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321 "Misje Katolickie", 1924, p. 76. Another missionary has nevertheless confused the clan community with communal property. "Misje Katolickie", 1925. p. 365.

322 Sieroszewski, "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 279.

323 "Anthropologie", op. cit, pp. 542, 543.

324 Jakubski, op. cit, p: 266.

325 Krzywicki. "Ludy", op. cit., p. 62.

326 Julian Talko-Hryncewicz. "Z przeżytych dni (1850-1908)". Warsaw 1930. P. 261.

327 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, p. 224.

328 Families — not clans, since there are more than five of them. The Todas are dying out. In 1880 they numbered barely 500; do they still exist? Marriage within the clan was forbidden. Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 93, 97, 99, with the usual chaos in nomenclature.

329 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p. 243.

330 Sieroszewski. "Korea", op; cit., p. 240.

331 Rostafiński, op. cit, p. 172.

332 Sieroszewski, "Korea", op. cit, p. 241.

333 Rostafiński, op. cit., pp. 178, 230.

334 Sieroszewski "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, p. 280.

335 ibid, p. 279.

336 ibid., p. 279.

337 Rostafiński, op. cit., p. 273.

338 Adherents of totemism recognise that these signs are property marks: "They also use it as their arms, paint, sculpt and draw it on their houses, on objects of use, and tatoo it on their persons" we read in Malinowski, "Wierzenia pierwotne i formy ustroju społecznego", op. cit., p. 10. But not content with the factual side of the subject, a large superstructure, crowned by a totemistic religion, has been created by the meditative method.


339 Here I am attacking matriarchy, and in its main fortress, in that island of Tobrianda, where the uncle is "head of matriarchal grouping", and his heir is not bis own son, but his nephew, his sister's son (Malinowski, "Mutterrechtliche Familie und Oedipus-Komplex", op. cit., pp. 9. 31). Then who inherits from the father? Again children of his sister? Combinations the more singular in that this uncle "head under matriarchy", lives elsewhere, in another settlement (Malinowski, ibid, p. 32) — for in Tobrianda exogamy is the rule, and a wife follows her husband (Malinowski, ibid, p. 10). How are the two ideas to be reconciled?

None of the propounders of avuncular matriarchy has considered that a man with several sisters would be burdened by duties towards twenty or thirty children not his own and living in various parts of the island. All these nephews are his heirs, but if a man were to have no sisters, he would have no heirs. And what happens if a woman has no brother? But if she has several brothers, her matriarchal grouping would have several "heads", and her sons would inherit all over the island.

All this belongs to the realm of fairy-tales. Instead, the question should be asked: whose property are children in Tobrianda? How are fathers there persuaded to accept loss in favour of their wives' brothers? But as decision on a daughter's marriage is nevertheless the father's (Malinowski, ibid, p. 50), patently the father owns his daughter; the less likely is it that he would allow sons to be taken from him.

I mention all this in footnotes only, treating the matter as occasion offers, since the question of matriarchy has no basic importance for this book; I should not have to alter anything of its content were matriarchy to be proved a fact. On Freudianism there is nothing to be said. The "Oedipus-complex" and the rot are together worth as much as was once the "plica polonica" [tangled hair prevented from cutting by superstition] in medicine, also with a serious and ample literature of its own.



I draw attention to one further argument. Ethnologists are wont to inquire whether a young wife preserves her former name — i.e. of her clan — or whether she adopts her husband's and they pronounce accordingly for matriarchy or patriarchy. This is a strange error, for to this day there are no surnames anywhere in the world outside Latin civilisation and its field of influence. There are only forenames or nicknames. It is the same in Turkey, in Persia, in China and among the Bushmen, where a child is frequently given the name of a grandfather (and in Europe?). (Semaine internationale d'éthnologie, op. cit., p. 289.) A wife keeps her forename with us, not only in Korea or New Ireland. (Fr. A. Eckhardt, O.S.B., op. cit, t». 172. Semaine internationale, op.. cit. p. 238.) And as for "surnames" at low levels of civilisation, the learned are misled either by the mark ("totem") of a clan or tribe used for indicating boundaries and property, or by the tribal war-cry, unfortunately ignored by ethnology. A wife married into another clan, and the more so if into another tribe, may be known by her old maiden forename, but the goods which belong to her are henceforth indicated by the mark of her husband's clan, and she regards herself as part and parcel of that clan.

340 L. Walk, op. cit. p. 260.

341 ibid.. pp. 258, 267.

342 Deniker, op. cit., p. 294.

343 E.g. L. Ehrlich, op. cit., p. 185.

344 The father's property right to children is strongly indicated in primitive societies organised in seclusions: a child's membership of a seclusion is determined by his father's membership. This is the case even among the Arunta of Central Australia, among the people whose institutions constitute a pillar of the doctrine of matriarchy. Malinowski, "Wierzenia pierwotne", op. cit., p. 7, did not notice the illogicality.

345 Fr. de Smedt, op. cit. pp. 162, 166, 167.

346 Westermarck, op. cit., vol. I, p. 525.

347 Ehrlich, op. cit, p. 192. Ed. de Jonghe. "La famille chez les Congolais" in "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit, p. 252.

348 Marco Polo, op. cit, p. 25.

349 Fr. W. Szczepański, op. cit., vol. III, p. 131. N. Schneider, op. cit., p. 210.

350 Deniker, op. cit, p. 294.

351 Cadière. op. cit.. pp. 221, 222.

352 Schneider, op. cit., p. 210.

353 de Jonghe, op. cit, p. 244. I do not understand how he could, on the preceding page, mention primogeniture in this connection.

354 Fr. de Smedt, op. cit. p. 155.

355 Fr. Andreas Eckardt O.S.B. "Die Familie in Japan und Korea" — in "Semaine internationale d'éthnologie religieuse", op. cit, p. 172; does the author not speak too hastily of "surnames" here?

356 Fr. Hoeltker S.V.D., op. cit, pp. 323, 324.

357 For example in New Ireland, an island in Oceania ("New Mecklemburg" between 1885-1919), "Semaine internationale", op. cit, p. 231; it was the same with the Mayan Peoples, Fr. Hoeltker, S.V.D., p. 322.

358 Henry Thomas Buckle. "History of Civilisation in England", London, Parker, Son and Bourn, 1861. Vol. II, page XII. The author quotes the Polish translation by Zawadzki, Lwów 1862, vol. III, p. 381.

359 Franciszek Bujak. "Traktat Kopernika o monecie". Lwów 1924.

360 Fr. Marcin Czermiński. "Na górze Athos, wśród mniszej republiki". objaśniony 57 rycinami i mapą Athosu". Cracow 1908.

361 Sieroszewski. "Korea", op. cit., p. 182.

362 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, p. 251.

363 Sieroszewski. "Risztau". Cracow 1911. P. 125.

364 It was found among the "Assanides" by Adam Grabowski. "Wśród gór i pustyń Coelesyrii". Bytom 1924. P. 171.

365 Westermarck, op. cit. vol. I, p. 397.

366 Sieroszewski. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit., p. 250.

367 Westermarck, op. cit., vol. I, p. 398.

368 ibid.

369 Psichari, op. cit, p. 93.

370 "Misje Katolickie", 1925, p. 445.

371 "Anthropologie", op. cit., p. 548.

372 Compare "The dependence of economic life on ethics" by Feliks Koneczny in the collective "Życie gospodarcze a ekonomika społeczna" (vol. II "Biblioteka Polskiego Towarzystwa Ekonomicznego we Lwowie"). Lwów 1933.

373 Bastian, op. cit., mainly pp. XV, XVI, 175-182.

374 Robert Poelmann. "Geschichte der sozialen Frage und des Sozialismus in der antiken Welt". Second ed., Munich 1912. Two volumes.

375 Wundt, op. cit., vol. X, p. 21. This does not prevent his stating, in another place in the same volume (p. 163) that "nicht eine einzelne Nation, sondern ein einziger alle Nationen umfassender Staat Träger der Kultur ist". And later, on pp. 171-173, there appears the "Nationaler Kulturstaat". Compare also pp. 179 and 217.

376 Compare Paul Barth. "Die Philosophic der Geschichte als Soziolqgie". Part I; "Grundlegung und kritische Uebersicht". Second, enlarged ed., Leipzig 1915. Pp. 546, 571-573.

377 Ergology, a term invented by the German philosopher Georg Eduard Burckhart (born 1881), meaning the science of labour. (Note of the translators).

378 Barth, op. cit, p. 580.

379 Majewski, op. cit, vol. II, p. 137.

380 According to Meyer, op. cit., p. XV.

381 According to Barth, op. cit., p. 579.

382 On the other hand the history of civilisation cannot do without ergology. What an enormous mass of material is contained in Moszyński's "Kultury ludowe u Słowian".

383 Fr. de Smedt, op. cit, p. 169.

384 Walerian Klecki. "Wykłady o biologicznych podstawach hodowli. Gatunek i rasa". Warsaw 1924. Pp. 136-141.

385 Ludwik Krzywicki. "Kurs systematyczny antropologii". VoL I. "Rasy fizyczne". Warsaw 1897. Pp. 8, 38, 130, 139; Majewski, op. cit, voL IV, p. 155.

386 Meyer, op. cit, p. 73; Fritz Lenz. "Menschliche Auslese und Rassenhygiene" in "Grundriss der menschlichen Erblichkeitslehre u. Rassenhygiene" by Erwin Bauer, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz. Munich 1921. Vol. II, p. 102; Fischer in "Spezielle Anthropologie oder Rassenlehre". op. cit, in "Anthropologie", p. 194-196. As for the Veddahs, the old hypothesis that they are remnants of the original population of India has proved mistaken. Eugène Pittard. "Les races et l’histoire. Introduction ethnologique à l’histoire". In "L’évolution de 1'humanité". No. 5. Paris 1924. Pp. 479. 485.

387 Pittard, op. cit, pp. 476, 478.

388 Krzywicki, "Kurs systemnatyczny antropologii", op. cit., p. 70.

389 Ibid., p. 101.

390 Fischer, "Spezielle Anthropologie", op. cit., pp. 187, 214, 215; Sieroszewski "Wśród kosmatych ludzi", op. cit., p. 11.

391 Klecki, op. cit., p. 154.

392 Krzywicki, "Kurs systematyczny antropologii", op. cit, p. 83; "Anthropologie", op. cit., pp. 174, 606.

393 Pittard, op, cit., pp. 413-415, 418.

394 Ignacy Judt. Żydzi jako rasa fizyczna". Warsaw 1902.

395 Pittard, op. cit, p. 44.

396 The history of these discoveries is very significant for the history of science in general. Mendel published his discoveries himself in 1864. The fruit of patient experiment on the pea and bean during thirty years, they were utterly ignored. Only when thirty-six years later, in 1900, three scientists at the same time discovered the same thing did the "discovery" of Mendel follow, revealing that the newest discovery was superfluous and that a whole generation of scientists had been wasted.

397 Krzywicki, "Kurs systematyczny antropologii", op. cit, pp. 14, 17, 165. "Ludy", op. cit, p. 302.

398 G. Schwalbe. "Die Abstammung des Menschen und die ältesten Menschen-formen" in "Anthropologie", op. cit, p. 250.

399 Adametz, "Hodowla zwierząt domowych", op. cit., pp. 209, 210, 212, 229, 230.

400 Ibid., p. 209.

401 Edward Welle Strand. "People from under the North Pole. A novel from the farthest North". Polish translation by Artur Górski. Warsaw, without date. P. 278.

402 Lepecki. "W krainie jaguarów". P. 113.

403 Ibid., p. 120.

404 Talko-Hryncewicz, op. cit, pp. 259, 299.

405 Jan Czekanowski. "Wstęp do historii Słowian. Perspektywy antropologiczne, prehistoryczne i jezykoznawcze". Lwów 1927. P. 22.

406 Czekanowski. "Zarys antropologii Polski". Lwów 1930. Pp. 337, 524; Czekanowski, "Wstep do historii Słowian", op. cit., p. 276.

407 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit., p. 144.

408 Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit., p. 90.

409 Deniker, op. cit, pp. 63, 64, 356-359; Pittard, op. cit, pp. 39-42, 46, 56.

410 Deniker. op. cit, pp. 359, 360; one and a half pages of large octavo.

411 Ibid., p. 408 and text 409-414.

412 Czekanowski. "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit, pp. 377, 361, 308, 62, 319, 320, 522, 524.

413 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit, pp. 251, 273, 276.

414 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit, p; 139.

415 Ibid., p. 142.

416 Pittard, op. cit., pp. 232, 242.

417 Fischer, "Spezielle Anthropologie", op. cit., pp. 142, 143, 182.

418 "Grundriss", op. cit., vol. II, p. 183.

419 Fischer, op. cit., p. 168.

420 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit, p. 143.

421 ibid., pp. 67, 68, 149. Association of the Basque and Caucasian tongues has proved mistaken, since the latter have the plural form. And the ancient Iberians are now considered to have been an Hamitic people related to the Berbers.

422 Pittard. op. cit., pp. 538, 540.

423 Ibid., pp. 177, 322, 323, 359.

424 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit, p. 251.

425 Fischer, op. cit., pp. 164, 165.

426 Pitard, p. 60.

427 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit, p. 123.

428 Ibid., p. 100.

429 Ibid., pp. 99. 100, 118.

430 Ibid., p. 122.

431 Ibid., p. 78.

432 Ibid., p. 82.

433 Ibid., pp. 122, 142.

434 Ibid.. p. 81.

435 Klecki, op. cit, p. 166, 13

436 Ibid., pp. 166, 178, 183-185. As for the Ruthenians, they absorbed during the Middle Ages no small quantities of Polovtsian, Pecheneg, Berendey and later, Tartar blood.

437 Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit., p. 432.

438 Ibid., pp. 422-427.

439 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit., p. 22.

440 Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit., p. 431.

441 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit., p. 17.

442 Michał Sobeski. "Kwiat złoty. Gobineau redivivus". Poznań 1925. P. 64.

443 Florian Znaniecki. "Wstep do socjologii". Poznań 1922. Pp. 92, 93.

444 Gustave Le Bon. "Lois psychologiques de 1'évolution des peuples". Second edition, Paris 1895. Pp. 16, 48. In other words, not all peoples have succeeded in reaching the level of the historic nations.

445 Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit., p. 419.

446 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit., p. 32; Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", op. cit., pp. 442, 444, 445.

447 "Nauka Polska", V.

448 Czekanowski, "Zarys antropologii Polski", p. 441.

449 Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", p. 446. No account has been taken of the social group of those investigated!

450 Pittard mistakenly advances as a sign of militarism the fact that during the World War thousands of Swiss served voluntarily in the French army; which was a result of their French national feeling.

451 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples", op. cit., p. 5.

452 Ibid., p. 99;

453 Ibid., p. 117.

454 Ibid., p. 159.

455 Pittard, op. cit., pp. 577, 579.

456 Ibid., p. 505).

457 "n’y ont jamais laissé de traces de leur sang". Le Bon,, "Lois psychologiqucs", op. cit., p. 48.

458 Pittard. op. cit., p. 433.

459 Ossendowski, "Przez kraj ludzi, zwierząt i bogów", op. cit, pp. 70, 86. It is necessary to exercise great caution in speaking of "Arabs". In many countries of Asia and Africa, in Barbary for example, invading populations, ethnically non-Arab, are called "Arabs". Pp. 433, 438.

460 TaIko-Hryncewicz, op. cit., p. 296.

461 Spengler in "Untergang des Abendlandes" says that civilisation is "pflanzenhaft gebunden" to a certain territory. This is contrary to elementary historical knowledge and incidentally to phytogeography which describes the wanderings of plants.

462 Michelet, op. cit., Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 420, 418; Lenz, op. cit., in "Grundriss", op. cit., vol. II, p. 122; Mcyer, op. cit, pp. 76, 79.

463 M. A. Gobineau. "Essai sur l’inegalite des races humaines". Paris 1853, second edition 1884. In the second edition vol. I, pp. 401, 501; vol. II, p. 426.

464 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques de 1'évolution des peuples", op. cit,, pp 12, 117. 114 footnote, 124, 125, 118, 119, 120, 121, 141, 160, 44, 45. On the question of the relation of Roman civilisation to the Barbarians he rightly appeals to Fustel de Coulanges. In paranthesis it may be said that Le Bon was not only the first to consider the ideology of equality nonsense, but he was also the first to proclaim that socialism will be the end of civilisation in the West, with communism as the most perfect form of socialism. Le Bon, op. cit, pp. 170, 172.

465 Pittard, op. cit., p. 589.

466 Lenz, op. cit., in "Grundriss", op. cit, vol. I, p. 297. (85) Pittard, op, cit, pp. 586, 588.

467 Wundt, op. cit. vol VIII. pp. 27, 171.

468 Pittard, op. cit., pp. 27, 171.

469 Carl Ludwig Michelet "Die Geschichte der Menschheit in ihrem Entwicklungsgange seit dem Jahre 1775 bis auf die neuesten Zeiten. Der Entwicklungsgang der Weltgeschichte in beiden Halbkugeln". VoL I. Berlin, 1859. VoL II. 1860.

470 The biography of this highly sympathetic man is absorbing. We have a first-rate study of his life and work by Michal Sobeski: "Kwiat złoty, Gobineau redivivus". (Poznań 1925). His chief literary work is "La Renaissance, Scènes historiques", one of the finest books of the nineteenth century, published in 1877, but without scientific commentaries. A complete edition came out as late as 1923 under the title "La fleur d'or". A Polish translation by Adolf Strzelecki was published (Warsaw 1908-1911) in "Książki dla wszystkich". A number of his short stories with exotic backgrounds have also been translated into Polish.

471 He imagined that he was descended from Scandinavians (whom he regarded as the "purest Aryans"), and wrote the alleged history of his kin (as he supposed, scientifically): "Histoire d'Ottar-Jarl, pirate norvegien, conquérant du pays de Bray en Normandie et de sa déscendance" (1878). He believed himself to be the last descendant of this Ottar. The matter has been investigated recently and it has been discovered that his most remote ancestor, historically verifiable, was a stocking-maker in Bordeaux in the sixteenth century. It is curious that Montesquieu also regarded himself as a descendant of the Germanic conquerors — see Sorel, "Montesquieu", Paris 1887, pages 48, 103.

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