinguished by sex. To turn each seclusion into two — masculine and feminine — complicates the argument and leads nowhere.

158 Father A. Tonelli, Sal. "La famiglia presso i Bororo-Orari del Matto Grosso". In "Semaine intern, d'éthnologie rel.", op. cit., p. 303.

159 "The Koran". The author quotes a German translation bv Dr Samuel Friedrich Guenthcr Wahl. Halle 1828. P. 67.

160 L. Ehrlich. "Die Familie bei den Tschuktschen, Jukagiren, Korjakcn und Itelmen". In "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse" op cit., pp. 183, 188.

161 Meyer, op. cit., p. 19.

162 Among primitive peoples, this law is often conditional, applicable in exceptional circumstances only, e.g. among Bushmen in the case of mother's death, injury, collective flight etc. L. Walk. "Die Familie in Südafrika", in "Semaine internationale d'ethnologie religieuse", op. cit., p. 257.

163 Percival Lowell. "The Soul of the Far East". Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, Mass., 1888. The author quotes the Polish translation by J. G. H. Pawlikowski. Lw6w 1922. ("Wiedza i życie", seria IV, torn 12). Pp. 21. 23.

164 "Misje Katolickie", Cracow 1925, pp. 400, 401, 451, 452.

165 Father Georg Hoeltker, S.V.D. "Die Familie bei den Azteken und Maya", in "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse, op. cit., p. 320.

166 Tonelli, op. cit, p. 310.

167 Hoeltker, op. cit, p. 319.

168 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 294.

169 Gustave Le Bon. "Les civilisations de 1'Inde". Nouvelle edition. Paris 1900. P. 318.

170 Jadwiga Marcinkowska. "W upalnym sercu Wschodu. Wrażenia z podróży po Egipcie, Indiach, Cejlonie i Jawie". Lwów 1925. Pp. 222, 223.

171 I do not know where the horrid opinion we have of geishas comes from. The geisha must preserve her virginity, otherwise she loses her right to wear the double fold on the shoulder, the honourable sign of her important guild, and is obliged to wear a red camellia in her hair. Japanese prostitues are called "joro". Ferdynand Ossendowski. "Cud bogini Kwan-Non. Z życia Japonii." Poznań 1924. P. 53.

172 Father Władysław Szczepański. "Najstarsze cywilizacje Wschodu klasyczncgo". Vol II. "Babilon. Lw6w 1922-23. P. 154.

173 Sieroszewski. "Korea. Klucz Dalekiego Wschodu". Warsaw 1905. P. 277.

174 Walk, op. cit, p. 259.

175 Unless perhaps through lack of realisation of the effects of "coitus", of which I have already spoken. Malinowski assumes such unawareness among inhabitants of the island of Tobrianda and speaks incidentally of the behaviour of the women "from the first moment of pregnancy" ("Mutterrechtliche Famine", op. cit, p. 17). How in that case do they know about that first moment? And besides, a woman points to the father of her child by living with him and, with children, being kept by him. This island of Tobrianda passes for the classical land of matriarchy. It may be said in paranthesis that Malinowski gives its position as north-east of New-Guinea or north-west Melanesia, whereas it lies south-east of New Guinea and in central Melanesia.

176 On them "Anthropologie", op. cit, p. 526.

177 For example, the division of scythe and sickle. On the femininity of the sickle see Adam Szymański's "Aksinia".

178 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, p. 293.

179 Of the emancipation of the family from the clan there will be more later.

180 Lowell, op. cit., pp. 21, 23.

181 Father Kosibowicz, op. cit, pp.,97, 185.

182 Marcinkowska, op. cit., p. 201.

183 Bastian. "Die Rechtsverhältnisse bei verschiedenen Völkern der Erde. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Ethnologie". Berlin. 1872. Jakubski, op. cit Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 125, 164.

184 Ehrilch, op. cit, pp. 183, 184.

185 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 74, 75.

186 ibid. Note p. 76, p. 82.

187 Ferdynand Goetel. "Przez płonacy Wschód". Warsaw 1925. P. 73.

188 Deniker, op. cit, pp. 146, 147. p

189 Sieroszewski, "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., pp. 51, 118, 121.

190 Chmielewski, op. cit, p. 142.

191 "Misje Katolickie", Cracow. 1926, pp. 77, 8Z.

192 ibid. 1925, pp. 446;-447.

193 Ehrlich, op. cit., p. 183.

194 Erazm Majewski. "Nauka o cywilizacji". Warsaw 1908-1923. Vol. IV, pp. 138, 140, 141, 150, 151, 152, 166, 172.

195 For the way in which this discovery of Majewski's was beginning to crystallise in Polish science, see Adam Szelągowski. "Wschód i Zachód. Zagadnienia z dziejów cywilizacji". Lwów 1912. Pp. 495, 496.

196 Majewski as above.

197 This was noted long ago, but in Polish writings only since 1915, thanks to Bronisław Malinowski. "Wierzenia pierwotne", op. cit, p. 6.

198 Sieroszewski,"Korea",op.cit.,p.46.

199 Lepecki. "W krainie jaguarów". op. cit, p. 2L

200 "Misje Katolickie", Cracow, 1926, .p. 79.

201 Jakubski. op. cit.. pp. 31, 32, 45, 152, 225.

202 Jakubski, op. cit., pp. 152. 240. "Misje Katolickie", Cracow, 1925, pp. 314, 315.

203 Lepecki, "W krainie jaguarów", op. cit., p. 83.

204 F. Graebner. "Ethnologie". In "Anthropologie", op. cit., p. 577.

205 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., p. 217.

206 Poestion. "Island", op. cit., p. 283.

207 Sieroszcwski, "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, pp. 73, 74, 140, 143.

208 Eugen Fischer. "Specielle Anthropologie oder Rassenlehre". In "Anthropologie". Pp. 184, 185.

209 Maurizio, op. cit, pp. 5, 17, 18. From this work a mass of evidence could be cited showing how identical states of pre-agriculture — and of agriculture also — are associated with very dissimilar levels of civilisation, and vice-versa.

210 Moszyński, op. cit, part I, p. 143.

211 Jakubski. op. cit, pp. 31, 113.

212 "Misje Katolickie", 1924, April.

213 Moszyński, op. cit. Part I, pp. 166, 167, 174, 175.

214 Wilhelm Depping. "Japan". Polish translation from third edition. (Biblioteka Dzieł Wyborowych, Warsaw 1904, two volumes Nr. 326 and 327.) Pp. 93, 97.

215 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 160.

216 Father Szczepan Mazurek in "Misje Katolickic", 1924, p. 112.

217 Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski. "W ludzkiej i leśnej kniei". Warsaw 1923. P. 230. This is caused by a special fungus.

218 Jan Czekanowski, "Rasy i Ludy", op. cit., p. 74.

219 ibid., p. 110.

220 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., pp. 141, 143, 189; Lepecki. "Na cmentarzyskach Indian", op. cit., p. 74; Lepecki. "W krainie jaguarów", '' op. cit., p. 75; Jakubski, op. cit., p. 121; "Misje Katolickie", 1925. pp. 389, 556; ibid 1926. p. 13.

221 Józef Bieniasz describes this in his "Edukacja", Lw6w 1933, vol. .1, p. 124.

222 Father Szczepański, op. cit.. Vol. I, "Egipt", p. 183; Grąbczewski, op. cit, vol. III, p. 45.

223 Lepecki. "W krainie jaguarów", op. cit, p. 55; Sieroszewski. Dwanaście lat". op. cit, p. 95; Sieroszewski. "Korea", op. cit., p. 387. Józef Rostafinski. "Świat i ludzie Algeru". Second edition. Cracow 1896. P. 191.

224


 Moszyński, op. cit., part I, p. 596.

225


 ibid, part I, pp. 630-632.

226


 ibid, part I, p. 632.

227


 For the history of the wheel, see ibid, part I, pp. 634-637.

228


 ibid, part I, pp. 637, 638.

229 "Misje Katolickie", 1928. p. 129.

230 Julian Talko-Hryncewicz. "Z przeżytych dni (1850-1903)". Warsaw 1930, p. 239.

231 Gerlach, op. cit., p. 178, with an account of large teams; Jakubski, op. cit., pp. 220, 271; Lepecki, "W krainie jaguarów", op. cit.. p. 99; Sven Hedin, "Bagdad, Babylon, Ninive, Leipzig 1918, p. 284 sketch; Witold Szyszło, "Pod zwrotnikami. Porto-Rico", (Biblioteka Dzieł Wyborowych, Nr. 679-680, no date, but before 1914), p. 62; Ossendowski, "Przez kraj ludzi, zwierzat i bogów", op. cit, p. 73; Fularski, op. cit, p. 129.

232 "Misje Katolickie", 1924, pp. 251, 253, 256, 365, with interesting data on harnessing and driving.

233 Moszynski, op. cit., part I, p. 647.

234 Poestion, op. cit., p. 296.

235 "Letters" of Father Beyzym, op. cit, p. 33.

236 Lepecki, „W krainie jaguarów”, op. cit., p. 86.

237 Dębczyński, op. cit., p. 195.

238 Władysław Kotwicz. "0 chronologii mongolskiej". A reprint from "Rocznik Orientalistyczny", vol. IV. Lwów, 1928. Pp. 2, 3.

239 Lepecki."W krainie jaguarów", op. cit.

240 Deniker, op. cit. F. Graebner. "Das Weltbild der Primitiven. Munich, 1924.

241 Davy et Moret, op. cit.

242 Similarly in the shortened "Elemente der Völkerpsychologie".

243 Meyer, op. cit., p. 96. It is a curious fact that totemism was opposed without quarter (by Goldenweiser in 1910) soon after the publication of Frazer's fundamental work "Totemism and Exogamy", but totemism blossomed again reinforced by Freud. Since the tribes of Central Australia are not exogamous, yet are regarded as the classic example of totemism (Malinowski, "Wierzenia pierwotne", op. cit, p. 7), the totem has evidently nothing to do with endo- or exogamy.

244 Lotar Dargun. "Ursprung und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Eigentums". ("Zeitschrift für vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft", vol. V, 1884.) P. 1 sq. He also wrote in Polish in the publications of the Cracow Academy. The memory of his nationality has somehow become effaced and Germans regard him as theirs without justification. (I knew him personally in Cracow in youth.)

245 Wundt, op. cit., vol. VIII, p. 75.

246 It is a great mistake to confuse "zadruga" with the Russian "mir", which is of Turanian origin and not based on kinship.

247 Meyer, op. cit., p. 69: "der Besitz gemeinsam nach Familien

248 Gustave Le Bon, "Les civilisations de l’Inde”, op. dt, pp. 653-656.

249 P. J. André, capitaine d'infantérie coloniale (Pierre Reden). "L'islam et les races". Paris 1922. Vol. I, p. 82.

250 "Anthropologie", op. cit, p. 542, Dębczyński, op. cit., p. 213. Le Bon, "Les civilisations de 1'Inde", op cit., p. 652.

251 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. rit, p. 220.

252 Bastian, op. cit., pp. XIV, XV, 185.

253 Feliks Koneczny. "Dzieje Rosji" ("History of Russia"), vol. I, p. 289.

254 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p. 222, 223.

255 Feliks Koneczny. "History of Russia". Vol. I, pp. 97, 98.

256 Wundt, op. cit, vol. VII, p. 108.

257 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 338.

258 Dębczyński, op. cit., p. 207; the author sees in this "traces of the matriarchal system".

259 ibid, p. 208.

260 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit, p. 87.

261 ibid, p. 218. From this the author concludes that "the communist principle plays a considerable ro1e in family life". If living in one building is a manifestation of communism, towns are populated entirely by communists!

262 ibid, p. 220.

263 Father Tonelli, op. cit, pp. 300 and 312. Here there is an evident tendency towards emancipation of the family, but Tonelli sees it as an instance of matriarchy.

264 "Misje Katolickie", 1925, p. 342.

265 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., p. 223.

266 ibid, p. 243.

267 Psichari, op. cit., pp. 65, 81. In the Polish translation the confusion in nomenclature is even worse than in the original.

268 Fularski, op. cit, p. 148.

269 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., p. 88. Nomenclature everywhere very inconsistent.

270 "Misje Katolickie", 1925 p. 403.

271 Jan St. Bystroń. "Alger". Lwów 1934. Pp. 124, 125, 127, 130, 131.

272 ibid, pp. 232-234.

273 ibid, pp. 231, 232.

274 Grąbczewski, op. cit, vol. II, p. 109.

275 Lowell, op. cit, pp. 21, 23.

276 Dębczyński, op. cit.

277 Rev. Fr. S. Tastevin. "La famille Nyaneka" in "Semaine internationals d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit., pp. 277-278.

278 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit, p. 195. "Misje Katolickie" 1924, p. 68.

279 N. Schneider. "Ehe und Familie in der Gesetzgebung der Sumerer, Babylonier, Assyrer und Hethiten" in "Semaine Internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit., p. 210.

280 ibid, p. 204. Father Hoeltker S.V.D., op. cit. 325.

281 Eduard Westermarck. "Ursprung und Entwicklung der Moralbegriffe". German translation (from the Swedish) by Leopold Katscher. Vol. I, pp. 516-518.

282 Westermarck confuses the two.

283 Fr. Hoeltker, op. cit, p. 319.

284 "Misje Katolickic" 1924, p. 68; 1926, p. 92.

285 Westermarck, op. cit., vol. I, p. 516; Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p. 130.

286 "Anthropologie", op. cit, p. 543; Fr. Kosibowicz, S.J., op. cit, p. 113; Fr. Tastevin op. cit, p. 277; L. Walk. "Die Familie in Südafrika" In "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit., pp. 258, 262.

287 "The Koran", op. cit., p. 67.

288 Ferdynand Goetel. "Egipt". Lwów 1927. P. 120. Rostafinski, op. cit., p. 187.

289 Ehrlich, op. cit, p. 186.

290 Le Bon, "Les civilisations de l’Inde", op. cit., pp. 318, 322.

291 Stefan Poraj Suchecki. "Wschodnim wybrzeżem Afryki. Wrażenia z podróży". Warsaw 1901. P. 20.

292 "Misje Katolickie" 1925. P. 478.

293 Walk, op. cit, p. 267.

294 Fr. Tastevin, op. cit, p. 278.

295 "Misje Katolickie" 1925. p. 545.

296 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat" op. cit. P. 298.

297 This is the theme of Carl Gjellerup's "The Pilgrim Kamanita".

298 Rev. Fr. L. de Smedt. "Le mariage en Chine'*,, in "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit, p. 163.

299 It is certainly not easy for a foreigner to distinguish concubine from "second" wife, hence the error evident in de Smedt, op cit., p. 166, to the effect that for the most part the Chinese have only one concubine (as if more would be unseemly).

300 Fr. L. de Smedt, op. cit, p. 164.

301 ibid, p. 166.

302 Le Bon, "Les civilisations de 1'Inde", op. cit., pp. 258, 324.

303 Ku Hung Ming. "The Spirit of the Chinese People", Peking 1922. The author quotes the Polish translation by Józef Targowski, Cracow 1928. Pp. 65, 68.

304 "Semaine Internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit., pp. 145, 146. It may be said in paranthesis that there are many resemblances between the family law of China and of the ancient Aztecs.

305 de Smedt, op. cit, p. 167.

306 L. Cadière. "La famille et la religion en pays annamite" in "Semaine internationale", op. cit., p. 222.

307 Lowell, op. cit., pp. 40, 41.

308 Futabel. "Left Rudder!" Japanese novel. The author quotes the Polish translation by Jerzy Marlicz in "Gazeta Warszawska", Warsaw 1925.. Particularly sketches 3, 33, 42.

309 "Anthropologie", op. cit., p. 520; F. Graebner takes refuge here in" matriarchy!

310 Depping, op. cit., pp. 76, 77. 90. "Misje Katolickie", op. cit., 1925. p. 536. Kenijro Totukomi. "Nemi-Ko". (Japanese Tale). The author quotes Polish translation by Emilia Węsławska, Warsaw 1905. ("Biblioteka dzieł wyborowych". No. 375, 378).

311 Fr. Georg Hoeltker, S.V.D., op. cit, p. 324.

312 Ku Hung Ming. op. cit, p. 63.

313 Sieroszewski. "Korea", op. cit., pp. 152, 239.

314 Lepecki “W krainie jaguarow”, op. cit, p. 60. Sieroszewski. “Dwanascie lat w kraju Jakutów”, Warsaw 1900, p.341.

315 Fr. W. Szczepański, op. cit., vol. III, p. 154. Rostafiński, op. cit., p 162. Fr. Kosibowicz, S.J., op. cit., p. 108. Sieroszewski, "Korea", op. cit, p. 277. Fr. de Smedt, op. cit, p. 161. Koran, pp. 66, 69. Sven Hedin, op. cit., pp. 309, 310.

316 Hedin, op. cit, p. 348.

317 Władysław Massalski. "Ekspansja Islamu w świetle nowych poglądów". "Przegląd Powszechny", April 1927, p. 21.

318 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 293.

319 Blasco-Ibanez: "Mystery of the Lake"; Jerzy Bandrowski: "Zolojka"; Michał Siedlecki: "Skarby wód". Cassubian "maszoperia" from the Dutch "Matschapij".

320 Sieroszewski. "Wśród kosmatych ludzi", op. cit.; "Dwanaście lat". op. cit

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