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472 All in Chapter V, vol. I in Gobineau, "Essai sur 1'inégalité des races humaines". Two volumes, Paris 1853, second edition 1884.

473 On this there are three characteristic passages in Gobineau, "La Renaissance". Polish translation by Adolf Strzelecki, Ksiażki dla wszystkich, Warsaw 1908-1911, pp. 52, 131, 195.

474 "Origines ariaceae", 1883.

475 Gustave Le Bon. "Lois psychologiques", op. cit., livre III, chapitre I. Pp. 99. 117.

476 Ibid. pp. 27, 32, 33, 122.

477 Chief works: "Les sélections sociales". 1896; "Race et milieu social", 1909; "L'Aryen et son rô1e social", 1889.

478 E. J. Dillon. "The Peace Conference". London, Hutchinson & Co., no date. The author quotes the Polish translation by M. L., second edition, Warsaw 1921. P. 61.

479 In "Archiv für Anthropologie". Band 27.

480 Pittard, op. cit., p. 29.

481 Ibid., p. 16.

482 The attractivncss of the theory of a racial hierarchy still assures it adherents: as may be seen from material in Professor Jan Czekanowski's "Zarys antropologii Polski" (1930), there are quite a number in Poland. They have discovered that Lapponoids are inferior in understanding (barely suited to the arts, but not to the natural sciences!); that Poles of Nordic type lead the way in ability (it is foreseen [fortunately] that this type will prevail among the intelligentsia of the future); and now they have advanced as far as "psychopathological and criminological differentiation" according to anthropological factors. "Zarys antropologii Polski", pp. 441, 445, 446, 449, 464. 525, 526. The hierarchy of races is contained within this "in nuce"; but is it not a premature generalisation based on material still of the slightest?

Professor Czekanowski himself writes for example: "We know that social strata differ in their racial composition" (ibid., 471), and that "in France the Revolution was an anthropological change of the ruling class" (ibid., 527). This thesis derives from Vacher de Lapouge, who very logically also considered desirable the introduction of castes. The theory of the racial character of social groups had been developed by Ludwig Gumplowicz.



483 In "Avant-propos" to Pittard, op. cit., p. XVII.

484 I should not like this chapter to be regarded as a claim on my part to skill in anthropology. I have studied it incompletely, to the extent required by the problem of the relation of civilisation to race; I am an historian.

The same reservation applies to the next chapter.



485 Eugen Fischer in "Antbropologie", op. cit., p. 180.

486 J. Vendryes. "Le langage. Introduction linguistique è 1'historire". Paris 1921. (“L’évolution de l’humanité. Synthèse collective, dirigee par Henri Berr". vol. 3). Pp. 356, 366.

487 Obviously this is not binding on any one, and I shall adapt myself to the philologists' pronouncements as soon as they deal with the matter.

488 This also "salvis iuribus" of the philologists!

489 "Misje Katolickie", op. cit., 1926, p. 16.

490 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit, p. 161.

491 Ibid., p. 242.

492 Father Stephen Mazurek, S.J., in "Misje Katolickie", 1924, pp. 77, 78.

493 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit., p. 72.

494 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., pp. 187, 188.

495 Graebner in "Anthropologie", op. cit., p. 476.

496 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit, p. 70.

497 Ibid., p. 72.

498 Majewski, op. cit, vol. I, p. 49.

499 Ibid.

500 Rostafiński. op. cit., pp. 139, 18I.

501 Bystron, op. cit., pp. 132-134, 232.

502 Szyszło, op. cit., p. 223 and in many other places.

503 Lepecki. "W krainic jaguarów", op. cit, p. 121.

504 Vendryes, op. cit., p. 334.

505 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques", op. cit., p. 73.

506 Marcinowska, op. cit., pp. 182, 183.

507 "Misje Katolickie", 1924, pp. 77, 78.

508 Ibid., 1926, p. 26. (A Polish Jesuit Mission works in Rhodesia. — The Editors.)

509 Ibid., 1926, pp. X, 476.

510 Ibid., 1925. pp. X, 479.

511 Ibid., 1925, pp. V, 239.

512 Ibid., 1926, pp. VII, VIII, 378.

513 Ibid.. 1927, pp. III. 142.

514 Ibid., 1926, pp. XI, 510.

515 Ibid., p. 187.

516 Ibid., 1926, pp. VII-VIII, 381-382.

517 Ibid., p. 382.

518 Ibid., 1926. p. 249 and 251.

519 Ibid., 1925, pp. V, 240.

520 Ibid., 1927, pp. IV, 187, 188.

521 The author has forgotten Polabian. (The editors.)

522 "Misje Katolickie", 1927, p. IV, p. 151.

523 Ibid., 1925, p. 504.

524 "Księga o Ślasku, wydana z okazji jubileuszu 35-letniego istnienia «Znicza»", pod redakcja Alojzego Targa. Cieszyn 1929. P. 61. Jerzy Bandrowski "Zolojka, powieść z polskiego morza". Poznań, 1929. P. 320. Wanda Milaszewska. "Zatrzymany zegar". Poznań 1926. P 24. Compare what was said on the origins of language in Chapter Two, IV.

525 Pittard, op. cit., p. 399.

526 Czekanowski. "Rasy i ludy", op. cit., p. 106.

527 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques", op. cit, p. 72.

528 Vendryes, op. cit, pp. 279, 280.

529 Examples of sound "transcription" from Polish and French into Japanese: Paul Claudel is written in Japanese: Po-ru Ku-ro-de-ru;. Stanisław Wyspiański Su-ta-ni-su-ra-u-su U-i-su-pi-an-su-ki; Poland in Japanese is Porando. Stefan Łubieński. "Miedzy Wschodem a Zachodem. Japonia na straży Azji. Dusza mistyczna Nipponu". Cracow 1927. Pp. 139, 140.

530 "Misje katolickie", 1924, p. 99 Łubieński, op. cit. p. 137. Sieroszewski,. "Dwanaście lat", op. cit, p. 361.

531 Krzywicki, "Ludy". op. cit., p. 109.

532 Vendryes, op. cit., p. 91.

533 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p 153.

534 Ibid., p. 153.

535 Ibid.

536 Misje Katolickie, 1924, p. 67.

537 Szelągowski, op. cit., p. 55.

538 Majewski, op. cit, vol. IV, pp 201, 202. Majewski still counted the Eskimo language among those employing the incorporative (America) system. Now it is put to the stock of Asiatic languages. See Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit., p. 102.

539 And surely it was the height of learned error to consider this an expression of matriarchy! See Father Tonelli, op. cit., p. 200.

540 Vendryes, op. cit, p. 302.

541 Talko-Hrynccwicz, op. cit, p. 120.

542 "Misje Katolickie", 1926, p. 68.

543 Lowell, op. cit., pp. 47, 56, 59.

544 Ibid, p. 57.

545 Ibid., p. 58.

546 Vendryes, op. cit., pp. 108, 112, 113.

547 Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit., p. 102.

548 Now this language is found to be related to the Sudanese group. Iberian belonged to the Hamitic languages. Czekanowski, "Wstęp do historii Słowian", op. cit., p. 64.

549 Vendryes, op. cit., pp. 205, 60, 333.

550 Ibid., p. 205. Vendryes does not notice the contradiction with what he had said on page 60 — that we thus have to do with rule and exception.

551 Ibid., p. 334.

552 Ibid., p. 342.

553 "Misje Katolickie", 1924, p. 282; 1925, p. 393; Szyszło, op. cit., II, p. 221.

554 "The Caingangs of Eastern Paraguay have their own language, resembling the speech of the Guaranis, with whom they can, however, only talk with difficulty because of the different accent". Fularski, op. cit., p. 111.

555 Majewski, op. cit, vol. IV, p. 202.

556 Graebner, op. cit., p. 452: Fischer, op. cit, p. 186.

557 Pischer, op. cit, says that they have lost the'r language.

558 Father Kosibowicz SJ., op. cit, p. 76; Czekanowski, "Rasy i ludy", op. cit, p. 80.

559 Lowell, op. cit, pp. 58, 59.

560 Melcer-Rutkowska, op. cit., p. 19.

561 Sieroszewski, "Korea", op. cit., pp. 142, 275. 320, note.

562 Ku-Hung-Ming, op. cit., p. 125.

563 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p. 162.

564 Łubieński, op. cit., pp. 131, 137, and interesting writing tables. The author, without linguistic knowledge, often expresses himself inaccurately, and provides more than one false explanation — nevertheless much may be learned from it.

565 "Misje Katolickie", 1926. p. 68.

566 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques", op. cit., p. 139.

567 Ibid., p. 138.

568 "Is our language philosophical?" in "Haliczanin", 1830.

569 Karol Prycz. "W środku świata". (In "Rzeczpospolita", Warsaw, first week of July 1921).

570 Jon Svenson. "Z dalekiej północnej wyspy". Cracow 1924. P. 138.

571 E. Chalupny. "Narodni povaha česká". Prague 1907.

572 Barth, op. cit., p. 567.

573 Ibid, pp. 567, 568.

574 Graebner, op. cit, p. 462.

575 Moszyński, op. cit, vol. I, in Preface IV.

576 Lowell, op. cit., pp. 56-62, a number of attractive observations.

577 "Misje Katolickie" 1925. p. 538.

578 In Vendryes, op. cit., in Preface XV.

579 T. W. Rhys-Davids. "Buddhism". The author quotes the Polish translation by St. F. Michalski. Warsaw 1912, p. 89.

580 By Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques", op. cit., p. 74.

581 Krzywicki, "Ludy", op. cit., p. 153.

582 Vendryes, op. ct., pp. 277-289.

583 See "Różnolitość cywilizacyjna Słowiańszczyzny" (by Koneczny) in "Przegląd Powszechny", 1926.

584 In Poland Jews always give two native languages: Hebrew (modern Hebrew) and Yiddish, and the authorities also regard both as Jewish native languages. Hence the quotation marks; according to Latin ideas a man can only have one native language.

585 Majewski, vol. IV, pp. 201, 203.

586 The original sketch of this chapter appeared in "Ateneum Kapłańskie" in 1926.

587 So for example Meyer, op. cit., pp. 105, 112.

588 Melcer-Rutkowska, op. cit., p. 28 (in 1924), „Misje Katolickie" 1925, pp. 469, 470.

589 Father Jozef Kruszynski. "Studia nad porównawczą historią religij". Poznań, 1926, pp. 194, 195. Recent information points to strong influence of the religion of Fire on other contemporary religions, including Judaism, a point on which there is much learned literature. These views are opposed by Eduard Meyer. At the beginning of our era, when Buddhism was the ruling religion in North-West India, the local Kings Huwishka and Kanishka nevertheless remained fire-worshippers. Recent research has shown that Gotama also had among his pupils worshippers of the holy fire Agna. See Rhys-Davids, pp. 55, 234. There are references here and there to the Parsees in the works of travellers, but of such a kind (quantitatively and qualitatively) that the sole result is curiosity. In Polish valuable information about the Parsees of Bombay is provided from personal observation in Marcinkowska, op. cit., pp. 40-58.

590 Buckle, op. cit., vol. I, p. 215.

591 Fustel de Coulanges. "La cité antique. Etude sur le culte, le droit, les institutions de la Grèce et de Rome". 13th edition, 1890, p. 148.

592 André, op. cit, Vol. I, p. 1.

593 Le Bon, "Lois psychologiques", op. cit., p. 144.

594 Amos, 80, v. 14. Also Amos. Wstęp, nowy przekład. Komentarz (Introduction to new translation. Comments) Lwów – 1922 pp. 31, 43, 44, 59, 73, 75, 82)

595 Jewish philosophy of the divine attributes served as a bridge between India and Orthodoxy. It would be to depart too far from our theme to discuss this here. On Jewish influences on Orthodoxy, see "Dzieje Rosji" (History of Russia, by Koneczny), vol. I and II.


596 I have not in general provided references in this section, because I expect to publish shortly a full-scale work on the Jewish civilisation.

597 Le Bon, "Les civilisations de 1'Inde", op. cit., p. 274.

598 Ibid, p. 605.

599 Ibid, pp. 68, 69.

600 Ibid., p. 606.

601 Marcinkowska, op. cit, p. 159.

602 Le Bon, "Les civilisations de l’Inde", op. cit, p. 622.

603 Ibid., p. 638.

604 Ibid., p. 638.

605 Ibid., p. 640.

606 Ibid., p. 642.

607 Ibid., p. 248.

608 Ibid., p. 608; Marcinkowska, op. cit, p. 229.

609 Marcinkowska, "Wartości twórcze myśli religijnej polskiej". Warsaw 1919. Pp. 65, 66.

610 The teaching of Buddha according to Rhys-Davids, op. cit.

611 Le Bon, "Les civilisations de 1'Inde", op. cit.

612 Rhys-Davids, op. cit, Le Bon, "Les civilisations de l’Inde", op. cit., Łubieński, op. cit., Marcinkowska, "W upalnym sercu Wschodu", op. cit., C. Gjellerup, "The Pilgrim Kamanita", Indian novel, Polish translation by F. Mirandola, Poznan 1923, Lafcadio Hearn, "The Red Wedding and Other Stories", Polish transl. from the English by. J. Bandrowski, Warsaw 1925; Lafcadio Hearn, "Le Japon inconnu" ("Esquisses psychologiques") traduit de 1'anglais par Mme Léon Raynal, Paris 1901; Sieroszewski, "Korea” op. cit.; Sieroszewski, "Dalaj Lama", op. cit.

613 André, op. cit., pp. 73-75, 96; Melcer Rutkowska, op. cit., p. 17:"Misje Katolickie", 1925, p. 320.

614 André, op. cit, vol I, pp. 47-55.

615 Ibid., vol. I, pp. 57-65; Mieczysław Schmidt. "On His Majesty's Service. Naokoło Afganistanu". Warsaw 1925. P. 181.

616 Rev. Fr. Józef Krzyszkowski, S.J., „Tercjarstwo muzułmańskie". "Misje Katolickie", March 1927; Andre, op. cit, vol. II, p. 31.

617 André, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 83-86 and 90-92.

618 Jan Rostafiński. "Autem i arbą przez Anatolię". Warsaw 1927. P. 63.

619 Bystroń, op. cit., p. 122.

620 Zygmunt Stefański. "Stosunki agrarne w Bośni i Hercegowinie". In "Świat Słowiański". April 1905.

621 André, op. cit., vol. I, p. 80.

622 Ibid., vol. I, p. 120.

623 Ibid.. vol. I, p. 32, vol. II, pp. 229-235.

624 For example the incursion of the Arab ethnic element into North Africa occured only in the eleventh century.

625 Psichari, op. cit. pp. 44, 47.

626 Bystroń, op. cit, pp. 22. 134, 213, 236, 239.

627 André. op. cit.. vol. II, pp. 173-175; "Misje Katolickie" 1926, p. 510.

628 In Poland in 1241. (Translator).

629 Léon Cahun. "Introduction à 1'histoire de 1'Asie. Turcs et Mongols des origines à 1405". Paris 1896. André, op. cit., vol. I, p. 169; my "Dzieje Rosji" ("History of Russia"), vol. I.

630 Associations going back to Gnosticism and Manichaeism, see Bogumił Jasinowski. "Wschodnie chrześcijaństwo a Rosja na tle rozbioru pierwiastków cywilizacyjnych Wschodu a Zachodu". Wilno 1933.

631 "Dzieje Rosji" ("History of Russia" by Koneczny), vol. I, and Rev. Fr. Marcin Czermiński, "Na górze Athos, wśród mniszej republiki. Tekst objaśniony 57 rycinami i mapą Athosu". Cracow 1908.

632 "Bizantynizm niemiecki" ("German Byzantinism" by Koneczny) in "Przeglad Powszechny", 1927.

633 A schism in the Russian Church in the 17th century which created a group of sects called Raskolniki, or Old-Believers. (Translators).

634 "Dzieje Rosji od najdawniejszych do najnowszych czasów". (Shortened edition of a History of Russia, by Koneczny). Warsaw 1921.

635 "Rzekome syntezy religijne" ("So-called religious syntheses", by Koneczny) in "Przegląd Powszechny", 1930.

636 "Misje Katolickie". 1925, p. 504.

637 "Misje Katolickie", 1927, p. 187.

638 "Misje Katolickie”, 1927, pp. 52, 54, 55.

639 „Misje Katolickie", 1927, pp. 6-8.

640 C. Edward Huron. "Zasady filozofii. 24 Tezy tomistyczne. Transl. by — the Rev. Dr. Alexander Żychliński. Poznań 1925. In the translator's preface.

641 "Dzieje Rosji" ("History of Russia" by Koncczny), vol. I, pp. 109, 110.

642 The continuity of certain abstractions from Gnosticism and Manichacism to Dostoyevsky is affirmed by Jasinowski, op. cit

643 Tadeusz Zieliński. "La Sybille. Trois éssais sur la réligion antique et le christianisme". Paris 1924.

644 "Dzieje Rosji" ("History of Russia" by Koneczny), vol. I Cf. "Rzekome syntezy religijne" (by Koneczny, op. cit).

645 Władysław Kotwicz. "0 chronologii mongolskicj". "Rocznik Orientalistyczny", vol. IV. Separate issue Lwów 1928, pp. 26, 44.

646 Father Beyzym, "Letters", op. cit, p. 94

647 Father Beyzym, "Letters", op. cit., p. 59.

648 T. E. Lawrence. "Revolt in the Desert". London, Jonathan Cape, 1927, p. 71. The author quotes the Polish translation by Janina Sujkowska, Warsaw 1929, p. 80.

649 Le Bon. "Les civilisations de 1'Inde", op. cit., pp. 188, 189.

650 Sten Bergman. "Na nartach i sankach przez Kamczatkę". Transl. by Mirandola, Poznań 1929. P. 16.

651 Ku-Hung-Ming, op. cit, p. 149.

652 Zdzisław Dębicki. "Z północy i południa: Finlandia, Włochy, Szwecja, Rumunia, Turcja". Warsaw 1926. P. 204.

653 M. B. Lepecki. "Oceanem, rzeką, lądem. Przygody z podróży po Argentynie". Warsaw 1929. P. 183.

654 Berr in Vendryes, op. cit. Preface XXVI.

655 Poehlmann, op. cit.

656 Rev. Fr. Marian Morawski S.J. "Podstawy etyki i prawa". Third edition, Cracow 1908. P. 186.


657 Compare "Bizantynizm niemiecki" ("German Byzantinism" by Koneczny) in "Przegląd Powszechny", October 1927.

658 More fully in "Etyka i cywilizacja" ("Ethics and civilisation" by Koneczny) in "Przegląd Powszechny". February-March 1931.

659 More fully in "Bizantynizm niemiecki" ("German Byzantinism" by Koneczny) in "Przegląd Powszechny". October 1927.

660 Obviously it is only in such a "description" that it will appear whether my method is the right one. Aware of this, I did not prepare the present work for printing until I had myself checked its content in a detailed investigation: I have now almost completed descriptions of the Jewish and Byzantine civilizations. Having convinced myself that the method works, this treatise appears in print first, as a foundation. (Koneczny's "Byzantine Civilisation" and "Jewish Civilization", works larger than the present volume, have in fact been finally completed only after the 1939/45 war. They have not been printed yet and are known to a limited circle of friends only in typescripted copies. Transl). [They have been first printed (in Polish) in 1973 and 1974 respectively].

661 Błażej Pawłowicz. "Kilka rysów z życia ludu w Zalasowej". ("Materialy antropologiczno-archeologiczne i etnograficzne, wydawane staraniem Komisji antropologicznej Akadem i Umiejetności". Vol. I, Cracow 1916. Part II, "Dział etnograficzny", pp. 229-265). On survivals of the lunar year among Yugrians, Esthonians and Slavs, on intercalation and extracaladon, "marczyk", "podmarczyk" and "hrudeń", see Moszyński, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 136-169.

662 Goetel, op. cit., p. 251.

663 Graebner in his "Ethnologie" came near this law when he wrote: "Aber der weitaus stärkere Kulturausgleich liegt bei den einander näher stehenden höheren Kulturen". "Anthropologie", op. cit. p. 578.

664 See Chapter I

665 "Polskie Logos i Ethos" ("The Polish Logos and Ethos” by Koneczny), Poznań 1921, vol. I, p. 28. (Inaugural lecture in, the University of Vilno.)

666 "Polska w kulturze powszechnej. Dzieło zbiorowe pod redakcją Feliksa Konecznego". ("Poland in Universal Culture". Symposium under the editorship of Feliks Koneczny). Two vols., Cracow 1917. (With Preface by Franciszek Stefczyk, through whose efforts the work appeared).

667 Fustel de Coulanges. "Histoire des institutions politiques de 1'ancienne France", fifth edition. See vol. I, Preface pp. XII and XIII.

668 Buckle, op. cit, vol. I, p. 381.




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