Unit 5 Exam Water Availability



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Unit 5 Exam

Water Availability



Standard I. C.


  1. Migratory behavior of salmon in the Pacific northwest was assisted by

  1. fish ladders.

  2. warmer temperatures.

  3. greater cutting of trees along the banks to promote warmer temperatures.

  4. cutting of new channels parallel to the rivers in which they can migrate.

  5. all of these answers are correct.



  1. The water table is

  1. anywhere water is visible on the surface.

  2. where streams and lakes intersect.

  3. the uppermost level at which water fully saturates rock or soil.

  4. synonymous with groundwater.

  5. where water under pressure rises.



  1. Dams are used for which of the following? I. Create reservoirs for drinking water.
II. Power turbines that generate electricity. III. Better conditions for salmon migration.

  1. I only.

  2. II only.

  3. I and II.

  4. I and III.

  5. I, II, and III.



  1. You are selecting a new dishwasher. You do about 150 loads per year. The less efficient model uses 9 gallons per load. The more efficient model uses 6 gallons per load. How many gallons of water will be saved over the course of one year?


    1. 45

    2. 450


    3. 4500

    4. 45,000

    5. 50

Name: _________________________ Period: _______

  1. Gray water may come from

  1. Baths, showers, sinks, and washing machines.

  2. dishwashers.

  3. washing cars.

  4. flushing toilets.

  5. All of these are correct.



  1. A cone of depression may develop


    1. where artesian wells are common.


    2. if groundwater is deep.


    3. where groundwater is abundant.


    4. in areas adjacent to a deep well from which a great deal of water is rapidly pumped.

    5. only in unconfined aquifers.



  1. Saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers may be a problem in

  1. coastal areas.

  2. mountainous areas.

  3. the midwestern United States.

  4. forested areas.

  5. areas with many freshwater lakes.



  1. When talking about available fresh water this would exclude

  1. Salt water

  2. Rivers

  3. Glaciers

  1. I

  2. II

  3. III

  4. I and II

  5. I and III

Water Pollution



Standard VI. C


  1. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?

    1. offshore oil wells

    2. livestock feedlots

    3. urban lands

    4. croplands

    5. parking lots


  1. In a septic tank system, which of the following is not true?

    1. wastewater is pumped into a settling tank

    2. grease and oil rise to the top in the tank

    3. solid are decomposed by bacteria

    4. bacteria treated waste is discharged in an absorption field

    5. after leaving the absorption field, wastewater is cleaned and can be used again for human consumption.


  1. The difference between a point source and a nonpoint source of water pollution is

  1. a nonpoint source is easily identifiable

  2. point sources can be targeted for reduction

  3. nonpoint sources tend to be factory outputs

  4. point sources tend to be agricultural in nature

  5. nonpoint sources are less harmful to the environment


  1. Dead zones, such as the one in the Gulf of Mexico that exists off the coast of Louisiana, are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT



  1. a reduced number of shellfish

  2. fish die-off events

  3. low oxygen concentrations in the water

  4. low nitrogen concentrations

  5. a reduced number of marine plant species



  1. What is the first step of treating wastewater at a municipal sewage treatment plant?

  1. Use of bacteria to break down organic matter

  2. Solid waste material settles out

  3. Disinfection using chlorine or ozone

  4. Water is removed from sludge

  5. Water undergoes aeration to reduce offensive odors



  1. It is estimated that initially the Deepwater Horizon oil platform accident released 53,000 barrels per day. At one barrel equivalent to 42 gallons that would result in roughly ____ gallons per day.

  1. 22 billion

  2. 2 billion

  3. 22 million

  4. 2 million

  5. 200 thousand

  1. Under which of the following circumstances is a sewage treatment plant legally permitted to bypass normal treatment protocol and discharge large amounts of sewage directly into a lake or

  1. When the receiving surface water is designated for swimming only


  2. When the population of the surrounding community surpasses the plant’s capacity

  3. When combined volumes of stormwater and wastewater exceed the capacity of an older plant


  4. When a permit to modernize the plant is denied by the Environmental Protection Agency

  5. When an extended period of drought restricts water flow in a lake or river



  1. All of the following are the result of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker running aground off the coast of Alaska in 1989 except 


  1. millions of gallons of crude oil spread over the ocean and shoreline.


  2. thousands of animals were killed; some species have recovered, others have not.


  3. the oil that contaminated the shoreline is now completely broken down.


  4. Exxon paid $500 million in damages and changed the name of the ship.


  5. all oil tankers in North America must have a double-hull design by 2015 to resist leaking.



  1. The passage of water-pollution legislation is most likely to occur when

  1. A developing country is still in the process of industrialization and rapid population 
growth.

  2. A developed country has experienced industrialization and can afford the control measures demanded by its citizens.

  3. A developing country has not yet industrialized and water quality is still good.

  4. Contaminating industries relocate in a developing country and begin to abuse the less- 
restrictive environmental laws.

  5. Nonpoint sources of water pollution outnumber point sources.



  1. Results when waterways are inundated by excess phosphates and nitrates in runoff of fertilized cropland, urban lawns, animal feedlots, and the discharge of treated and untreated municipal sewage.

  1. Eutrophication

  2. Acid disposition

  3. Increased biodiversity

  4. Point source pollution

  5. Non point source pollution



  1. ______ is the largest source of water pollution

  1. Mining

  2. Agriculture

  3. Landfills

  4. Industry

  5. Sewage



  1. The name of the oil tanker that crashed off the coast of Alaska in 1989 is

  1. Deep water horizon

  2. Gulf of Mexico spill

  3. Exxon Valdez

  4. Atlantic Empress

  5. Amoco Cadiz



  1. All of the following are methods to clean up oil except

  1. Hair and feathers

  2. GMO bacteria

  3. Hot water

  4. Dispersants

  5. Submerged nets



  1. More than 3.4 million people die each year from water, sanitation, and hygiene-related causes. Nearly all deaths, 99 percent, occur in the developing world. Which of the following is not a possible reason for these deaths?

  1. Lack of education

  2. Construction of toilets

  3. Fecal Coliform Bacteria contamination

  4. Open wells

  5. Giardia



  1. To prevent anaerobic decomposition in the wastewater treatment center, oxygen is pumped into tanks. These tanks are called

  1. Aerators

  2. Sludge

  3. Oxygen

  4. Fermentation

  5. Anaerobic



  1. Legal sewage dumping allows the water treatment companies to overflow into a large body of water when there is too much rain. The Water Quality Act offers the following solution

  1. Construction of more holding tanks

  2. Separation of storm and sewer lines

  3. Regulate point source pollution

  4. Set maximum contaminant levels

  5. Regulate nonpoint source pollution

Solid waste



Standard VI. D


  1. Which of the following items would most likely end up in the waste stream the fastest?

  1. An appliance

  2. A paper cup

  3. A piece of antique furniture

  4. A ceramic plate

  5. Auto parts in an abandoned car



  1. The major component of MSW in the United States is

  1. paper

  2. yard trimmings

  3. metal

  4. plastic

  5. wood

  1. An environmental cost of sending computers to landfills is


    1. There is inadequate landfill space in the United States for computers


    2. It is less expensive to send computers to the landfill than to recycle them


    3. Children separate the components of the disposed of computers


    4. The disposed computers contain toxic metals that can end up in the environment


    5. Landfill standards keep the toxic compounds in the computers from leaching into the water table




  1. A company that produces laundry detergent switches from distributing its product in plastic bottles to instead using flexible pouches that require 84% less packaging. This is an example of

  1. source reduction

  2. closed-loop reduction

  3. single-loop reduction

  4. cost analysis reduction

  5. life-cycle analysis



  1. Which of the following is least likely to be a danger associated with leachate from a sanitary landfill?

  1. The leachate can leak into nearby soils

  2. The leachate can leak into groundwater

  3. The leachate can contain toxic metal compounds

  4. The leachate can be at a high temperature

  5. The leachate can be classified as toxic waste and have to be treated accordingly



  1. The environmental benefits of composting include all of following EXCEPT:

  1. Reduced volume of material ending up in a landfill

  2. Generation of rich organic fertilizer

  3. Reduction in work force of waste management company

  4. Reduced amount of methane generated in landfills

  5. Reduced amount of energy needed to transport material to a landfill



  1. Which component of a landfill is extracted and either used as fuel or burned off?

  1. Clay liner

  2. Leachate

  3. Solid waste

  4. Methane

  5. Toxic metals



  1. Which component of a landfill is extracted and transported to a wastewater treatment facility?

  1. Clay liner

  2. Leachate

  3. Solid waste

  4. Methane

  5. Toxic metals



  1. All of the following are desired outcomes of MSW incineration except

  1. Extracting energy.


  2. Reducing volume.


  3. Prolonging life of landfills.

  4. Increasing air pollution.

  5. Generating electricity.



  1. From an environmental waste perspective which of the following is the most desirable?

  1. Reduce

  2. Reuse


  3. Recycle

  4. Compost

  5. Incinerate



  1. Of the following, which contributes most to the weight of MSW? 


  1. Packaging

  2. 
E-waste


  3. Compact discs


  4. Tires


  5. Ores such as gold and silver



  1. Cradle to cradle design makes products that

  1. Will not decompose

  2. Will not result in anything going to a landfill.

  3. Are easer to reuse

  4. Use only organic material

  5. A family can use for generations

Air pollution

Standard VI. A





  1. If a municipality wanted to take measures to decrease its air pollution, the largest impact would come from

  1. Switching its city fleets of vehicles to natural gas from gasoline


  2. A voluntary recycling program


  3. Limiting the new businesses start-ups in the area

  4. Constructing new landfills


  5. Requiring specific materials be used in the manufacture of new homes



  1. The smog that frequently exists in major metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles, CA is known as brown smog and consists primarily of what component?

  1. Fog

  2. Ozone

  3. Sulfate compounds

  4. Carbon particulate matter

  5. Smoke



  1. A thermal inversion, which can lead to serious pollution events, occurs when




    1. Warm air that normally rises, does so taking the pollutants with it


    2. Warm air that normally rises stays close to the surface holding pollutants close to the surface


    3. Cool air that normally rises, does so taking the pollutants with it


    4. Cool air stays close to the surface but pollutants rise into the atmosphere


    5. Cool air stays close to the surface and is blanketed by a layer of warm air that traps pollutants



  1. The Clean Skies Initiative proposed a SO2 emissions reduction from 11 million tons in 2002 to 4.5 million tons in 2010. What was the proposed annual reduction of emissions, assuming that emissions are reduced at a constant rate?

  1. 6.5 million tons per year

  2. 4.5 million tons per year

  3. 1.2 million tons per year

  4. 0.8 million tons per year

  5. 0.3 million tons per year



  1. All of the following are true about acid rain except

  1. Originates from sulfur oxides

  2. Is a byproduct from burning coal

  3. Decreased after the industrial revolution

  4. Decreases trees and fish populations

  5. Erodes limestone



  1. Air purifiers use which of the following methods

  1. Electrostatic charges

  2. Physical filters

  3. Water particles

  1. I

  2. II

  3. III

  4. I and II

  5. I, II, and III


  1. All of the following are primary air pollutants except:

  1. Carbon monoxide

  2. Nitrogen dioxide

  3. Sulfur dioxide

  4. Tropospheric ozone

  5. Particulate mater



  1. The following is created by the presence of sunlight and car exhaust. City’s that have a lot of cars and warm temperatures have an abundance of

  1. Thermal Inversions

  2. Heat Islands

  3. Photochemical Smog

  4. Carbon Dioxide

  5. Carbon Monoxide

Economic Impact



Standard VI. G.



  1. Often, when used to make decisions about the environment, this method requires placing a monetary value on elements that are difficult, or impossible, to value like human life, or the extinction of a species. This is an example of

  1. Cost benefit analysis

  2. Externalities

  3. Sustainability

  4. Developed Counties

  5. Developing Countries


  1. The production of paper pollutes the environment, and everyone in the society bears the environmental and social costs. This is an example of

  1. Cost benefit analysis

  2. Externalities

  3. Sustainability

  4. Developed Counties

  5. Developing Countries


  1. When weighing costs and benefits it will increase a farmer’s yield to apply pesticides. However society will have to deal with the external cost of all of the following except




  1. Ecological effects of pesticide runoff into waterways

  2. Health effects to the workers who spray the fields

  3. Consumers exposed to pesticide residues on food

  4. Increased profits

  5. Loss of bee populations


  1. The following is not an example of an environmentally sustainable practice.

  1. Washing spoons instead of using plastic

  2. Carpooling to work or school

  3. Eating chicken instead of vegetables

  4. Using organic soap

  5. Recycling aluminum



  1. The following is not an example of a renewable resources

  1. Wind

  2. Wood

  3. Solar

  4. Wave

  5. Coal



  1. Name an environmental action that will cause us to run out of a nonrenewable resource.

  1. Flying airplanes

  2. Deforestation

  3. Over fishing

  4. Excessive pesticide use

  5. Whaling



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